Aeneas Francon Williams
Reverend Aeneas Francon Williams, FRSGS (17 February 1886 – 9 December 1971) was a Minister of the Church of Scotland, a Missionary, Chaplain, writer and a poet. Williams was a missionary in the Eastern Himalayas and China and writer of many published works.
Aeneas Francon Williams
Williams (right, holding a hat) standing on the steps of Wolseley House, Kalimpong 1914
|Died||9 December 1971 (aged 85)|
|Occupation||Missionary, Minister, Chaplain, teacher, writer, poet|
|Spouse(s)||Clara Anne Rendall|
|Children||Alfred Francon Williams|
Beatrice Clara Williams
|Parent(s)||John Francon Williams|
Barbara Balmain Dougall
Aeneas Francon Williams was born in Liscard, Wirral, Cheshire, the second son of four to John Francon Williams FRGS, and Barbara Balmain Dougall. Aeneas had three brothers, John Balmain, David Dougal Williams FRSA and George Stanley, and a sister, Margaret Mary Ann Williams. Aeneas was baptized at St. Peter's Church, Liverpool, on 20 July 1886. During Aeneas's formative years he was educated privately. From 1900 to 1906 Aeneas attended the Technical Institute and Student Teacher Centre in Walthamstow, and from 1906 to 1908 he attended the University of Edinburgh and Moray House Training College. In 1932 Aeneas returned to Edinburgh where he studied at the University of Edinburgh New College for a further two years. Aeneas's father John Francon Williams, who was born in 1854 in the village of Llanllechid in Caernarvonshire, North Wales, was a published writer, newspaper editor, geographer, inventor, historian and cartographer. Aeneas's mother Barbara was born in Perthshire, Scotland. By 1901, the Williams family was living at Queens Grove Road in the affluent area of Chingford, Essex, where, on the 1901 England and Wales Census, Aeneas aged 15, is recorded as being an artist and painter.
At the age of twenty-four, Aeneas Williams attended the 1910 World Missionary Conference hosted at the Assembly Hall in Edinburgh from 14 to 23 June. The Conference is a marker for the beginning of the modern Protestant Christian ecumenical movement. The Church of Scotland missionary John Anderson Graham appeared at the conference both as a guest speaker and as a member of the audience. He was also there to encourage donations to aid his mission St Andrew’s Colonial Home in Kalimpong, West Bengal. The spirit of the Conference was driven by the Protestant Christian Missionary community slogan: ‘The Evangelization of the World in this Generation.’ Whether Aeneas attended one conference, or several is undocumented, but it was during the event he got his calling to become a missionary. Later that same year Aeneas Williams arrived in India and was stationed in Kalimpong at St Andrew's Colonial Home (later renamed Dr. Graham's Homes) - an orphanage/school - where he was assistant schoolmaster and taught Geography and Science. As the school expanded, Williams took on the role of Bursar. His official residence was Wolseley House in the grounds of the school. Aeneas also took on the role of financial adviser to Dr. John Anderson Graham (founder of the Mission), and Aeneas was also a fundraiser for the children's home. Kalimpong was the centre of missionary activity in the region, with Darjeeling steadfastly remaining the political powerhouse. In Darjeeling missionaries played a supporting role to the official political figures and aristocracy that governed the region. In Kalimpong that reversed, missionaries reigned supreme.
On 2 December 1914, Aeneas and Clara Anne Rendall were married at Macfarlane Memorial Church in Kalimpong by Rev Evan Mackenzie. Dr. John Anderson Graham officiated as best man and a witness at the ceremony. Clara (a true Orcadian) was born on 24 July 1887 in Kirkwall on the Orkney Islands and was also a Church of Scotland missionary and a teacher at St. Andrew's Colonial school.
Aeneas was a keen sportsman and footballer and played outside forward (left wing) in the Graham's homes football team. On 7 October 1916, Clara gave birth to twins, Alfred Francon and Beatrice Clara. Rev. John Anderson Graham baptized Alfred and Beatrice in Kalimpong on 19 November 1916. Aeneas and his growing family remained at St Andrew's Colonial Home until 1924. Williams’ first book, A Pronouncement of the Public Conscience, was published in 1921. At the beginning of January 1921, Aeneas, his wife, and their two young offspring (aged 4) sailed from Calcutta on board the (Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company Line) SS Soudan en route to the UK. The family arrived in the Port of London on 18 January from where they travelled up to Scotland. It was the first time the two young children Alfred and Beatrice had visited Britain. During the trip, Aeneas undertook a short fundraising tour in aid of St Andrew’s Colonial Home in Kalimpong, during which he gave lantern shows with spoken commentary. His shows were performed on variety bills and in Church Halls. The photographic slides were projected upon a large screen and depicted life at St Andrew's Colonial Home, views of the Eastern Himalayas, and life as a missionary in India. One of Williams’ presentations was given at a Variety Concert at Elie in Fife held on 23 September at which Major-General Sir George Kenneth Scott-Moncrieff introduced the acts. Williams shared the bill with various vocal and instrumental performers, as well as a young dancer.
In late March/early April 1922, St Andrew’s Colonial Home played host to the first Mount Everest expedition. There had been a reconnaissance expedition the previous year but the 1922 expedition was the first attempt to conquer the summit. The main team members were General Charles Granville Bruce, Edward Lisle Strutt, George Mallory, George Ingle Finch, Edward Felix Norton, Henry Treise Morshead, Howard Somervell, Arthur Wakefield, and the photographer and movie maker John Noel. Making up the rest of the team was a large group of Tibetan and Nepalese Sherpa’s and porters who tendered the pace of donkey’s laden with food and equipment. The party arrived by steam train at Kalimpong Road Station from where they trekked the short distance up the hillside to St Andrew’s Colonial Home for three days relaxation. There was much excitement among the staff and children at St Andrew's, with football games, golf, and group evening sing-alongs taking place in the main school hall. Aeneas, his wife Clara, and their two 6-year-old children were at the centre of the hospitality, with Wolseley House (among other houses in the school compound) providing temporary accommodation for the lead mountaineers. At the end of their stay the expedition headed off to Phari Dzong and further on to Kampa Dzong, which they reached on 11 April. They reached their base camp at Rongbuk Glacier on 1 May. Sadly, the expedition’s attempt to ascent Everest turned out to be unsuccessful. John Noel produced a movie of the expedition titled Climbing Mount Everest (1922). The movie shows the team arriving in a steam train at Kalimpong Road Station and at St. Andrew’s Colonial Home, although footage taken within the school compound is not included in the movie. The 1922 expedition did establish a new world record climbing height of 8,326 metres (27,320 ft). The teams next attempt to conquer Everest took place in 1924. It was during this expedition that George Mallory and his companion Andrew Irvine made an attempt to reach the summit together but at some point died in a fall, although until this day it is still unsure whether or not the pair did actually reach the summit? Mallory’s body was only retrieved in 1999; Irvine's body has never been found.
In 1923, Sheldon Press published Aeneas Williams’ instructional hardback Everyone's Book of the Weather. ‘A pleasant and instructive little book,’ said the Sheffield Daily Telegraph in their review of it. The Scotsman found it, ‘a readable, instructive, and usefully illustrated manual.’ Williams wrote the book in Kalimpong during his time working at St Andrew’s Colonial Home. In the Preface he explains his reasons for writing it, and by doing so hopes the book will reach a wider readership than a book about weather might ordinarily do; ‘In these days of wireless reports, meteorological charts and forecasts, journeys by aeroplane or airship, scientific farming and plantation work and the like, interest in the weather is becoming more and more widespread, and a knowledge of atmospheric phenomena is useful as well as fascinating. The object of the present work is to present the facts of meteorology to the general reader in a popular form, and to show how observers equipped with quite simple instruments can find pleasure as well as profit in the study of weather conditions.’  Two years later, Macmillan Publishers published Surveying for Everyone, another of Williams’ instructional hardbacks aimed at scholars.
On 5 February 1924, Aeneas and Clara with their two young children (aged seven) sailed from Calcutta aboard SS Hosang (Indo-China Steam Navigation Company) to Shanghai, China, where, upon arrival they then caught a steamer and sailed 1,000 miles up the River Yangtze (Cháng Jiāng) to the Church of Scotland (Training Institution) in Ichang. Here, Aeneas was Principal at the Anglo-Chinese College Mission in Ichang from 1924 to 1927. The children, Alfred and Beatrice, attended the private Redcroft School in the resort of Kuling where they boarded during the school terms. Aeneas and Clara immediately took Chinese language lessons and both became fluent in Mandarin. The port of Ichang was one of four ports open to foreign trade, and the highest reached by steamers. The city of Ichang was situated right in the center of China, on a low promontory on the North bank of the River Yangtze. It was a prefectural city of considerable importance in the province of Hupeh, and conveniently situated as a mart for the tea trade of Hoh-fung-chow. Opium was also grown in the district as was the tung tree, from which tung oil is extracted. ‘The China Inland Mission possessed a number of unique features which set it apart from established missionary societies and gave it an intensity and, perhaps, a glamour, which other more conventional organisations must have envied.’  During his stay in China, Aeneas wrote the poem Voice of an Oracle (in Old China). In December 1926, Aeneas received a worrying letter from the Church of Scotland offices in Edinburgh talking of anxious happenings in Hankow and the possibility of a General Strike in China. In the House of Commons the Foreign Secretary Austen Chamberlain intimated that the British Government were talking of taking immediate steps for the protection of U.K. nationals stationed in China. The letter also mentioned that alternative arrangements had been made for the Williams's children, Alfred and Beatrice. Soon after, Clara and their two children departed from China for their own safety and sailed to the U.K. Early in 1927, due to growing civil unrest in Ichang and localised uprisings in the surrounding province, Aeneas was advised by the British Consulate (Ta Ying ling-shih-shu) to leave China for his own safety. Aeneas departed Shanghai on 4 April 1927 just before the Shanghai massacre took place on 12 April 1927. From Shanghai Aeneas sailed to British Columbia on missionary work, and then to Vancouver. In late April 1927, Aeneas sailed from the Port of Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada on board the SS Montclare, (Canadian Pacific Line) and arrived in Liverpool, England, on 1 May, from where he journeyed to Edinburgh to be reunited with his wife and two children who were staying at 22 Queen Street.
In October 1927, whilst in the UK Aeneas was invited to attend the annual Church of Scotland Young Men's Guild Conference held in Kirkcaldy, Fife, over the weekend commencing Friday 21 October. The main objectives of the conference were to revive the interest of the churches in the work of the Guild, and to demonstrate anew the value and usefulness of such an organization as auxiliary of Church life. Two halls had been booked for the occasion, the Beveridge and Adam Smith Halls, and on Friday evening Aeneas gave a missionary address at the Beveridge Hall about his work in Kalimpong, India, and in Ichang, China. It was at the 1888 meeting of the Guild held in the same town of Kirkcaldy that Dr. John Anderson Graham made the momentous decision and choice to establish a charitable school for destitute children in India, and was thus ordained as the first missionary supported by the Guild. As such, it was with great regard that Aeneas had been invited to represent the now thriving St. Andrew's Colonial School and Homes in Kalimpong upon which honors from the Indian and British Governments’ had since poured. The Central Committee of Management of the Guild headed by the chairman Rev. T.B. Stewart Thomson had compiled an interesting program of events throughout the weekend. The conference opened with a civic reception by the Provost and Magistrates at the Beveridge Hall on the Friday, followed by a welcoming tea, after which Aeneas gave his missionary address at Beveridge Hall. The conference concluded on the Sunday evening with a public meeting at the Adam Smith Hall with guest speakers the Right Hon. William Murdoch Adamson M.P. and the Very Rev Dr. John White DD LLD, ex-Moderator of the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland.
Mahakalguri, West BengalEdit
In late 1927, Aeneas and his family returned to India where they were stationed at Mahakalguri, Eastern Dooars (Duars). Here Aeneas took on the role of missionary Pastor.
In 1928, Williams was licensed by the Presbytery of Eastern Himalaya and in November of that same year he was ordained by the Presbytery at Siliguri, in North Bengal. The Presbytery of Edinburgh admitted Williams to the Church of Scotland on 28 May 1932.
Matelli, West BengalEdit
In 1929, Aeneas was stationed at the Church of Scotland Guild Mission in Matelli in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal where he was the Minister of the Jalpaiguri Parish. At the Mission compound in Matelli, Aeneas and his family resided at the Manse. Through its schools – St. Ninian's 'Middle' school, St. Margaret's 'High' school, and its boys and girls Day Schools in Calcutta, boys school in Chinsura, the Abbey School, and various primary schools in Budge Budge, and its College – the Church of Scotland Mission offered Christian education from the kindergarten to the University stage.
In 1930, Hymn Book in Jalpaiguri Mech by Aeneas Francon Williams was published. The book was intended for the use of Christians of the Mech Tribes living at the foot of the Himalayas in the Jalpaiguri district and was the first Hymn Book to be published in this regional dialect of Hindi. Whilst Aeneas was living in Matelli he owned a Cinchona (quinine) plantation.
On 7 March 1930, Clara, being the only female along with two Babu's, was appointed under the provisions of rule 63(2), Chapter IV of the Bengal Jail Code, as a non-official visitor of the Alipur Duar Suli Jail in the Jalpaiguri district of West Bengal for a period of two years. The appointment of the three non-official visitors was to help in the rehabilitation of the inmates by helping to change the offender's values, motivations, and attitudes, so that they could become contributing members of society upon their release. The non-official visitors would visit the jail periodically and attend to requests from the inmates pertaining to their care and welfare. At the end of their visits they would enter any observations about their time at the jail in the visitor's book.
In 1932, Williams visited Scotland, during which he supported as many church events and meetings as he could comfortably fit into his schedule. In late-September, Williams showed his support for the ‘Forward Movement’ campaign launched by West Lothian Churches. At the campaign he gave a powerful speech detailing his all-absorbing work in India as a missionary. On 3 October, Williams attended the Young Men's Guild of the Linlithgow and Falkirk Council at which he addressed the large attendance with more stories of his work and adventures as a missionary in North Bengal. ‘Mr. Williams’ address brought out in a wonderful way the romance of the mission fields, and the speaker dealt in a most interesting manner with his own particular work among the depressed races in the Eastern Duars.’
In the summer of 1937, Aeneas and Clara, accompanied by their two offspring, Alfred Francon (a medical student) and Beatrice Clara (a nurse), sailed from Dooars, India, to America where they arrived in New York City on 16 August 1937 aboard SS Caledonia II.
Williams’ first volume of poems Dream Drift, by a Young Lover was published in 1938. The book was dedicated to his wife Clara. The suggestion of a priest being perceived as a ‘young lover’ was a bold move on both Williams and the publisher's part. It was certainly uncommon for a member of the cloth to reveal a poetic side that included talk of lovemaking. The Dundee Courier in their appraisal of the work noted that, ‘Mr. Williams' poems reveal their author in many moods, as a nature lover, sportsman, and lover. Only an angler could have written his poems on Fishing and Wound Up. There is a whimsical, almost ‘Barriesque’ (James M. Barrie) touch about some of his nature poems, which is infinitely attractive.’ ‘Mr. Francon Williams looks through a poet’s window and can tell what he sees, as a poet tells, and as those to whom he speaks can understand. Life, in life’s vocabulary, lit by a poet’s candle, is what he tells to us; and in odd hours of quiet he is worth listening to.’ The Very Rev. Lauchlan Maclean Watt, DD LLD.
Aeneas would find small nuggets of inspiration obscured in the noise of life. In his poem, To A Dead Bird, Williams immortalizes a solitary dead bulbul; an Indian nightingale he found lying near a bush in the Manse in Bengal where he lived. He explains; 'I put it in my pocket handkerchief and with a little burial service I laid it to rest in our consecrated burial ground opposite Manse Gate.
On 13 May 1942, Aeneas and Clara’s daughter Beatrice married Dr. Stephen Ian Pugh of Builth Wells, Breconshire, Wales. The couple later emigrated to Tasmania where they lived their entire lives in Launceston.
In 1945, Aeneas and Clara spent a summer vacation at Kodaikanal, a resort in the Cardamom Hills (Yela Mala), a mountain range in South India, where their son Alfred, who was now a Captain in the RAMC (Royal Army Medical Corps) and stationed in Burma, joined them. It was while Aeneas was in the Cardamom Hills that he wrote his poem Flowers.
On 1 January 1946, in the New Year Indian Honours List, Clara (Mrs. Francon Williams) was awarded the Kaisar-i-Hind Medal (Emperor of India) Bronze Medal for her work during WWII being in-charge of Red Cross work in Dooars, Bengal.
In 1947, when India was granted Independence, Clara returned to Scotland to set up home in Edinburgh. Aeneas remained in India at the Mission during the handover. After the inauguration of Indian Independence on 15 August 1947, Aeneas wrote 'Report 1947, The Work of the Church of Scotland Mission in Bengal During a Momentous Year', documenting what he saw and encountered in India during and after the handover. Much rejoicing took place in all the Mission institutions. The new Constitution (not yet fully adopted) guaranteed freedom 'to profess, practice and propagate' any religion. When pupils were asked, now that India was free would they rather there was no teaching about Christianity in school, the answer was always the same, that it was because of such teachings that they wished to study at the Mission. In fact, the Mission had since Independence Day been besieged with new applications for admission. However, Aeneas noted the College was experiencing a communal 'low' in staffing levels, with the shortage of Christian professors becoming an 'anxiety.' The Mission staffing levels had also fallen (to eight women and four men) and the Foreign Mission Committee was doing everything in its power to find new recruits. Looking ahead, Aeneas spoke of a 'partnership,' a 'Home Mission,' uniting the Mission of the Church of Scotland in India with the Church in India, and in his Report 1947 Aeneas stated: The Indian Church is now alive to her missionary responsibilities in this land and is heartily in favor of the new proposals, but the task is out of all proportion to her present resources, and it is only if the Church of Scotland continues her support in personnel and in finances that it can be accomplished. For the Church as for the nation it may be that a new day is dawning.
In 1948 after the handover, Aeneas sold his Cinchona plantation and other personal property and returned to the U.K. to join his wife in Edinburgh, where they resided at 46 Belgrave Road. When Aeneas and Clara returned to Edinburgh for good they brought with them their pet chimpanzee named ‘Glyris’, which lived with them at their home at Belgrave Road.
Aeneas and Clara’s son Alfred married Jane Warhurst (née Smith) on 29 March 1950 at St. Aidan’s Church, Sheffield, Yorkshire. Jane is a second cousin once removed of the author David Herbert Lawrence through her mother Lillian's sister Aunt Ada (née Rex) who married George Beardsall.
Aeneas spoke eight languages fluently including Hindi and Mandarin. In Edinburgh, Aeneas was Chaplain of Edinburgh Social Services Department from 1952 and was affiliated with several churches including the former Stockbridge Free Church and St. Giles Cathedral. He was also assistant Chaplain of HMP Edinburgh (Saughton) from 1948 to 1954. Aeneas grew up in a literary household (his father John Francon Williams was a newspaper and journal editor and a published writer of many books) and as such Aeneas was encouraged by his father to pursue writing. Throughout Aeneas's life he had many books published in various fields of knowledge and was also a published poet. In 1942, upon the death of Dr John Anderson Graham, Aeneas was commissioned by Oxford University Press to write Dr Graham's biography for inclusion in their Dictionary of National Biography.
After Clara died, Aeneas sold their house at Belgrave Road and spent the next few years travelling the world, circumnavigating it several times. There is evidence contained in correspondence between Aeneas and the London publishing house MacMillan & Co. Ltd. that he wrote two books during these travels. His regular visits to Australia and New Zealand, and especially Tasmania – where his daughter Beatrice lived in Launceston with her husband Dr. Stephen Pugh and their daughter Andrea – seem to have sparked his imagination. Original correspondence from Aeneas to MacMillan held at The Museum of English Rural Life and Special Collections at the University of Reading, mentions two new manuscripts he had written relating to his travels that he’d submitted to the publishing house. Whether MacMillan or another company published these books is unclear from the letters, as the books identify with Australasia and may only have been published in that territory, or could have remained unpublished. The two books in question are Tasmanian Apples and Kiwiland. The later work is possibly associated with the flightless Kiwi bird, which Aeneas had grown particularly fond of during his visits to New Zealand. ‘I fed these interesting flightless birds in Wellington Zoo,’ Aeneas writes keenly to MacMillan. He also fed the tuatara, courtesy of his friend ‘the Superintendent Mr. Curtis,’ who told him where he could see the ‘pre-historic little tuatara, the only true Saurian left on this earth, whose ancestors were at least 3,000,000 years on this planet, long before we were.’ Aeneas also mentions to his publisher that his friend Henry Kelly of the New Zealand Wildlife Department was arranging ‘to send us a live Kiwi, the very first Kiwi to be in Scotland.’ After returning from his travels abroad, Aeneas moved into 10 Carlton Street, Stockbridge, Edinburgh, where he lived until his early-80s, before moving to Sheffield, Yorkshire, to live with his son Alfred.
A cousin of Aeneas's named Jane Williams married American Edward Burton Hughes. In 1967, Governor Nelson Rockefeller appointed Edward Burton Hughes as Executive Deputy Commissioner of New York State Department of Transportation. In 1970, Edward Burton Hughes founded the E. Burton Hughes Achievement Award given annually to an outstanding Department employee of the New York State Department of Transportation.
This article has an unclear citation style.July 2019) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)(
- A Pronouncement of the Public Conscience. Calcutta: Thacker, Spink and Co. 1921. OCLC 500207057.
- Everyone's Book of the Weather. The Sheldon press; The Macmillan Co. 1923. OCLC 3856011.
- Surveying for Everyone. The Sheldon press; The Macmillan Co. 1925. OCLC 4835735.
- Four Little Dears, (Mech Mission Pamphlet) publ. by the Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1930
- Hymn Book in Jalpaiguri Mech, publ. in Calcutta, 1930
- Primer of the Mech Language Jalpaiguri, publ. Macmillan & Co., 1931
- A Mech Hymn Book, publ. in Calcutta, 1932
- A Mech Catechism, publ. in Calcutta, 1933
- Primer for Schools in Jalpaiguri, publ. in Calcutta, 1934
- Dream Drift by a Young Lover (Book of Poetry), publ. Stockwell, London, 1938 (with a preface by Very Rev. Lauchlan Maclean Watt DD LLD.)
- Eastern Himalaya, publ. by the Church of Scotland, Edinburgh, 1945
- Report 1947: The Work of the Church of Scotland Mission in Bengal During A Momentous Year (1947), pamphlet, publ. by the Church of Scotland, 1947
- Companion in Meditation, publ. Edinburgh, 1950 (with a foreword by The Very Rev, Charles Laing Warr, KCVO DD LLD, Dean of the Thistle and Dean of the Chapel Royal, Minister of St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh
- Biography of Dr. John Anderson Graham, the Dictionary of National Biography 1941–1950, publ. by Oxford University Press, 1959
- Let Poets Sing (Book of Poetry), publ. Stockwell, 1961 (with a Foreword by John Stuart Anderson FRS FAA)
- Aeneas Francon Williams was a frequent contributor to various religious periodicals, and he also contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography. Aeneas Francon Williams' World Catalogue of works as listed by Worldcat.
- Kalidasa and Shakespeare by A. Francon Williams, Poetry Review, 1943:
- "Poetry Doesn't Sell". The Poetry Review. New York: Poetry Society of America (34): 137–138. 1943. OCLC 10033900. In response to Lowy, A.E. (1943). "Poetry Doesn't Sell". The Poetry Review. New York: Poetry Society of America (34): 64. OCLC 10033900.
- Tasmanian Apples by A. Francon Williams, 1960, with a preface by Tasmania's Agent General in London Hon. A.J. White. (In 1961, Williams submitted the manuscript to the publishing house Macmillan and Co., St. Martin's Street, London WC2.) 
- Kiwiland by A. Francon Williams, 1961, with a preface by Sir Compton Mackenzie. (In 1961, Williams submitted the manuscript to the publishing house Macmillan and Co., St. Martin's Street, London WC2). The work includes an extract from ‘The Road to the Isles, (the famous Scottish traditional song), which Sir Compton Mackenzie helped Aeneas get permission to use within the book.
- "Family Group Sheet for Aeneas Francon WILLIAMS / Clara Ann RENDALL (F286637) : Shetland Family History". bayanne.info. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- See page 754 of Fasti Ecclesiae Scoticanae 1928, Overseas Presbyteries for his biography
- "SCOTTISH MISSIONARY ARCHIVES Part 6: Free Church of Scotland Missionary Record, United Free Church Reports and other records". ampltd.co.uk. Retrieved 9 August 2017.
- http://www.ancestry.com – Liverpool F.C., Lancashire, England, Baptisms 1813–1906 – Aeneas Francon Williams, son of John and Barbara Williams, St. Peter’s Church, Liverpool, 20 July 1886.
- John Francon Williams World Catalogue:http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=John+Francon+Williams&qt=results_page
- John Francon Williams, (inventions) reference BT 51/4/5500, registered design No 5500, 1884 April 21, and, registered design reference BT 51/4/5499, 1884 April 21, The National Archives, Kew
- A Class-Book of Modern Geography by J. Francon Williams- British Library images of the book: https://www.flickr.com/photos/britishlibrary/11289251615/in/photolist-icAnce-hUKTqn-hUTWda-hUGQky-hUNJEx/
- 1901 England and Wales Census – Aeneas Francon Williams – aged 15 – artist, painter: https://familysearch.org/search/record/results?count=20&query=%2Bgivenname%3A%22Aeneas%20Francon%22~%20%2Bsurname%3AWilliams~%20%2Bbirth_year%3A1886-1886~
- Dr. Graham's Kalimpong Homes – National Library of Scotland Blog with original photographs from Kalimpong during early 1900s: http://blog.nls.uk/dr-grahams-kalimpong-homes/
- Marriage Certificate for Aeneas Francon Williams and Clara Anne Rendall, 2 December 1914: Findmypast.co.uk – Williams rank of profession is registered as ‘Assistant School Master.’
- Correspondence from Aeneas Francon Williams addressed from Wolseley House is stored in the Dr. Graham Kalimpong Archive held at the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh
- St Andrew’s Colonial Home – School and Mission houses (pictures) (c. 1922) from An Indian Pilgrimage – Travel Notes of a Visit to the Indian Fields of the Church of Scotland by The Very Rev. J.N. Ogilvie, public. William Blackwood & Sons (Edinburgh)1922, p. 134: https://archive.org/stream/indianpilgrimage00ogil/indianpilgrimage00ogil#page/n162/mode/1up
- Their Footprints Remain: Biomedical Beginnings Across the Indo-Tibetan Frontier by Alex McKay, publ. Amsterdam University Press 2007, ISBN 978-9053565186, chapter 1: Missionary Medicine and the Rise of Kalimpong: p. 69
- The Times of India, 22 December 1914, page 5 – marriage announcement – Williams-Rendall
- Marriage Certificate for Aeneas Francon Williams and Clara Anne Rendall, 2 December 1914: Findmypast.co.uk
- Clara Anne Rendall family tree (retrieved 9 July 2018) North Isles Family History:https://www.bayanne.info/Shetland/familychart.php?familyID=F286607&tree=ID1
- A photograph of Clara's Uncle William Kent (her mothers brother) can be seen on the Orkney Image Library (retrieved 9 July 2018):http://photos.orkneycommunities.co.uk/picture/number22637.asp
- Clara Anne Rendall Born 24 July 1887, Kirkwall (retrieved 9 July 2018) North Isles Family History:https://www.bayanne.info/Shetland/getperson.php?personID=I390218&tree=ID1
- National Library of Scotland, Inventory Acc. 6039, Kalimpong Papers, Dr. J.A. Graham D.D.C.I.E. Archive-Box 6: Diaries 1912–20, 1922–23 – Dr. Graham's 1915 diary mentions Williams playing in the Graham's homes football team in outside forward (left wing) position
- Copy of the original Baptism Certificate for Alfred Francon and Beatrice Clara Williams, 19 November 1916: Findmypast.co.uk
- Incoming Passenger List: SS Soudan, port of arrival London, 18 January 1921: passengers A. Francon Williams (schoolmaster), Clara A Williams, Alfred F. and Beatrice C.
- Dundee Courier, 24 September 1921, p.3 – Variety Concert at Elie (review) – A Variety concert gave a successful entertainment in the Parish Church Hall Elie in aid of the St Andrew's Colonial Home, Kalimpong.
- The Royal Scottish Geographical Society, Diploma of Fellowship (FRSGS) register, 1921, Dr. A. Francon Williams, British Bhutan (retrieved 10 October 2017): https://archive.today/20070815074954/http://www.geo.ed.ac.uk/rsgs/awards/DipFello.htm
- The Scottish Geographical Magazine, Vol. XXXVIII, 1922, publ. T & A Constable Ltd., page 68-69 – Report of Council (37th Session) 1920–21, Fellows and Honorary Members: ‘The Diploma of Fellowship was granted during the session to A. Francon Williams, British Bhutan.’ : https://archive.org/stream/scottishgeograph38scotuoft#page/n79/mode/2up/search/Francon+williams
- National Library of Scotland, Level 15 Special Archives, Kalimpong Papers: Files ACC 6039, Box 15 (1) ‘Everest Climbers’ 1922, pages 37-40, documents the 1922 British Mount Everest expedition visit to St Andrew’s Colonial Home (within the hand-typed biography of St Andrew’s Colonial Home). Mr Williams' enthusiasm is mentioned in the account. :https://archiveshub.jisc.ac.uk/search/archives/19dd2070-a22d-389b-91c8-a144960371bc
- Climbing Mount Everest (1922) - Directed by John Noel - housed at the British Film Institute: https://player.bfi.org.uk/free/film/watch-climbing-mt-everest-1922-online
- Everyone's Book of the Weather by A. Francon Williams; review in Popular Science Magazine, USA. April 1924, page 65 – https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=OioDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA65&lpg=PA65&dq=a.+francon+williams&source=bl&ots=TFzjNOEwxd&sig=V1rR86HFhZ4aoVOOLGiS8KQp7K8&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ow7EVN6fJIqu7gaC0YGoBg&ved=0CCIQ6AEwATgK#v=onepage&q=a.%20francon%20williams&f=false
- Everyone's Book of the Weather by A. Francon Williams, Publ. London (The Sheldon Press), 1923 review by Gilbert T. Walker, Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society, volume 50, issue 211, July 1924 (retrieved 30 March 2018): https://rmets.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/qj.49705021136
- Sheffield Daily Telegraph, 29 November 1923, p. 5 – Books of the Day (review) The Weather – 'Everyone's Book of the Weather' by A. Francon Williams
- The Scotsman, 21 January 1924, p. 2 – Minor Notices (column) New books published
- Everyone's Book of the Weather by A. Francon Williams, publ. 1923, Sheldon Press, Preface: https://archive.org/details/in.ernet.dli.2015.268344
- The Times, 13 August 1926, p. 15 – Sheldon Press advertisement for Surveying For Everyone by A. Francon Williams
- Surveying for Everyone by A. Francon Williams; review in Popular Science Magazine, USA, March 1926, page 136: https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2CgDAAAAMBAJ&pg=PA136&lpg=PA136&dq=a.+francon+williams&source=bl&ots=836o5E_i9y&sig=4jvjuX6u2KRriul-C1uE2uF5rPQ&hl=en&sa=X&ei=ow7EVN6fJIqu7gaC0YGoBg&ved=0CCQQ6AEwAjgK#v=onepage&q=a.%20francon%20williams&f=false
- Photograph of the Yangtze River at Yichang, Sichuan, China, in 1927, showing a passenger steamer and other small boats used on the river: International Mission Photography Archive, ca.1860-ca.1960: Yale Divinity Library Special Collections: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15799coll123/id/82992/rec/1
- National Library of Scotland, Catalogue of MSS. Vol. VI MS. 7611 – Letters from Aeneas Francon Williams missionary in Eastern Himalayas – (1924–27) nos. 75, 84, 105, 117 &118
- Incoming Passenger List: SS Montclare, port of arrival Liverpool, 1 May 1927: passenger Rev. A. Francon Williams: Aeneas’s profession is listed as Principal at the Anglo-Chinese College in Ichang, China. (Retrieved 6 March 2018, FindMyPast)
- The Church of Scotland established its one mission station at the Yangtse River port of Yichang (Ichang) in the interior province of Hubei in 1878: Reformed Online – China/People's Republic of: http://www.reformiert-online.net/weltweit/27_eng.php
- Photograph of the Mission Staff, at Yichang, China, ca.1915–1924, just prior to Aeneas Francon Williams taking over as principal of the Mission in 1924: International Mission Photography Archive, ca.1860-ca.1960: Photographs from Scottish Missions, the National Library of Scotland: http://digitallibrary.usc.edu/cdm/singleitem/collection/p15799coll123/id/78861/rec/161
- Dr. Rosemary Seton, former Archivist, School of Oriental and African Studies: China Inland Mission, 1865-1951 from the School of Oriental and African Studies, London: http://www.ampltd.co.uk/collections_az/CIM-2/highlights.aspx
- Voice of an Oracle (in Old China) by Aeneas Francon Williams, Let Poets Sing, p. 46-48
- Letter to Aeneas Francon Williams from the Church of Scotland office in Edinburgh dated 30 November 1926 stored in the Dr. Graham Kalimpong Archive held at the National Library of Scotland, Edinburgh.
- National Library of Scotland, Catalogue of MSS. Vol. VI MS. 7530 – 8022 Scottish Foreign Mission Research HMSO – Letters to Clara Anne Williams (nee Rendall) wife of Aeneas Francon Williams missionary in Eastern Himalayas – 1926 (7598), 1927 (7599)
- National Library of Scotland, Catalogue of MSS. Vol. VI MS. 7611 – Letters from Aeneas Francon Williams missionary in China – (1927) letters 117 &118
- Incoming Passenger List: SS Montclare, port of arrival Liverpool, 1 May 1927: passenger Rev. A. Francon Williams
- Fife Free Press & Kirkcaldy Guardian, Saturday 15 October 1927, page 7 – Church of Scotland Young Men's Guild Conference in Kirkcaldy (1927) report (retrieved 6 March 2018)
- The Meaning of White: Race, Class, and the 'Domiciled Community' in British India 1858–1930 by Satoshi Mizutani, publ. Oxford University Press (2011), ISBN 9780199697700, pp. 138–146 (St. Andrew's Colonial Homes at Kalimpong: Objectives and historical significance)
- The One Hundred and First Report of the Calcutta Christian Tract and Book Society (Incorporated) 1930/1931, page 7 & 10:(retrieved document 16 July 2017): The document mentions 2,000 copies of Hymn Book in Jalpaiguri Mech by Aeneas Francon Williams were purchased by the Book Society for distribution: http://images.library.yale.edu/divinitycontent/dayrep/Calcutta%20Christian%20Tract%20and%20Book%20Society%201930-1931%20v101.pdf
- The Calcultta Gazette, 13 March 1930 page 390, No. 886J: Babu Manish Chandra Roy, Babu Lalit Behari Ghosh, and Mrs. Francon Williams are appointed as non-official visitors of the Alipur Duar Suli Jail: https://archive.org/stream/in.ernet.dli.2015.45159/2015.45159.The-Calcutta-Gazette-1930-January---June#page/n873/mode/2up/search/Francon+williams
- The State Governments framed rules regarding appointments and visits by official and non official visitors in exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section 25 of section 59 of the Prisons Act. 1894: http://ncrb.gov.in/StatPublications/PSI/Prison2012/CHAPTER-10.pdf
- Edinburgh Evening News, Friday 23 September 1932, page 7 – Forward Movement (report) Campaign by West Lothian Churches
- Linlithgowshire Gazette, Friday 7 October 1932, page 5 – Young Men's Guild (report)
- http://www.ancestry.com – New York Passenger Lists, 1820–1957 – Aeneas Francon Williams arrived New York on 16 August 1937 aboard SS Caledonia II. Williams, with his wife Clara, son Alfred and daughter Beatrice, sailed from Dooars, India
- Passenger List: New York City Passenger and Crew Lists, 1909, 1925–1957," database with images, FamilySearch (https://familysearch.org/ark:/61903/1:1:24KL-5PD: 2 October 2015), Aeneas Francon Williams, 1937; citing Immigration, New York City, United States, NARA microfilm publication T715 (Washington, D.C.: National Archives and Records Administration, n.d.).
- Dundee Courier, Thursday 21 July 1938, p.6 – Missionary As Poet (review) Dream Drift, by a Young Lover
- Quote by The Very Rev. Lauchlan Maclean Watt, DD LLD, taken from the front jacket cover of Dream Drift by a Young Lover – Aeneas Francon Williams, publ. Stockwell Ltd. London (1938)
- Musicians (extract) page 59,Dream Drift by a Young Lover – Aeneas Francon Williams, publ. Stockwell Ltd. London (1938)
- Let Poet's Sing by Aeneas Francon Williams, page 41 – To A Dead Bird.
- Northern Isles Family History: https://www.bayanne.info/Shetland/getperson.php?personID=I390221&tree=ID1
- Flowers by Aeneas Francon Williams, Let Poets Sing p. 34
- The Indian Medical Gazette, December 1945, page 630 – Kaisar-i-Hind Medal Bronze Medal (recipient) Mrs. Francon Williams, In-charge of Red Cross work in Dooars, Bengal (retrieved 8 October 2017): https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5218119/pdf/indmedgaz72704-0037.pdf
- Report 1947: The Work of the Church of Scotland Mission in Bengal During A Momentous Year (1947), pamphlet, published Church of Scotland, 1947 – Centre for the Study of World Christianity Library, University of Edinburgh, Pamphlet – Reference: Pamphlet BV3280. B4. Chu
- Marriage announcement in the Scotsman newspaper, Thursday 30 March 1950, page 10.
- Dr. Stephen Ian Pugh & family: North Isles Family History archive: https://www.bayanne.info/Shetland/getperson.php?personID=I390221&tree=ID1
- Letters: Williams, Aeneas Francon ~ 1960–1961 ~ former ref: Second series: The Museum of English Rural Life and Special Collections at the University of Reading, Redlands Road, Reading, RG1 5EX: https://www.reading.ac.uk/web/files/special-collections/MAC_W.pdf
- i-Newspaper, 15 June 2018, page 18 – Manuscripts and Kiwis Scarce (Reader's Grandfather helped bring first Kiwi to Scotland) (retrieved 16 June 2018): https://www.pressreader.com/uk/i-newspaper/20180615
- Iain Cameron Williams: http://www.goodreads.com/author/show/4751.Iain_Cameron_Williams
- Iain Cameron Williams World Catalogue: http://www.worldcat.org/title/underneath-a-harlem-moon-the-harlem-to-paris-years-of-adelaide-hall/oclc/51780394&referer=brief_results
- Spotlight Magazine, 27 December 1973, page 16 – The E. Burton Hughes Achievement Award (report)
- The Indian Medical Gazette, December 1945, page 630 – Kaisar-i-Hind Medal Bronze Medal (recipients) Mrs. Francon Williams, In-charge of Red Cross Work in Dooars, Bengal (retrieved 8 October 2017)
- Centre for the Study of World Christianity Library, University of Edinburgh, the Pamphlet was donated to the archive by Professor Andrew Walls, OBE – Reference: Pamphlet BV3280. B4. Chu
- Graham, John Anderson, by Aeneas Francon Williams, The Dictionary of National Biography 1941–1950, publ. Oxford University Press 1959: p.312-313: https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati19411950lees#page/312/mode/2up
- Dictionary of National Biography DICTIONARY 1941–1950: (retrieved 25 July 2018);https://archive.org/stream/dictionaryofnati19411950lees/dictionaryofnati19411950lees_djvu.txt
- Aeneas Francon Williams World Catalogue:http://www.worldcat.org/search?q=aeneas+francon+williams&fq=&dblist=638&qt=first_page
- Poetry Review No. 34, publ. The Poetry Society, London, (1943) pp. 62–63 – a copy is housed at the National Library of Scotland
- Letters: Williams, Aeneas Francon ~ 1960–1961 ~ former ref: Second series: The Museum of English Rural Life and Special Collections at the University of Reading, Redlands Road, Reading, RG1 5EX: https://www.reading.ac.uk/web/files/special-collections/MAC_W.pdf
- "Church of Scotland Missionary Archive". amdigital.co.uk. National Library Edinburgh. Retrieved 28 July 2019.
- Church of Scotland; National Library of Scotland (2004). Church of Scotland missionary archive from the National Library of Scotland. Adam Matthew Publications. OCLC 57484178, 316685147, 702172186.
- "Letters from Aeneas Francon Williams (1924–27) written whilst he was stationed at the Mission at Yichang, China". Catalogue of MSS. Vol. VI MS. 7611 (75, 84, 105, 117 & 118). National Library of Scotland, Archives at George IV Bridge (upper Floor). Cite journal requires
|journal=(help) Included in one letter is Aeneas's first-hand account of the National Strike uprising (Chinese revolution) and the unrest that was affecting Ichang and surrounding vicinity around the Mission where he was stationed.
- "Letters to Clara Anne Williams (nee Rendall) (wife of Aeneas Francon Williams) during her days as a missionary in the Eastern Himalayas". Catalogue of MSS. Vol. VI (MS. 7530 – 8022 Scottish Foreign Mission Research HMSO – – 1926 (7598), 1927 (7599)). Edinburgh: National Library of Scotland, Archive at George IV Bridge (upper Floor). Cite journal requires
- Metcalfe, Alison (3 May 2018). "Dr Graham's Kalimpong Homes". National Library of Scotland Blog – Research, learning and inspiration. Retrieved 28 July 2019. Contains original letters to and from Aeneas Francon Williams and Clara Williams during their life spent as Missionaries in India.
- Mizutani, Satoshi (2011). The Meaning of White: Race, Class, and the 'Domiciled Community' in British India 1858–193. New York ; Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 138–146. ISBN 9780191732102. OCLC 775504500. St. Andrew's Colonial Homes at Kalimpong: Objectives and historical significance.
- Tiedemann, R. G. (2016). Reference guide to Christian missionary societies in China : from the sixteenth to the twentieth century. London: Routledge. p. 147. ISBN 9781315497310. OCLC 957324857. OCLC 957324857, 463298799.
- Walker, Gilbert T. (1924). "Review of Everyone's Book of the Weather. By A. Francon Williams. London (The Sheldon Press), 1923. 16°. Pp. 117. 2s. 6d. net". Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. Wiley. 50 (211): 275. doi:10.1002/qj.49705021136. ISSN 0035-9009.
- Media related to Aeneas Francon Williams at Wikimedia Commons