Open main menu

Admiralty in the 16th century

  (Redirected from Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office)

The Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office (1546-1707) originally known as the Admiralty Office (1414-1546) [1] was a government office of the Kingdom of England and the English Navy's central command. It was first established in 1414 when the remaining regional admiralties, the Northern and Western were abolished and their functions were unified under a single centralized command. It was administered by the Office of the High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine later called the Lord Admiral of England. During the sixteenth century it oversaw the creation of standing "Navy Royal",[2] with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, originated in the early 16th century during the reign of Henry VIII.[3] Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, which saw privately owned ships combining with the Royal Navy in highly profitable raids against Spanish commerce and colonies.[4] In 1588, Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada against England to end English support for Dutch rebels, to stop English corsair activity and to depose the Protestant Elizabeth I and restore Catholicism to England. The Spaniards sailed from Lisbon, planning to escort an invasion force from the Spanish Netherlands but the scheme failed due to poor planning, English harrying, blocking action by the Dutch, and severe storms.[5] A Counter Armada, known as the English Armada, was dispatched to the Iberian coast in 1589, but failed to drive home the advantage England had won upon the dispersal of the Spanish Armada in the previous year. The Admiralty of England existed until 1707 when Kingdom of England, the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of Scotland united to form a single Kingdom of Great Britain when it then became known as the Admiralty Department or Admiralty of Great Britain.

Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office
Coat of Arms of England (1558-1603).svg
Office overview
Formed 1414
Preceding Office
  • Offices of the Kings Marine
Dissolved 1707
Superseding agency
Jurisdiction Parliament of England
Headquarters Admiralty Building
Whitehall
London
Kingdom of England
Office executive
Parent Office Privy Council of England

Contents

Historical overviewEdit

King Alfred the Great first established a navy for England in the ninth century [6]. Navies during the very early middle ages were temporary naval formations of merchant ships requisitioned by the monarch as a feudal duty. In 1050 King Edward the Confessor established a framework for naval service to the crown by assigning ports located on the English Channel the name given to them was the Cinque Ports that consisted of a readily available Cinque Port Fleet.[7] Prior to 1414 naval and judicial administration and operations was divided into specific geographical areas each commanded by an admiral responsible for one of the three seas, North, South and West that surround the British Isles.[8] They were Northern Admiralty, (1294-1412) the Northern and Southern Admiralty, (1364-1414) the Northern and Western Admiralty, (1364-1414), the Western Admiralty, (1294-1412) and the Southern Admiralty, (1294-1412), and the Southern Northern and Western Admiralty, (1360-1369). In 1414 these remaining regional admiralty North and West was abolished and its functions and jurisdiction were centralized under a single Admiralty Office.[9] However regional commands didn't entirely disappear such as the Narrow Seas Admiralty, established in 1412 [10] it remained within the navy as a sub-commands to the higher office of the Lord High Admiral usually administered by a vice-admiral.

The English experiment of different types of government began to develop during this period. The monarch's leading advisers became the Privy Council of England, the central body of the government of the Tudors and the Stuarts.[11] Originally, this was a select group of the full royal council, but in time, the full council became too large for effective government. The monarch's principal private secretary (would be later known as the Secretary of State during the 16th Century) was responsible for all administrative functions of the crown whilst the Treasurer of the Royal Court was in effect its chief of finance and responsible for all functions of finance relating to accounting and auditing.

In 1546 as the English Navy was expanding there was at this point no official body set up the manage it effectively this led to the creation of council of advisers to the Lord Admiral of England known as the 'Council of the Marine' formed by group of court officials with the consent of King Henry VIII that would act as an advisory committee, this council would evolve into the Navy Board. This new Navy Office would be the first permanent attempt to establish effective naval administration the board's remit was the construction of ships, the maintenance of ships including repairs and the control and administering the Royal Dockyards

The origins of the Navy Board really date in the first quarter of the 16th century when the Keeper of the King's (or Clerk of the King's) Ships the predecessor then later subordinate office of the Lord Admiral of England was joined by a Keeper of the King's Storehouses. As management of the navy began to expand he was joined by a third officer the Treasurer of Marine Causes. In 1545 a fourth officer was created (a Surveyor and Rigger of the Navy) about this time the group worked as a body called the Council of the Marine. The Navy Board was officially appointed by letters patent by Henry VIII on the 24 April 1546 that was initially directed by the Lieutenant of the Admiralty until 1557.[12] the board was charged with overseeing the administrative affairs of the navy (while directive, executive and operational duties of the Lord High Admiral remained with the Admiralty Office.[13] It was also referred to as the Navy Office.[14] In 1550 there was a creation of a fifth officer the Surveyor of Marine Victuals who was responsible for supplying the fleet with food and drink supplies. There was also during this period a creation of a Board of Ordnance though essentially independent supplied the Navy Royal with weapons, which was directed by a Master of the Ordnance, this board was responsible for the storing and issuing of weapons, maintaining gunpowder stores and running the ordinance wharf's at the main various Naval Bases. From the 1550s onward for the next six decades, this system of Naval administration did not change.

In 1557 the Lieutenant of the Admiralty ceased to direct the Navy Board that role was now given to the Treasurer of the Navy. In the earlier part of its history, it remained independent until 1628 when it became a subsidiary body of the Board of Admiralty. The Navy Board’s formation would influence the modernization of the Lord Admiral's office itself the Treasurer an original member of the board, however, developed independently (reporting to the Lord High Treasurer), they effectively would provide the money for the Royal Navy, however financial spending and financial administration would remain the responsibility of the Navy Board.

Organization sixteenth centuryEdit

Commander in chief's armed forces of England, (1500-1599)Edit

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Commander-in-Chief, of all the Armed Forces of the Crown [15]
1 His Majesty   King Henry VII 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509
2 His Majesty   King Henry VIII 22 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
3 His Majesty   King Edward VI 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553
4 Her Majesty   Lady Jane Grey 10 July until 19 July 1553.
5 Her Majesty   Queen Mary I July 1553 – 17 November 1558
6 Her Majesty   Queen Elizabeth I 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603

Civil advisersEdit

The Privy Council of England, also known as His (or Her) Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders. The Privy Council of England was a powerful institution, advising the Sovereign on the exercise of the Royal prerogative and on the granting of Royal charters. It issued executive orders known as Orders in Council and also had judicial functions.

Naval lords of England, (1500-1599)Edit

The office of the Lord High Admiral of England was first established in 1385 with the title High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine by 1406 the post was now national and permanent the title was re-styled Lord Admiral of England during the sixteenth century before becoming known as the Lord High Admiral from the seventeenth century onward.[16] He is the titular head of the English Navy. Most have been courtiers or members of the Royal Family, and not professional naval officers. The office of Lord High Admiral is one of the nine English Great Officers of State. His official deputys were the Vice-Admiral of England created in 1410 initially in charge of civil and judicial administration of the admiralty courts and he served as head of the High Court of Admiralty but also naval operations. In 1545 the Council of the Marine was established to take over responsibilities for civil administration of the navy this was to be directed by a second assistant to the Lord Admiral known as the Lieutenant of the Admiralty he assumed the civil responsibilities of the Vice-Admiral of England leaving him to just concentrate on judicial administration.

High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine, 1500-1512

Style Flag Name Term Ref
High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine [17]
1 High Admiral   John de Vere
1st 13th Earl of Oxford
1485-17 March 1513 [18]

Lord Admirals of England, 1512-1638

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Lord Admiral of England [19]
1 Lord Admiral   Sir Edward Howard 17 March 1513 - 4 May 1513 [19]
2 Lord Admiral   Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Surrey 4 May 1513 - 16 July 1525 [19]
3 Lord Admiral   Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset 16 July 1525 - 16 August 1536 [19]
4 Lord Admiral   William FitzWilliam - 1st Earl of Southampton 16 August 1536 - 28 July 1540 [19]
5 Lord Admiral   John Russell- 1st Lord Russell 28 July 1540 - December 1542 [19]
6 Lord Admiral   Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford December 1542 - 26 January 1543 [19]
7 Lord Admiral   John Dudley - 1st Viscount Lisle 26 January 1543 - 17 February 1547 [19]
8 Lord Admiral   Thomas Seymour - 1st Lord Seymour of Sudeley 17 February 1547 - 28 October 1549 [19]
9 Lord Admiral   John Dudley - 1st Earl of Warwick 28 October 1549 -14 May 1550 [19]
10 Lord Admiral   Edward Clinton - 9th Lord Clinton 14 May 1550 - 20 March 1554 [19]
11 Lord Admiral   William Howard - 1st Lord Howard of Effingham 20 March 1554 - 10 February 1558 [19]
12 Lord Admiral   Edward Clinton - 1st Earl of Lincoln 10 February 1558 - 8 July 1585 [19]
13 Lord Admiral   Charles Howard - 1st Earl of Nottingham- 8 July 1558 - 28 January 1610 [19]

Office of the Vice-Admiral of England, 1500-1599

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Vice-Admiral of England [19]
1 Vice-Admiral   Sir Thomas Wyndham 1500 - 1516 [20][21]
2 Vice-Admiral   Sir Thomas Spert 1517 - 1521 [22]
2 Vice-Admiral   Sir Nicholas Wadham 1522 - 1523
4 Vice-Admiral   Sir Robert Tyrwhitt [23]
6 Vice-Admiral   William FitzWilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton 1523 - 1524 [24]
7 Vice-Admiral   Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle 1525 - 1533

[25]

8 Vice-Admiral   Sir Francis Bryan 1543 - ? [26]
9 Vice-Admiral   Richard Brooke-Norton 1543 - 1545
10 Vice-Admiral   Sir William Wynter 1546 - 1549 [27]
11 Vice-Admiral   Sir Benjamin Gonson 1549 - 1577
12 Vice-Admiral   Sir John Hawkins 1547 - 1595
13 Vice-Admiral   Sir Richard Leveson 1595 - 1599


Office of the Lieutenant of the Admiralty, 1545-1599

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Lieutenant of the Admiralty
1 Lieutenant-Admiral   Sir Thomas Clere 1545 - 1552 [28]
2 Lieutenant-Admiral   Sir William Woodhouse 1552 - 1564 [29]

This office is merged with Vice Admiral of England in 1672.

Admiralty of EnglandEdit

The Admiralty of England during the 16th century consisted of the Office of the Lord Admiral of England as Admiral of the English Navy and directing first the Admiralty Office the later the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office he was supported by two deputies the Vice-Admiral of England and the Lieutenant of the Admiralty they were responsible for the control and direction of the navy in matters of naval operations, civil administration , administering logistical support and judicial administration of the navy in relation to admiralty law and the admiralty courts. In order to achieve this they were supported by the following offices and organizations.

Subordinate organizationsEdit

Prior to formation of the Council of the Marine in 1545 carrying out the civil administration of the English Navy in support of the Vice-Admiral of England responsibility originally lay with of four appointed Clerks of the Kings Marine. They were variously responsible for naval finance, ship building, safekeeping of ships and ship yards, storehouses and victualling they were the:[30]

Offices of the Clerks of the Kings Marine, were established between (1320-1545)

  • Office of the Clerk of the Kings Ships, (1320-1545)
  • Office of the Clerk Comptroller, (1512-1545)
  • Office of the Keeper of the Kings Storehouses, (1524-1545)
  • Office of the Treasurer of Marine Causes, (1528-1545)

These officers were later joined by another three officers to form the Kings Council of the Marine.[31]

English NavyEdit

The English Navy or English Maritime Force is the branch of a Kingdom of England's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or sea and ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. that was administered by the Admiralty of England. Modern historians often refer to it as the Tudor Navy during this period.

Composition of the Navy
at the time of the Spanish Armada
Type Number of units
Armed Warships 34 [32]
Armed Merchant Vessels 163
Flyboats 30
Fireships 8
In commission 235

Naval OperationsEdit

Senior leadershipEdit

Fleet commandsEdit

Flag officers of the fleet commanding geographic areas
The English Navy has organized the fleet into squadrons from at early 13th century [34] and certainly during the 16th century. In 1560 three squadrons were operating in the Channel, Irish Sea and North Sea[35]

Eastern/Narrow Seas/fleet/squadronEdit

The English navy's Narrow Seas Fleet or Squadron also called as the Eastern Squadron mainly operated in the two seas which laying between England and Kingdom of France (the English Channel particularly the Straits of Dover) and England and the Spanish Netherlands later the Dutch Republic (the southern North Sea).

Eastern Fleet/Squadron also known as Narrow Seas Squadron[36]

Irish Seas fleet/squadronEdit

Irish Fleet/Squadron

Northern Seas fleet/squadronEdit

Northern Fleet/Squadron

Southern Seas fleet/squadronEdit

Southern Fleet/Squadron

English Channel squadronEdit

English Channel Squadron[40][41]

Before 1864 the entire fleet of the Navy Royal was usually divided into squadrons.

Shore commandsEdit

Vice-Admiralties of the Coast of England, Scotland, Ireland and WalesEdit

The Vice-Admiralties of the Coast were shore commands established in maritime counties of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales in 1536. The office holders, designated as "Vice-Admirals of the Coast", were responsible for the naval administration, defence, judicial administration and recruitment of naval personnel in each of their respective counties and were deputies of the Lord High Admiral.[43]

Administrative and logistical support, (1500-1599)Edit

Before the formation of the council of the marine in 1545 court officials of various monarchs of England responsible for adminsitering the kings ships were called 'Clerks of the Kings Marine'. In 1545 a memoradum was issued by Henry VIII outlining a new organization to be called the 'Council of the Marine this was formalized by Letters Patent in April 1546 consisting of the Chief Officers of the Admiralty as they were then called. In 1578 The council of Marine is renamed the Navy Office and administered by the Navy Board. The chief officers become later known as principle officers and commissioners.[44]

Offices of the clerks of the kings marine, (1500-1545)Edit

Council of the marine, (1545-1578)Edit

Chief officers of the admiraltyEdit

Navy office, (1578-1832)Edit

Principle officers and commissioners of the navy boardEdit

Included:[45]

Naval bases and dockyardsEdit
Note:Base and dockyards during this period were initially managed by the Master Shipwright. Beginning in the early 17th century the navy board started to introduced Resident Commissioners to take over the role of managing each yard. The Master Shipwright remained as a deputy to the resident commissioner. In 1832 when the Navy Board is abolished Resident Commissioners were re-styled Admiral-superintendents.

Organization of Home Naval Base and Dockyards

Portsmouth Dockyard, (1496–present).

Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard

Woolwich Dockyard, (1512-1869). Woolwich Dockyard first established during the reign of Henry VIII in 1512, and continued to be an operational yard until 1869. In the 16th century an historically important ship was built at the “Henry Grace a Dieu” or “Great Harry” constructed in 1514.

Master Shipwright, Woolwich Dockyard

Deptford Dockyard, (1513-1869). Deptford dry dock, had been in regular use from the early years of Henry VIII’s reign. Then known for innovative ship designing resulting in the production of a race-built warship the first of which was HMS Dreadnought laucnhed in 1573 this led to a new phase in naval warfare. The dry dock was rebuilt in 1574.[48]

Master Shipwright, Deptford Dockyard

Erith Dockyard. (1514-1521), failed Yard: due to persistent flooding.

Master-Shipwright, Erith Dockyard

Chatham Dockyard, (1567-1960).

Master-Shipwright, Chatham Dockyard

Office of ordnance, (1500-1597)Edit

Office of Ordnance'.[49] Before the formation of the board of ordnance and office of ordnance has existed since 1415.

Principle officersEdit

Board of ordnance, (1597-1599)Edit

Principle officersEdit

Ordnance yards and storesEdit

Home Ordinance Yards

Gunpowder Magazines Stores

  • Tower of London, London, (1461-1855)
    • Storekeeper of the Powder Stores
  • Square Tower, Portsmouth, (1584-1855)
    • Storekeeper of the Powder Stores

Judicial administrationEdit

Principle components and offices

Justice Department

High court of the admiraltyEdit

England's Admiralty courts date to at least the 1360s, during the reign of Edward III. At that time there were three such courts, appointed by Admirals responsible for waters to the north, south and west of England. In 1483 these local courts were amalgamated into a single High Court of Admiralty, administered by the Lord High Admiral of England.[50] The Lord High Admiral directly appointed judges to the court, and could remove them at will.From its inception in 1483 until 1657 the Court sat in a disused church in Southwark, and from then until 1665 in Montjoy House, a private premises leased from the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral. The function of an admiralty court initially in the 14th century was to deal with piracy and other offences committed upon the high seas. However, it did not take long for those early courts to seek to manifest control over all things to do with shipping, such as mercantile matters. This led to a running battle between the admiralty courts and the common law courts as to which court had jurisdiction over particular issues.

Vice-admiralty courtsEdit

As a Vice-Admiral, the post holder was the chief of naval administration for his district. His responsibilities included, deciding the outcome of the Prize court (captured by pirate ships), dealing with salvage claims for wrecks, acting as a judge in relation to maritime issues. The Vice Admiralty Court was a prerogative court established in the early 16th. A vice-admiralty court is in effect an admiralty court. The word “vice” in the name of the court denoted that the court represented the Lord Admiral of the United Kingdom. In English legal theory, the Lord Admiral, as vice-regal of the monarch, was the only person who had authority over matters relating to the sea.[51] the holder of the post Vice-Admiral of the Coast[52] was responsible for the defence of one of the twenty maritime counties of England, the North and South of Wales. The Lord Admiral would authorize others as his deputies or surrogates to act. Generally, he would appoint a person as a judge to sit in the court as his surrogate.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (Apr 29, 2016). Elizabethan Naval Administration. Routledge. p. 8. ISBN 9781317145035. 
  2. ^ Tittler, Robert; Jones, Norman L. (Apr 15, 2008). A Companion to Tudor Britain. John Wiley & Sons. p. 193. ISBN 9781405137409. 
  3. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 221–37
  4. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 238–53, 281–6, 292–6
  5. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 253–71
  6. ^ Hall, Simon (1999). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. London, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 295. ISBN 9781579581077. 
  7. ^ Gorski, Richard (2012). Roles of the Sea in Medieval England. Martlesham, England: Boydell Press. p. 47. ISBN 9781843837015. 
  8. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "The Three Seas". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. p. 1. ISBN 9780393319606. 
  9. ^ Allison, Ronald; Riddell, Sarah, eds. (1991). The Royal encyclopedia. London: Macmillan Academic and Professional. p. 316. ISBN 9780333538104. 
  10. ^ Campbell, John (1812). Lives of the British Admirals: Containing Also a New and Accurate Naval History, from the Earliest Periods. London: C. J. Barrinton. p. 245. 
  11. ^ Perry, Marvin (2015). Western Civilization: A Brief History. Cengage Learning. p. 213. ISBN 9781305537750. 
  12. ^ Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the war of William III, 1689-1697: its state and direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 179. ISBN 9781107645110. 
  13. ^ "MOD historical summary" (PDF). 
  14. ^ Baugh, Daniel A. (Dec 8, 2015). British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole. Princeton University Press. p. 2. ISBN 9781400874637. 
  15. ^ Hewison, Robert (2015). Culture and Consensus (Routledge Revivals): England, Art and Politics since 1940. Abingdon, England: Routledge. p. 7. ISBN 9781317512387. 
  16. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. p. 507. ISBN 9780393319606. 
  17. ^ Nautical Research, The Society for (1927). "The Lord High Admiral and Administration of the Navy". The Mariner's Mirror. Society for Nautical Research. 13-14: 45. 
  18. ^ Nautical Research, The Society for (1927). "The Lord High Admiral and Administration of the Navy". The Mariner's Mirror. Society for Nautical Research. 13-14: 45. 
  19. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "appendix:v : Admirals and Officials". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 504–509. ISBN 9780393319606. 
  20. ^ Wotton, Thomas (1741). The English Baronetage: Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the English Baronets, Now Existing: Their Descents, Marriages, and Issues ... T. Wotton. p. 348. 
  21. ^ Brewer, J. S. (2015). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII 18 April 1514. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press. p. 786. ISBN 9781108062602. 
  22. ^ Herbert, William (1837). The History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London: Principally Compiled from Their Grants & Records. With an Historical Essay and Accounts of Each Company, Including Notices and Illustrations of Metropolitan Trade and Commerce, as Originally Concentrated in Those Societies, with Attested Copies and Translations of the Companies' Charters. author. p. 411. 
  23. ^ Lundy, Daniel. "Person Page". thepeerage.com. The Peerage, 25 January 2005. Retrieved 26 June 2018. 
  24. ^ Childs, David (2009). Tudor Sea Power: The Foundation of Greatness. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 101. ISBN 9781473819924. 
  25. ^ Childs, David (2014). The Warship Mary Rose: The Life and Times of King Henry VII's Flagship. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 64. ISBN 9781473853096. 
  26. ^ "BRYAN, Sir Francis (by 1492-1550), of the Blackfriars, London and Ampthill and Woburn, Beds. History of Parliament Online". www.historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017. Retrieved 26 June 2018. 
  27. ^ "Publications of the Navy Records Society". 11. George Allen & Unwin. 1898: 28. 
  28. ^ Brewer, John Sherren; Brodie, Robert Henry (1929). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII. Рипол Классик. p. 358. ISBN 9785875053849. 
  29. ^ "WOODHOUSE, Sir William (by 1517-64), of Hickling, Norf. | History of Parliament Online". historyofparliamentonline.org. The History of Parliament Trust 1964-2017. Retrieved 4 June 2017. 
  30. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "The Council of the Marine". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 221–238. ISBN 9780393319606. 
  31. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "The Council of the Marine". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 221–238. ISBN 9780393319606. 
  32. ^ Parker, Colin Martin, Geoffrey (1999). The Spanish Armada (2nd rev. ed.). Manchester: Mandolin. p. 40. ISBN 9781901341140. 
  33. ^ a b Knighton, Dr C. S.; Loades, Professor David. The Navy of Edward VI and Mary I. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 573. ISBN 9781409482406. 
  34. ^ Rose, Susan (2013). "3:The Navy of England understanding the resources of the crown". England's Medieval Navy 1066-1509: Ships, Men & Warfare. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781473853546. 
  35. ^ Corbett, Julian Stafford (1917). "The Navy of Elizabeth". Drake and the Tudor navy, with a history of the rise of England as a maritime power. London, England: London : Longmans, Green. p. 347. 
  36. ^ Childs, David (2014). Pirate Nation: Elizabeth I and her Royal Sea Rovers. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 9781848322943. 
  37. ^ Salmon, Nathaniel (2 Apr 2013). A Short View of the Families of the present English Nobility ... Third edition, etc. William Owen. p. 79. 
  38. ^ Childs, David (Sep 17, 2009). Tudor Sea Power: The Foundation of Greatness. Seaforth Publishing. p. 104. ISBN 9781473819924. 
  39. ^ Townsend, George Henry (1877). The Manual of Dates: A Dictionary of Reference to All the Most Important Events in the History of Mankind to be Found in Authentic Records. London: Frederick Warne. p. 16. 
  40. ^ a b Bothwell, J.S. (2004). Edward III and the English peerage : royal patronage, social mobility and political control in fourteenth-century England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. p. 97. ISBN 9781843830474. 
  41. ^ Childs, David (2014). Pirate Nation: Elizabeth I and her Royal Sea Rovers. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. p. 141. ISBN 9781848322943. 
  42. ^ Nelson, Arthur (2001). The Tudor navy : the ships, men and organisation 1485 - 1603. London: Conway Maritime Press. p. 134. ISBN 9780851777856. 
  43. ^ Sainty, J. C.; Thrush, R. D. (28 September 2006). "Office-Holders: Vice Admirals of the Coasts 1558-1660". web.archive.org. The Institute of Historical Research: University of London, England, 5 Apr 2005 - 8 Nov 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2018. 
  44. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (2004). "17: The Council of the Marine: (Administration 1509-1574)". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain. New York: W.W. Norton. pp. 221–238. ISBN 9780140297249. 
  45. ^ Sainty, Sir John. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain | Institute of Historical Research". history.ac.uk. University of London, Historical Research Institute. Retrieved 1 February 2017. 
  46. ^ Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (Apr 29, 2016). Elizabethan Naval Administration. Routledge. p. 9. ISBN 9781317145035. 
  47. ^ Sainty, J. C. "Navy Treasurer c. 1546-1836, A provisional list compiled by J C Sainty, January 2003". history.ac.uk. The Institute of Historical Research, University of London, 2003. Retrieved 9 November 2016. 
  48. ^ Dietz, Brian (2002). "Dikes, Dockheads and Gates: English Docks and Sea Power in the Sixteenth and Seventeenth Centuries". The Mariners Mirror. 88 (2): 144–155. 
  49. ^ a b Puddefoot, Geoff (2010). Ready for anything : the Royal Fleet Auxiliary, 1905-1950. Barnsley: Seaforth. p. 4. ISBN 9781848320741. 
  50. ^ Senior, W. (1924). "The Mace of the Admiralty Court". The Mariner's Mirror. 10 (1): 52. doi:10.1080/00253359.1924.10655256. 
  51. ^ Jordan
  52. ^ Baker, Sherston (Dec 20, 2010). Office of vice-admiral of the coast : being some account of that ancient office. [S.l.]: Gale Ecco, Making Of Mode. pp. 1–153. ISBN 9781240154067. 

SourcesEdit

  • Allison, edited by Ronald; Riddell, Sarah (1991). The Royal encyclopedia. London: Macmillan Academic and Professional. p. 316. ISBN 9780333538104.
  • Baugh, Daniel A. (Dec 8, 2015). British Naval Administration in the Age of Walpole. Princeton University Press. ISBN 9781400874637.
  • Bothwell, J.S. (2004). Edward III and the English peerage : royal patronage, social mobility and political control in fourteenth-century England. Woodbridge: Boydell Press. ISBN 9781843830474.
  • Brewer, J. S. (2015). Letters and Papers, Foreign and Domestic, of the Reign of Henry VIII 18 April 1514. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press.
  • Campbell, John (1812). Lives of the British Admirals: Containing Also a New and Accurate Naval History, from the Earliest Periods. London: C. J. Barrinton.
  • Childs, David (2014). Pirate Nation: Elizabeth I and her Royal Sea Rovers. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781848322943.
  • Childs, David (2009). Tudor Sea Power: The Foundation of Greatness. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781473819924.
  • Childs, David (2014). The Warship Mary Rose: The Life and Times of King Henry VII's Flagship. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781473853096.
  • Ehrman, John (2012). The Navy in the war of William III, 1689-1697: its state and direction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 9781107645110.
  • Hall, Simon (1999). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. London, England: Taylor & Francis. ISBN 9781579581077.
  • Hamilton, Admiral Sir. R. Vesey, G.C.B. (1896). Naval Administration: The Constitution, Character, and Functions of the Board of Admiralty, and of the Civil Departments it Directs. London: George Bell and Sons.
  • Logan, Karen Dale (1976). The Admiralty: Reforms and Re-organization, 1868-1892. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. University of Oxford.
  • Miller, Francis H. (1884). The Origin and Constitution of the Admiralty and Navy Boards, to which is added an Account of the various Buildings in which the Business of the Navy has been transacted from time to time. London: For Her Majesty's Stationery Office. Copy in Greene Papers. National Maritime Museum. GEE/19.
  • Knighton, C. S.; Loades, David; Loades, Professor of History David (Apr 29, 2016). Elizabethan Naval Administration. Routledge. ISBN 9781317145035.
  • Perry, Marvin (2015). Western Civilization: A Brief History. Cengage Learning. ISBN 9781305537750.
  • "Publications of the Navy Records Society". 11. George Allen & Unwin. 1898: 28.
  • Rodger. N.A.M., (1979) The Admiralty (offices of state), T. Dalton, Lavenham, ISBN 978-0900963940.
  • Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. ISBN 9780393319606.
  • Rose, Susan (2013). "3:The Navy of England understanding the resources of the crown". England's Medieval Navy 1066-1509: Ships, Men & Warfare. Barnsley, England: Seaforth Publishing. ISBN 9781473853546.
  • Sainty, Sir John. "Office-Holders in Modern Britain | Institute of Historical Research". history.ac.uk. University of London, Historical Research Institute. Retrieved 1 February 2017.
  • Sainty, J. C.; Thrush, R. D. (28 September 2006). "Office-Holders: Vice Admirals of the Coasts 1558-1660". web.archive.org. The Institute of Historical Research: University of London, England, 5 Apr 2005 - 8 Nov 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
  • The Statutes of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, 3 George IV. 1822. London: By His Majesty's Statute and Law Printer. 1822.
  • Tittler, Robert; Jones, Norman L. (Apr 15, 2008). A Companion to Tudor Britain. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN 9781405137409.Wotton, Thomas (1741). The English.
  • Wotton, Thomas (1741). The Baronetage: Containing a Genealogical and Historical Account of All the English Baronets, Now Existing: Their Descents, Marriages, and Issues ... T. Wotton.

AttributionEdit

  • This article contains some copied content from this article Navy Board.

External linksEdit