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Admiralty in the 16th century

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The Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office (1546-1707) originally known as the Admiralty Office (1414-1546) [1] was a government office of the Kingdom of England and the English Navy's central command. It was first established in 1414 when the remaining regional admiralties, the Northern and Western were abolished and their functions were unified under a single centralized command. It was administered by the Office of the High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine later called the Lord Admiral of England. During the sixteenth century it oversaw the creation of standing "Navy Royal",[2] with its own secretariat, dockyards and a permanent core of purpose-built warships, originated in the early 16th century during the reign of Henry VIII.[3] Under Elizabeth I England became involved in a war with Spain, which saw privately owned ships combining with the Royal Navy in highly profitable raids against Spanish commerce and colonies.[4] In 1588, Philip II of Spain sent the Spanish Armada against England to end English support for Dutch rebels, to stop English corsair activity and to depose the Protestant Elizabeth I and restore Catholicism to England. The Spaniards sailed from Lisbon, planning to escort an invasion force from the Spanish Netherlands but the scheme failed due to poor planning, English harrying, blocking action by the Dutch, and severe storms.[5] A Counter Armada, known as the English Armada, was dispatched to the Iberian coast in 1589, but failed to drive home the advantage England had won upon the dispersal of the Spanish Armada in the previous year. The Admiralty of England existed until 1707 when Kingdom of England, the Principality of Wales and the Kingdom of Scotland united to form a single Kingdom of Great Britain when it then became known as the Admiralty Department or Admiralty of Great Britain.

Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office
Coat of Arms of England (1558-1603).svg
Office overview
Formed1414
Preceding Office
  • Offices of the Kings Marine
Dissolved1707
Superseding agency
JurisdictionParliament of England
HeadquartersAdmiralty Building
Whitehall
London
Kingdom of England
Office executive
Parent OfficePrivy Council of England

Contents

Historical overviewEdit

King Alfred the Great first established a navy for England in the ninth century.[6] Navies during the very early middle ages were temporary naval formations of merchant ships requisitioned by the monarch as a feudal duty. In 1050 King Edward the Confessor established a framework for naval service to the crown by assigning ports located on the English Channel the name given to them was the Cinque Ports that consisted of a readily available Cinque Port Fleet.[7] Prior to 1414 naval and judicial administration and operations was divided into specific geographical areas each commanded by an admiral responsible for one of the three seas, North, South and West that surround the British Isles.[8] They were Northern Admiralty, (1294-1412) the Northern and Southern Admiralty, (1364-1414) the Northern and Western Admiralty, (1364-1414), the Western Admiralty, (1294-1412) and the Southern Admiralty, (1294-1412), and the Southern Northern and Western Admiralty, (1360-1369). In 1414 these remaining regional admiralty North and West was abolished and its functions and jurisdiction were centralized under a single Admiralty Office.[9] However regional commands didn't entirely disappear such as the Narrow Seas Admiralty, established in 1412 [10] it remained within the navy as a sub-commands to the higher office of the Lord High Admiral usually administered by a vice-admiral.

The English experiment of different types of government began to develop during this period. The monarch's leading advisers became the Privy Council of England, the central body of the government of the Tudors and the Stuarts.[11] Originally, this was a select group of the full royal council, but in time, the full council became too large for effective government. The monarch's principal private secretary (would be later known as the Secretary of State during the 16th Century) was responsible for all administrative functions of the crown whilst the Treasurer of the Royal Court was in effect its chief of finance and responsible for all functions of finance relating to accounting and auditing.

In 1546 as the English Navy was expanding there was at this point no official body set up the manage it effectively this led to the creation of council of advisers to the Lord Admiral of England known as the 'Council of the Marine' formed by group of court officials with the consent of King Henry VIII that would act as an advisory committee, this council would evolve into the Navy Board. This new Navy Office would be the first permanent attempt to establish effective naval administration the board's remit was the construction of ships, the maintenance of ships including repairs and the control and administering the Royal Dockyards

The origins of the Navy Board really date in the first quarter of the 16th century when the Keeper of the King's (or Clerk of the King's) Ships the predecessor then later subordinate office of the Lord Admiral of England was joined by a Keeper of the King's Storehouses. As management of the navy began to expand he was joined by a third officer the Treasurer of Marine Causes. In 1545 a fourth officer was created (a Surveyor and Rigger of the Navy) about this time the group worked as a body called the Council of the Marine. The Navy Board was officially appointed by letters patent by Henry VIII on the 24 April 1546 that was initially directed by the Lieutenant of the Admiralty until 1557.[12] the board was charged with overseeing the administrative affairs of the navy (while directive, executive and operational duties of the Lord High Admiral remained with the Admiralty Office.[13] It was also referred to as the Navy Office.[14] In 1550 there was a creation of a fifth officer the Surveyor of Marine Victuals who was responsible for supplying the fleet with food and drink supplies. There was also during this period a creation of a Board of Ordnance though essentially independent supplied the Navy Royal with weapons, which was directed by a Master of the Ordnance, this board was responsible for the storing and issuing of weapons, maintaining gunpowder stores and running the ordinance wharf's at the main various Naval Bases. From the 1550s onward for the next six decades, this system of Naval administration did not change.

In 1557 the Lieutenant of the Admiralty ceased to direct the Navy Board that role was now given to the Treasurer of the Navy. In the earlier part of its history, it remained independent until 1628 when it became a subsidiary body of the Board of Admiralty. The Navy Board’s formation would influence the modernization of the Lord Admiral's office itself the Treasurer an original member of the board, however, developed independently (reporting to the Lord High Treasurer), they effectively would provide the money for the Royal Navy, however financial spending and financial administration would remain the responsibility of the Navy Board.

Organization sixteenth centuryEdit

Note: This article primarily deals with the structure of the English Navy during the sixteenth century however certain offices or units illustrated were established from much earlier dates.

Commander in chief's armed forces of England, (1500-1599)Edit

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Commander-in-Chief, of all the Armed Forces of the Crown [15]
1 His Majesty   King Henry VII 22 August 1485 – 21 April 1509
2 His Majesty   King Henry VIII 22 April 1509 – 28 January 1547
3 His Majesty   King Edward VI 28 January 1547 – 6 July 1553
4 Her Majesty   Lady Jane Grey 10 July until 19 July 1553.
5 Her Majesty   Queen Mary I July 1553 – 17 November 1558
6 Her Majesty   Queen Elizabeth I 17 November 1558 – 24 March 1603

Civil and military advisers to the commander-in-chiefEdit

Privy Council of England (1066-1707)Edit

The Privy Council of England, also known as His (or Her) Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council, was a body of advisers to the sovereign of the Kingdom of England. Its members were often senior members of the House of Lords and the House of Commons of the Parliament of England, together with leading churchmen, judges, diplomats and military leaders. The Privy Council of England was a powerful institution, advising the Sovereign on the exercise of the Royal prerogative and on the granting of Royal charters. It issued executive orders known as Orders in Council and also had judicial functions. The Lord Admiral of England was a member of the privy council.[16]

High Admirals/Lord Admirals of England, (1385-1638)Edit

The office of the Lord High Admiral of England was first established in 1385 with the title High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine by 1406 the post was now national and permanent the title was re-styled Lord Admiral of England during the sixteenth century before becoming known as the Lord High Admiral from the seventeenth century onward.[17] He is the titular head of the English Navy. Most have been courtiers or members of the Royal Family, and not professional naval officers. The office of Lord High Admiral is one of the nine English Great Officers of State. His official duties were the Vice-Admiral of England created in 1410 initially in charge of civil and judicial administration of the admiralty courts and he served as head of the High Court of Admiralty but also naval operations. In 1545 the Council of the Marine was established to take over responsibilities for civil administration of the navy this was to be directed by a second assistant to the Lord Admiral known as the Lieutenant of the Admiralty he assumed the civil responsibilities of the Vice-Admiral of England leaving him to just concentrate on judicial administration.

High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine, 1500-1512Edit

Style Flag Name Term Ref
High Admiral of England, Ireland and Aquitaine [18]
1 High Admiral   John de Vere
1st 13th Earl of Oxford
1485-17 March 1513 [18]

Lord Admirals of England, 1512-1638Edit

Style Flag Name Term Ref
Lord Admiral of England [19]
1 Lord Admiral   Sir Edward Howard 17 March 1513 - 4 May 1513 [19]
2 Lord Admiral   Thomas Howard, 2nd Earl of Surrey 4 May 1513 - 16 July 1525 [19]
3 Lord Admiral   Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Richmond and Somerset 16 July 1525 - 16 August 1536 [19]
4 Lord Admiral   William FitzWilliam - 1st Earl of Southampton 16 August 1536 - 28 July 1540 [19]
5 Lord Admiral   John Russell- 1st Lord Russell 28 July 1540 - December 1542 [19]
6 Lord Admiral   Edward Seymour, 1st Earl of Hertford December 1542 - 26 January 1543 [19]
7 Lord Admiral   John Dudley - 1st Viscount Lisle 26 January 1543 - 17 February 1547 [19]
8 Lord Admiral   Thomas Seymour - 1st Lord Seymour of Sudeley 17 February 1547 - 28 October 1549 [19]
9 Lord Admiral   John Dudley - 1st Earl of Warwick 28 October 1549 -14 May 1550 [19]
10 Lord Admiral   Edward Clinton - 9th Lord Clinton 14 May 1550 - 20 March 1554 [19]
11 Lord Admiral   William Howard - 1st Lord Howard of Effingham 20 March 1554 - 10 February 1558 [19]
12 Lord Admiral   Edward Clinton - 1st Earl of Lincoln 10 February 1558 - 8 July 1585 [19]
13 Lord Admiral   Charles Howard - 1st Earl of Nottingham- 8 July 1558 - 28 January 1610 [19]
Vice-Admiral of England, 1500-1599Edit
Style Flag Name Term Ref
Vice-Admiral of England [19]
1 Vice-Admiral   Sir Thomas Wyndham 1500 - 1516 [20][21]
2 Vice-Admiral   Sir Thomas Spert 1517 - 1521 [22]
2 Vice-Admiral   Sir Nicholas Wadham 1522 - 1523
4 Vice-Admiral   Sir Robert Tyrwhitt [23]
6 Vice-Admiral   William FitzWilliam, 1st Earl of Southampton 1523 - 1524 [24]
7 Vice-Admiral   Arthur Plantagenet, 1st Viscount Lisle 1525 - 1533

[25]

8 Vice-Admiral   Sir Francis Bryan 1543 - ? [26]
9 Vice-Admiral   Richard Brooke-Norton 1543 - 1545
10 Vice-Admiral   Sir William Wynter 1546 - 1549 [27]
11 Vice-Admiral   Sir Benjamin Gonson 1549 - 1577
12 Vice-Admiral   Sir John Hawkins 1547 - 1595
13 Vice-Admiral   Sir Richard Leveson 1595 - 1599
Lieutenant of the Admiralty, 1545-1599Edit
Style Flag Name Term Ref
Lieutenant of the Admiralty
1 Lieutenant-Admiral   Sir Thomas Clere 1545 - 1552 [28]
2 Lieutenant-Admiral   Sir William Woodhouse 1552 - 1564 [29]

This office is merged with Vice Admiral of England in 1672.

English Navy/Navy RoyalEdit

The English Navy is the branch of a Kingdom of England's armed forces principally designated for naval and amphibious warfare; namely, lake-borne, riverine, littoral, or sea and ocean-borne combat operations and related functions. that was administered by the Admiralty of England by 1536 its was referred to as the "Navy Royal" [30] other modern historians often refer to it as the Tudor Navy during this period.

Composition of the Navy
at the time of the Spanish Armada
Type Number of units
Armed Warships 34 [31]
Armed Merchant Vessels 163
Flyboats 30
Fireships 8
In commission 235

Admiralty of EnglandEdit

The Admiralty of England during the 16th century consisted of the Office of the Lord Admiral of England as Admiral of the English Navy and directing first the Admiralty Office the later the Admiralty and Marine Affairs Office he was supported by two deputies the Vice-Admiral of England and the Lieutenant of the Admiralty they were responsible for the control and direction of the navy in matters of naval operations, civil administration , administering logistical support and judicial administration of the navy in relation to admiralty law and the admiralty courts. In order to achieve this they were supported by the following offices and organizations.

Subordinate organizationsEdit

Prior to formation of the Council of the Marine in 1545 carrying out the civil administration of the English Navy in support of the Vice-Admiral of England responsibility originally lay with of four appointed Clerks of the Kings Marine. They were variously responsible for naval finance, ship building, safekeeping of ships and ship yards, storehouses and victualling they were the:[32]

Offices of the Clerks of the Kings Marine, were established between (1320-1545)

# Office Dates Notes/Ref
1 Clerk of the Kings Ships (1320-1545) [33]
2 Clerk Comptroller (1512-1545) [33]
3 Keeper of the Kings Storehouses (1524-1545) [33]
4 Treasurer of Marine Causes (1528-1545) [33]
# Organization Dates Notes/Ref
1 High Court of the Admiralty (1360-1875) [34]
2 Office of Ordnance (1410-1683) [35]

These officers were later joined by another three officers to formally the Kings Council of the Marine.[36]

# Organization Dates Notes/Ref
1 Council of the Marine (1545-1578) council members styled Chief Officers of the Admiralty[33]
2 Navy Office (1578-1832)

Naval operationsEdit

Admirals/Vice-Admirals commanding, squadronsEdit

Flag officers of the commanding geographic areas
The English Navy has organized the fleet into squadrons from at early 13th century [37] and certainly during the 16th century. In 1560 three squadrons were operating in the Channel, Irish Sea and North Sea[38] Until the 16th century, admirals were high officials under kings, and were charged with protecting the realm from sea attack.[39]

Narrow Seas squadron (1412-1688)Edit

The English navy's Narrow Seas Squadron also called as the Eastern Squadron mainly operated in the two seas which laying between England and Kingdom of France (the English Channel particularly the Straits of Dover) and England and the Spanish Netherlands later the Dutch Republic (the southern North Sea).[40][41][42]

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Admiral of the Narrow Seas 1552-53, 1563 [43]
2 Vice-Admiral of the Narrow Seas 1412, 1523–52, 1558–59, 1563, 1588-91 [44]
3 Rear-Admiral of the Narrow Seas 1587, 1599
Irish Sea squadron (1335-1644)Edit
# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Admiral of the Irish Fleet/Squadron 1335-1644 [45][38][46]
Northern Sea squadron (1543–1815)Edit

Include:[47]

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Vice-Admiral, North Sea 1543-1654 [48][49][50]
Channel squadron (1512-1746)Edit

Included[51][40]

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Vice-Admiral in the Channel 1512-1589, 1626-1650 [52]

Before 1864 the entire fleet of the Navy Royal was usually divided into squadrons.

Shore commandsEdit

Vice-Admiralties of the coast of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales (1536-1947)Edit

The Vice-Admiralties of the Coast were shore commands established in maritime counties of England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales in 1536. The office holders, designated as "Vice-Admirals of the Coast", were responsible for the naval administration, defence, judicial administration and recruitment of naval personnel in each of their respective counties and were deputies of the Lord High Admiral.[53] In 1660 they came under direct control of the Board of Admiralty by the 19th century the posts were gradually phased out.

EnglandEdit

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Vice-Admiral Cheshire 1569-1856 [54]
2 Vice-Admiral Cornwall 1559-1601 (including the Scilly Isles)[54]
3 Vice-Admiral Cumberland 1559-1844 [54]
4 Vice-Admiral Devon 1559-1835 [54]
5 Vice-Admiral Dorset 1559-1835 [54]
6 Vice-Admiral Durham 1559-1835 [54]
7 Vice-Admiral Essex 1559-1835 [54]
8 Vice-Admiral Gloucestershire 1559-1835 [54]
9 Vice-Admiral Hampshire 1558-1846 (including the Isle of Wight)[54]
10 Vice-Admiral Kent 1558-1846 [54]
11 Vice-Admiral Lancashire 1569-1851 [54]
12 Vice-Admiral Lincolnshire 1565-1862 [54]
13 Vice-Admiral Norfolk 1536-1846 [54]
14 Vice-Admiral Northumberland 1559-1847 [54]
15 Vice-Admiral Somerset 1561-1855 [54]
16 Vice-Admiral Suffolk 1536-1947 honoury post in 20th C.[54]
17 Vice-Admiral Sussex 1559-1860 [54]
18 Vice-Admiral Westmorland 1559-1802 [54]
19 Vice-Admiral Yorkshire 1559-1860 [54]

IrelandEdit

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Vice-Admiral Connaught 1558-1639 part of Vice-Admiralty of Ireland to 1558-85.[54]
2 Vice-Admiral Ireland 1558-1585 [54]
3 Vice-Admiral Leinster 1585-1647 ditto [54]
4 Vice-Admiral Munster 1559-1648 ditto [54]
5 Vice-Admiral Ulster 1585-1647 ditto [54]

WalesEdit

North Wales (including five coastal counties Anglesey, Carnarvon, Denbigh, Flint & Merioneth under Vice-Admiral, North Wales)
South Wales before 1585 three of the four coastal counties of South Wales, Cardigan, Carmarthen and Pembroke, under Vice Admiral, South Wales only vice admiral for Glamorgan was separate. Thereafter all four counties were placed under a single vice admiral.[54]
# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Vice-Admiral North Wales 1565-1560 [54]
2 Vice-Admiral Glamorgan 1559-1576 [54]

Administrative and logistical support, (1500-1599)Edit

Before the formation of the Council of the Marine in 1545, court officials of various monarchs of England responsible for administering the king's ships were called 'Clerks of the Kings Marine'. In 1545 a memorandum was issued by Henry VIII outlining a new organization to be called the 'Council of the Marine, formalized by Letters Patent in April 1546, and consisting of the Chief Officers of the Admiralty as they were then called. In 1578 The council of Marine is renamed the Navy Office and administered by the Navy Board. The chief officers become later known as principal officers and commissioners.[55]

Offices of the clerks of the kings marine, (1320-1545)Edit

# Office Dates Notes/Ref
1 Clerk of the Kings Ships (1320-1545) For over 200 years he was the sole administrator of the English Navy
2 Clerk Comptroller (1512-1545) Specialist office holder appointed to relieve the clerk of the ships of some of his duties
3 Keeper of the Kings Storehouses (1524-1545) ditto
4 Office of the Treasurer of Marine Causes (1528-1545) ditto

Council of the marine, (1545-1578)Edit

  • Council of the Marine, (1545-1578) instigated by King Henry VIII to provide a clear administrative structure to the Royal Navy, it later became known as the Navy Office or Navy Board.

Chief Officers of the AdmiraltyEdit

# Chief Officer Dates Notes/Ref
1 Lieutenant of the Admiralty (1546–1564) Head of the council of the marine
2 Treasurer of Marine Causes (1546-1832) Head of naval finance in 1564 became head of the council
3 Clerk Comptroller of the Navy (1546-1832) Head of naval spending became head of the navy board in 1660
4 Clerk of the Kings Ships 1320-1796 Head of Administration of ships of the Crown
5 Keeper of the Kings Storehouses (1546-1560) Head of Naval Stores for the navy
6 Master of Naval Ordnance (1546-1589) special officer assigned to the Admiralty from the Office of Ordnance
7 Surveyor of Marine Victuals (1561-1569) Head of victualling for the navy
8 Surveyor and Rigger of the Navy (1546-1859) Head ship building and design and the dockyards renamed Surveyor of the Navy in 1611

Navy office, (1578-1832)Edit

Chief officers and commissioners of the navy boardEdit

Included:[56]

# Chief Officer Dates Notes/Ref
1 Treasurer of Marine Causes (1546-1832) Head of the council.[57]
2 Clerk Comptroller of the Navy (1546-1832) Head of naval spending became head of the navy board in 1660
3 Clerk of the Kings Ships 1320-1796 Head of Administration of ships of the Crown
4 Keeper of the Kings Storehouses (1546-1560) Head of Naval Stores for the navy
5 Master of Naval Ordnance (1546-1589) special officer assigned to the Admiralty from the Office of Ordnance
6 Surveyor of Marine Victuals (1561-1569) Head of victualling for the navy[58]
7 Surveyor and Rigger of the Navy (1546-1859) Head ship building and design and the dockyards renamed Surveyor of the Navy in 1611

Below this organisation was all HM Naval bases and dockyards each yard was administered by a Master Shipwright who was responsible for the management of their yards until the early 17th century when the navy board starts to introduce a more qualified naval administrator called Resident Commissioners of the Navy to manage the individual dockyards as the navy expands. In 1832 when the Navy Board is abolished Resident Commissioners were re-styled Admiral-superintendents.

Note: Carpenters later called shipwrights then master shipwrights had been a position in the English Navy from as early as 1327.[59] The first official list of master shipwrights appeared in the patent issued by Henry VIII in 1537.[60]
Naval bases and dockyardsEdit
Note: With the introduction of Resident Commissioners the Master Shipwright became a deputy to the resident commissioner but concentrated solely on shipbuilding.

Organization of Home Naval Base and Dockyards

# Officers of the Dockyard Responsibilities
1 Master Shipwright (in charge of shipbuilding, ship repair/maintenance and management of the associated workforce)
2 Master Attendant (in charge of launching and docking ships, of ships 'in ordinary' at the yard, and of ship movements around the harbour)
3 Storekeeper (in charge of receiving, maintaining and issuing items in storage)
4 Clerk of the Cheque (in charge of pay, personnel and certain transactions)
5 Clerk of the Survey (in charge of maintaining a regular account of equipment and the transfer of goods)

Note: Shipbuilding storehouses during this period were mainly used for masts, rigging and 'Cooperage’ (the making barrels in which most supplies were stored).[61]

Portsmouth dockyard, (1496-present)Edit
# Location Post Dates Ref
1 Portsmouth Dockyard Master Shipwright, Portsmouth Dockyard (1638-1802) [62]
Woolwich dockyard, (1496-present)Edit
# Location Post dates notes/ref
1 Woolwich Dockyard Master Shipwright, Woolwich Dockyard (1630-1801) [63]

Woolwich Dockyard first established during the reign of Henry VIII in 1512, and continued to be an operational yard until 1869. In the 16th century an historically important ship was built at the “Henry Grace a Dieu” or “Great Harry” constructed in 1514.

Deptford dockyard, (1513-1869)Edit
# Location Post Dates Ref
1 Deptford Dockyard Master Shipwright, Deptford (1550-1853) [64]

Notes: Deptford dry dock, had been in regular use from the early years of Henry VIII’s reign. Then known for innovative ship designing resulting in the production of a race-built warship the first of which was HMS Dreadnought launched in 1573 this led to a new phase in naval warfare. The dry dock was rebuilt in 1574.[65]

Erith dockyard, (1514-1521)Edit
# Location Post Dates Ref
1 Erith Dockyard Master-Shipwright, Erith Dockyard failed yard due to persistent flooding.
Chatham, dockyard, (1567-1960)Edit
# Location Post Dates notes/ref
1 Chatham Dockyard Master-Shipwright, Chatham Dockyard (1572-1813) [66]

Office of ordnance, (1415-1597)Edit

Office of Ordnance'

Notes:An Office of Ordnance was first created in 1415[35] in 1683 the Board of Ordnance was formed.[67] In 1685 it became a civil Department of State.[68]

Officers of the OrdnanceEdit

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Master of the Ordnance [67] (1415-1597) title renamed in 1560 to Master-General
2 Clerk of the Ordnance[67] (1460-1853) reports to the Master of the Ordnance
3 Yeoman of the Ordnance[67] (1460-1597) ditto

Office of ordnance, (1597-1599)Edit

Principle officersEdit

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Master-General of the Ordnance and Surveyor of Marine Causes (1415-1855)
2 Lieutenant-General of the Ordnance (1545-1855) [69] reports to the Master General
3 Treasurer of the Ordinance (1597-1855) reports to the Lieutenant-General
4 Surveyor-General of the Ordnance (1538-1888) [70] ditto
5 Clerk of the Ordnance (1460-1853) ditto [71]
6 Storekeeper of the Ordnance (1554-1845) ditto [72]
7 Clerk of Deliveries of the Ordnance (1570-1853) ditto

Notes: Below this organisation were H.M. Ordnance yards and stores each had its on Senior Ordnance Officers (known as storekeepers).

Ordnance yards and storesEdit

Home Ordnance Yards

# Location Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 The Gun Wharf,Chatham Dockyard Storekeeper of the Gun Wharf Chatham Dockyard (1567-1855) [73]

Gunpowder Magazines Stores

# Location Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Tower of London, London Storekeeper of the Powder Stores, Tower of London (1461-1855) [74]
2 Square Tower, Portsmouth Storekeeper of the Powder Stores Portsmouth Dockyard (1461-1855) [75]

Judicial administrationEdit

In the 19th and 20th centuries referred to as the Justice Department of the Royal Navy.

High court of the admiraltyEdit

England's Admiralty courts date to at least the 1340s, during the reign of Edward III. At that time there were three such courts, appointed by Admirals responsible for waters to the Admiral of the North, Admiral of the South and Admiral of the West of England. In 1483 it absorbed the jurisdiction of the deputies and courts these regional courts eventiually amalgamated into a single High Court of Admiralty, administered by the Lord High Admiral of England.[76] The Lord High Admiral directly appointed judges to the court, and could remove them at will.From its inception in 1483 until 1657 the Court sat in a disused church in Southwark, and from then until 1665 in Montjoy House, a private premises leased from the Dean of St Paul's Cathedral. The function of an admiralty court initially in the 14th century was to deal with piracy and other offences committed upon the high seas. However, it did not take long for those early courts to seek to manifest control over all things to do with shipping, such as mercantile matters. This led to a running battle between the admiralty courts and the common law courts as to which court had jurisdiction over particular issues.

# Post Dates Notes/Ref
1 Lord Admiral of England 1360-current Appointed the Judge of the High Court of Admiralty
2 Vice-Admiral of England and Deputy High Admiral 1410-current Assisted the Lord Admiral and responsible for administering the Vice-Admiralty courts
3 High Court of the Admiralty 1340-1875

Vice-admiralty courtsEdit

As a Vice-Admiral, the post holder was the chief of naval administration for his district. His responsibilities included, deciding the outcome of the Prize court (captured by pirate ships), dealing with salvage claims for wrecks, acting as a judge in relation to maritime issues. The Vice Admiralty Court was a prerogative court established in the early 16th. A vice-admiralty court is in effect an admiralty court. The word “vice” in the name of the court denoted that the court represented the Lord Admiral of the United Kingdom. In English legal theory, the Lord Admiral, as vice-regal of the monarch, was the only person who had authority over matters relating to the sea.[77] the holder of the post Vice-Admiral of the Coast[78] was responsible for the defence of one of the twenty maritime counties of England, the North and South of Wales. The Lord Admiral would authorize others as his deputies or surrogates to act. Generally, he would appoint a person as a judge to sit in the court as his surrogate.

ReferencesEdit

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  2. ^ Tittler, Robert; Jones, Norman L. (Apr 15, 2008). A Companion to Tudor Britain. John Wiley & Sons. p. 193. ISBN 9781405137409.
  3. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 221–37
  4. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 238–53, 281–6, 292–6
  5. ^ Rodger, Safeguard, pp. 253–71
  6. ^ Hall, Simon (1999). The Hutchinson Illustrated Encyclopedia of British History. London, England: Taylor & Francis. p. 295. ISBN 9781579581077.
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  8. ^ Rodger, N.A.M. (1998). "The Three Seas". The safeguard of the sea : a naval history of Britain, 660-1649 (1st American ed.). New York: W.W. Norton. p. 1. ISBN 9780393319606.
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  10. ^ Campbell, John (1812). Lives of the British Admirals: Containing Also a New and Accurate Naval History, from the Earliest Periods. London: C. J. Barrinton. p. 245.
  11. ^ Perry, Marvin (2015). Western Civilization: A Brief History. Cengage Learning. p. 213. ISBN 9781305537750.
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AttributionEdit

  • This article contains some copied content from this article Navy Board.

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