Adjuntas, Puerto Rico
Adjuntas (Spanish pronunciation: [aðˈxuntas]) is a small mountainside municipality in Puerto Rico located central midwest of the island on the Cordillera Central, north of Yauco, Guayanilla and Peñuelas; southeast of Utuado; east of Lares and Yauco; and northwest of Ponce. Adjuntas is spread over 16 wards and Adjuntas Pueblo (the downtown area and the administrative center of the city). Adjuntas is about two hours by car westward from the capital, San Juan. It is the principal city of and comprises the Adjuntas Micropolitan Statistical Area.
Town and Municipality
View of Adjuntas from a nearby mountain.
|Anthem: Adjuntas es mi amor|
Location of Adjuntas in Puerto Rico
|Founded||August 11, 1815|
|Founded by||Diego Maldonado|
|• Mayor||Jaime H. Barlucea (PNP)|
|• Senatorial dist.||5 - Ponce|
|• Representative dist.||22|
|Elevation||1,654 ft (504 m)|
(April 1, 2010)
|Time zone||UTC−4 (AST)|
Adjuntas is nicknamed "the Switzerland of Puerto Rico", because of its relatively chilly weather. Many Puerto Rican mountain towns have cooler weather than the rest of the island; Adjuntas is no exception: the average yearly weather is 70 °F (21 °C) (High: 83 °F/28 °C; Low: 58 °F/14 °C). Puerto Rico's lowest temperature were recorded in Adjuntas at 38°F. Its mild climate attracts a good number of island tourists during the summer months. The town has a small hotel named Monte Rio and a good-sized parador, or country inn, called Villa Sotomayor.
Adjuntas' Zip Code, 00601, is the lowest code in the United States zip code system.
Although there are petroglyphs and traces of Taíno people in Adjuntas, there is no proof that the region was dominated by a specific cacique. Nearby caciques like Guarionex and Urayoán could have had some control over the area.
According to historian Aurelio Tió, during the Spanish colonization of Puerto Rico in the 16th Century, it is believed that a Spanish interpreter called Juan González settled in the region. Also, historian Cayetano Coll y Toste wrote a legend about Spanish people looking for gold in the region of Adjuntas.
As colonization progressed, Adjuntas became part of the San Blas de Illescas de Coamo village, which was founded in 1579 and became the most important settlement in the south. It is believed that the name "Adjuntas" derives from the term of "being close" to Coamo. As population shifted to Ponce, Adjuntas became more linked to that town, and then to Utuado, being a ward of this municipality in 1739.
With 20 families established in the region, the residents of Adjuntas vouched for the settlement to be officially recognized. The town of Adjuntas was then founded in August 11, 1815, with Diego Maldonado being elected as its representative. A city hall and public square were built shortly after.
Adjuntas was one of the main cities where the Anusim, Maranos, and other Sephardi Jews settled. Many of these families were of the Torres, Perez or Peretz, and Bennazar families among others. Berberena and Mozarabes settled there too.
Taíno families from neighboring Utuado can also be found in this area, along with escaped cimarrones, or African slaves, who intermarried with the Taíno. DNA genetic evidence shows that many Africans fled up the Camino Real into the mountains to escape the sugar plantations of Ponce. The Mandinka, Wolof & Fulani mtDNA African haplotype, L1b, is present here. Taíno haplogroups A & C can also be found in this area.
After the mid-19th century, Adjuntas welcomed many immigrants from the Mediterranean islands Corsica and Majorca. Some of them established coffee plantations. During the last decades of the 19th Century, the coffee produced in Adjuntas was exported to Europe, United States and even the Vatican.
Adjuntas was proclaimed a "villa", or a first order municipality, by the Spanish Government Monarchy in 1894. Several years after, the town was occupied by the United States Army forces during the Spanish–American War of 1898 and was visited by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906.
The discovery of rich deposits of copper, gold and other minerals during the 1960s motivated some local community and environmental leaders to oppose the mining. Casa Pueblo, a local community organization settled in Adjuntas, opposed to the mining and advocates for the preservation of natural resources in Puerto Rico.
The terrain in Adjuntas is very mountainous, due to its location in the Cordillera Central. It borders Utuado in the north and east, Lares and Yauco to the west, and Guayanilla, Peñuelas, and Ponce to the south.
Historian Pedro Tomás de Córdova described the terrain as "high, and mountainous, and very healthy". He also praised the quality of the terrain for agriculture. Adjuntas' highest peak is Monte Guilarte (3,773 ft; 1,150 m), followed by Vaquiñas (3,346 ft; 1,020 m). Guilarte itself is the sixth highest peak in Puerto Rico, and is located in Guilarte State Forest. Córdova also mentioned the water features, describing 26 rivers and 16 creeks that ran through the region.
Bodies of waterEdit
The following rivers flow through Adjuntas: Río Cidra, Río Corcho, Rio de la Ciénaga (GNIS ID 1612409), Río Garzas, Río Guilarte, Río las Vacas (GNIS ID 1609475), Río Limaní, Río Saltillo, Río Toro, Río Vacas (GNIS ID 1612618), and Río Yahuecas.
|Adjuntas (Climate - Tropical Rainforest (Af))|
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Adjuntas features a tropical rainforest climate that borders on a subtropical highland climate. While the town technically features a tropical rainforest climate, due to its high elevation, the climate is noticeably cooler than the norm for this climate category. Summers are warm (83°-85 °F) in the daytime and mild at nighttime (60°-63 °F). Meanwhile, winters are moderately warm with cool temperatures at night. During daytime, high temperatures are around 79 °F (26 °C) in the town and 68 °F (20 °C) in the nearby mountains. Winter night temperatures are between in the 55 °F (13 °C) and 60 °F (16 °C) range, but after cold fronts temperatures can drop down to 45 °F (7 °C).
|U.S. Decennial Census|
1899 (shown as 1900) 1910-1930
1930-1950 1960-2000 2010
|Racial - (self-defined) Adjuntas, Puerto Rico|
- 2010 Census
|Race||Population||% of Total|
|American Indian and
|Some other race||411||2.1%|
|Two or more races||249||1.3%|
Adjuntas currently has a population of 19,483. This represents a growth of 340, from 19,143 in 2000. Throughout the years, it hasn't shown significant changes, with the highest being 22,556 (1940) and the lowest in the last century being 18,075 (1930).
80% of the Per capita income of Adjuntas is a product of agriculture. In 2010, unemployment hit 20.2%. According to mayor, Jaime Barlucea, it decreased to 18.7 in 2011. However, according to the Department of Employment of Puerto Rico, it increased to 21.3.
Since its foundation in the 19th Century, the production of coffee, sugarcane, small fruits, and cattle have formed the foundation of the economy of Adjuntas. During the middle of the 20th Century, however, the production of sugar declined with the arrival of manufacturing industries.
Adjuntas is still considered one of the main producers of coffee in the island, producing 32% of the coffee consumed in the island. Other products produced in Adjuntas are tropical crops such as bananas, citron and peaches.
During the middle of the 20th Century, some manufacturing industries established themselves in town as part of Operation Bootstrap. However, as of 2012, most of them have already closed. One of the last manufacturing companies in town, a military uniforms company, closed in March 2012.
Although tourism hasn't been an integral part of the economy of Adjuntas, according to historic records, it has been present since the 19th Century. Historian Lidio Cruz Monclóva noted that around 1871, some doctors requested patients to travel to Adjuntas to stay in a hotel called "La Adjunteña". The hotel was the property of C.L. Ginestre, and served both tourists and the sick. Cruz noted that doctors believed the colder temperatures of the town were beneficial to health.
Nowadays, Adjuntas receives approximately 700 tourists per weekend, according to mayor Jaime Barlucea. Most of them want to visit the haciendas established there during past centuries. Some of them are: Hacienda Bareal, Hacienda El Muerto, Hacienda Arbela, and Hacienda Pietri. Other landmarks are Monte Guilarte, and the Inabón waterfall.
Another known tourist stop in Adjuntas is Casa Pueblo, a local museum and cultural institution founded by a group of activists that fought against the copper mine exploitation of the area for decades. Casa Pueblo is responsible for many environmental projects, namely the preservation of hundreds of acres of woods and bodies of water.
However, some residents and businesspeople from Adjuntas maintain that the government has not taken advantage of the many tourist attractions in town, which include three forests, waterfalls, lakes, and many renowned restaurants. One of the projects that has received media coverage is the Castillo de los Niños, built during the mayoralty of Barlucea. Castillo de los Niños is a recreational park resembling a castle, with gazebos.
Special Communities ProgramEdit
In 2001, law 1-2001 was passed to identify communities with high levels of poverty in Puerto Rico.In 2017, Governor Rosello created a new government agency to work with the Special Communities of Puerto Rico Program. Of the 742 places on the list of Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico, the following barrios, communities, sectors, or neighborhoods are in Adjuntas: Acueducto neighborhood, Calle del Agua, Guayo barrio, Rullán neighborhood, Saltillo Vaca, Tanamá barrio, and Yahuecas barrio.
Prior to the U.S. invasion of Puerto Rico in 1898, there were already six public schools established in Adjuntas. Historian Cayetano Coll y Toste offered a detailed account of each of them, including the number of students, which at the time totaled 402. As of 2017, there are about a dozen public schools in the town, most of them in the elementary level. Like all other municipalities in the island, public education is overseen by the Puerto Rico Department of Education.
Although there are no hospitals in Adjuntas, the town does have a small treatment and diagnostic center located in Adjuntas Pueblo. Also, Castañer Hospital, which is located in the border between Adjuntas, Lares, and Maricao, offers services to the municipality.
According to sources, there has not been a murder in Adjuntas since 2009. However, burglary and theft have increased. Some residents attribute the rise in crime to unemployment and the lack of activities for the youth.
Events and festivalsEdit
Adjuntas is the site of several yearly celebrations and festivals. The most notable are the Festival of the Giant (del Gigante) held in April, the Festival of the Citron (la Cidra) held in May, its patron saint festival (Fiestas Patronales) starting August 21 and a Christmas festival. In Adjuntas the patron saint festival is dedicated to Saint Joachim and Saint Anne.
In 1874, General José Laureano Sanz, Governor of Puerto Rico, sponsored a road from Ponce to Arecibo, going across Adjuntas and Utuado. In 1885, it is believed that the road was under construction.
Nowadays, the main road to Adjuntas is PR-10, that connects the cities of Ponce in the south and Arecibo in the north, going across Adjuntas in the center. Before the PR-10 was built, roads like the PR-123, and other small roads were used to reach town.
There is also a small airport in Adjuntas that caters to private airplanes.
Adjuntas has 30 bridges.
All municipalities in Puerto Rico are administered by a mayor, elected every four years. The current mayor of Adjuntas is Jaime H. Barlucea, of the New Progressive Party (PNP). He was elected at the 2004 general elections in a close election against incumbent Roberto Vera Monroig. Barlucea has been reelected three times since (2008, 2012, and 2016).
The city belongs to the Puerto Rico Senatorial district V, which is represented by two Senators. In 2016, Luis A. Berdiel Rivera and Nelson Cruz, from the New Progressive Party, were elected as District Senators.
Coat of ArmsEdit
The coat of arms of Adjuntas is divided in two. The left side features a shepherd's staff crossed with a yarnwinder in a purple field. They symbolize the Old Testament patriarchs, representing Saint Joachim and Saint Anne, parents of the Virgin Mary. An eight-pointed star sits above them representing the Virgin.
The right side of the coat of arms is divided in three fields. The upper and lower field have green crosses in white fields. The crosses, known as "flory or fleury" are also present in the symbols of Coamo, because of the relationship between both towns. Two bells lie in the middle field, also a representation of the name of "Adjuntas".
Two coffee branches surround the coat of arms, representing Adjuntas location and its importance in the coffee industry of the island. The castle at the top represents the title of village given to Adjuntas by Spain in 1894.
The flag of Adjuntas has similar symbolisms. A white diagonal stripe divides the flag in two triangles. The upper one is purple, while the lower one is green. In the middle of each triangle lies a white "cross fleury". The white color symbolizes purity, while purple represents Saint Joachim's cloth and green the nature of the town.
The anthem of Adjuntas was written by José Nieves Pérez and is called "Adjuntas, mi amor".
Adjuntas has several nicknames. One is "La ciudad del gigante dormido" ("The city of the sleeping giant"). This is a reference to one of the mountains of the city, which is compared to a "sleeping giant". Another nickname is "La Suiza de Puerto Rico" ("The Switzerland of Puerto Rico") which is a reference to Adjuntas' relatively low temperatures. Adjuntas has an average yearly weather of 70 degrees Fahrenheit. Finally, Adjuntas is also called "La tierra de lagos" ("The land of lakes") because of its many waterholes.
Among the notable Adjunteños are the following:
- Aristides A. Moll Boscana - Poet, writer, translator and politician. He was the first Puerto Rican to write a complete modernista poetry book: Mi misa rosa (1905). In United States he worked as a technical writer for the federal government, as a translator of the first Spanish-language edition of the Journal of the American Medical Association, and as Secretary of the Pan American Sanitary Bureau in Washington, DC, where he edited the Latin American edition of its bulletin. He participated of many Latin American public health conferences, the first World Health Organization conference in Paris, France, and represented El Salvador during the WHO constitutional conference in New York. He wrote many public health related essays and prepared two bilingual (Spanish - English) medical dictionaries and a Spanish medical manual for physicians. He published Aesculapius in Latin America, a history of medicine in the Americas.
- César Luis González - The first Puerto Rican pilot in the United States Army Air Forces and the first Puerto Rican pilot to die in World War II. His name is listed on the "Roll of Honor" of the 314th Troop Carrier Group World War II and Adjuntas has honored his memory by naming a street "Calle Cesar González" after him.
- Norman Maldonado - One of Puerto Rico's leading hematologists and former president of the University of Puerto Rico.
- "American FactFinder - Results". factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-07-01. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- "Adjuntas Normals". srh.noaa.gov. Archived from the original on 2016-01-12. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Se siente el frío navideño en la montaña: Pero, la costa de la isla sigue caliente. Archived 2018-12-18 at the Wayback Machine El Nuevo Dia. 18 December 2018. Accessed 18 December 2018.
- Orígenes y Fundación Archived 2012-05-23 at the Wayback Machine on Historia de Adjuntas
- Coffee Growers Try to Revive a Toast of Cafe Society. Archived 2018-12-26 at the Wayback Machine Abby Goodnough. The New York Times. (A version of this article appears in [The New York Times print version] on July 24, 2005, with the headline: "Adjuntas Journal; Coffee Growers Try to Revive a Toast of Cafe Society.") 24 July 2005. Accessed 25 December 2018.
- El Impacto de la Real Cédula de Gracia en Adjuntas en 1815 Archived 2011-09-19 at the Wayback Machine on Interamerican University of Puerto Rico; Martínez Román, José A.
- Roosevelt in Puerto Rico Archived 2013-07-26 at the Wayback Machine on Historia de Adjuntas
- "Casa Pueblo". Archived from the original on 2014-12-07. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- Bauzá, Nydia (October 27, 2014). "Legislatura aprobará proyecto del Bosque Modelo esta semana". El Nuevo Día. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- "Inauguran la Escuela Bosque en Adjuntas". El Nuevo Día. August 17, 2013. Archived from the original on 2014-12-25. Retrieved December 5, 2014.
- "Adjuntas Municipality General Info (Location, Square Miles, Economy and Geography)". enciclopediapr.org. Fundación Puertorriqueña de las Humanidades (FPH). Retrieved 14 February 2019.
- "Pasajes Históricos del Siglo XIX". Historia de Adjuntas. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Calvo Almodóvar, Damarich M. (15 July 2009). "En las entrañas de la Cordillera Central". La Perla del Sur. p. 22. Archived from the original on 2012-05-29. Retrieved November 2, 2011.
- "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico". USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS.
- "Preliminary Locations of Landslide Impacts from Hurricane Maria, Puerto Rico" (PDF). USGS Landslide Hazards Program. USGS.
- Puerto Rico:2010:population and housing unit counts.pdf (PDF). U.S. Dept. of Commerce, Economics and Statistics Administration, U.S. Census Bureau. 2010.
- Picó, Rafael; Buitrago de Santiago, Zayda; Berrios, Hector H. Nueva geografía de Puerto Rico: física, económica, y social, por Rafael Picó. Con la colaboración de Zayda Buitrago de Santiago y Héctor H. Berrios. San Juan Editorial Universitaria, Universidad de Puerto Rico,1969.
- Gwillim Law (20 May 2015). Administrative Subdivisions of Countries: A Comprehensive World Reference, 1900 through 1998. McFarland. p. 300. ISBN 978-1-4766-0447-3. Retrieved 25 December 2018.
- "Map of Adjuntas at the Wayback Machine" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-04-17. Retrieved 2018-12-29.
- "US Census Barrio-Pueblo definition". factfinder.com. US Census. Archived from the original on 2017-05-13. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- "Adjuntas Normals". San Juan, PR: National Weather Service Weather Forecast Office. Archived from the original on 2011-05-12. Retrieved April 18, 2011.
- "Population and Housing Unit Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on 2017-01-08. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on April 26, 2015. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "Report of the Census of Porto Rico 1899". War Department, Office Director Census of Porto Rico. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "Table 3-Population of Municipalities: 1930, 1920, and 1910" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "Table 4-Area and Population of Municipalities, Urban and Rural: 1930 to 1950" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2014.
- "Table 2 Population and Housing Units: 1960 to 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. Retrieved September 21, 2017.
- "American FactFinder - Results | U.S. Census Bureau". factfinder2.census.gov. Archived from the original on 2014-07-01. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Población de Puerto Rico por Municipios Archived 2013-07-26 at the Wayback Machine on CEEPUR
- Censo 2010 on ElectionsPuertoRico
- "Radiografía 2012 - Adjuntas". El Nuevo Día. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- Ruíz Kuilan, Gloria (2012). "Dormida la economía de Adjuntas". El Nuevo Día. Archived from the original on 2012-04-29. Retrieved 2012-05-11.
- "Pasajes Históricos del Siglo XIX - Turismo". Historia de Adjuntas. Archived from the original on 2013-07-26. Retrieved 2012-05-13.
- Castillo de los Niños en Adjuntas Archived 2012-03-24 at the Wayback Machine on NotasBreves
- Adjuntas contará con su propio castillo infantil Archived 2013-07-27 at the Wayback Machine on Primera Hora
- "Leyes del 2001". Lex Juris Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- "Comunidades Especiales de Puerto Rico" (in Spanish). 8 August 2011. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- "Evoluciona el proyecto de Comunidades Especiales". El Nuevo Dia (in Spanish). 24 February 2017. Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- ElVocero.com, Por. "Ya es ley Oficina para el Desarrollo Socioeconómico y Comunitario". El Vocero de Puerto Rico (in Spanish). Retrieved 24 June 2019.
- Rivera Quintero, Marcia (2014), El vuelo de la esperanza:Proyecto de las Comunidades Especiales Puerto Rico, 1997-2004 (Primera edición ed.), San Juan, Puerto Rico Fundación Sila M. Calderón, p. 273, ISBN 978-0-9820806-1-0
- "Adjuntas - Educación antes del 1898". Historia de Adjuntas. Archived from the original on 2017-12-26. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
- "Hospital Castañer". Hospital Castañer. Archived from the original on 2017-12-16. Retrieved 2017-12-26.
- Patron Saint Festivals Archived 2012-05-23 at the Wayback Machine on Welcome to Puerto Rico
- Pariser, Harry S. (2003). Explore Puerto Rico, Fifth Edition. San Francisco: Manatee Press. pp. 52–55. Retrieved 10 February 2019.
- Con vida los Gigantes de Adjuntas on Primera Hora; Ayala Gordián, José (November 22, 2011)
- Standing Temporada Regular 2012 on Federacion Puertorriqueña de Volibol
- Pasajes Históricos del Siglo XIX - Sobre Caminos Archived 2013-07-26 at the Wayback Machine on Historia de Adjuntas
- Adjuntas Airport on Google Maps
- "Adjuntas Bridges". National Bridge Inventory Data. US Dept. of Transportation. Retrieved 19 February 2019.
- Elecciones Generales 2004 - Alcalde de Adjuntas Archived 2012-11-11 at the Wayback Machine on CEEPUR.org
- Elecciones Generales 2008 - Alcalde de Adjuntas Archived 2011-11-20 at the Wayback Machine on CEEPUR
- Elecciones Generales 2016: Escrutinio General Archived 2016-12-21 at the Wayback Machine on CEEPUR
- "Adjuntas - Himno, Bandera y Escudo". adjuntas1.tripod.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-23. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Adjuntas Archived 2013-04-23 at the Wayback Machine on SalonHogar.com
- Adjuntas Archived 2012-06-08 at the Wayback Machine on PRFrogui
- "ROLL OF HONOR of the 314th Troop Carrier Group" (PDF). worldwar2pilots.net. Archived from the original (PDF) on March 25, 2012. Retrieved November 19, 2015.
- Wintrobe, Maxwell Myer (1985). Hematology, the blossoming of a science: a story of inspiration and effort. Lea & Febiger. p. 236. ISBN 978-0-8121-0961-0.