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In number theory, an additive function is an arithmetic function f(n) of the positive integer n such that whenever a and b are coprime, the function of the product is the sum of the functions:[1]

f(ab) = f(a) + f(b).

Contents

Completely additiveEdit

An additive function f(n) is said to be completely additive if f(ab) = f(a) + f(b) holds for all positive integers a and b, even when they are not co-prime. Totally additive is also used in this sense by analogy with totally multiplicative functions. If f is a completely additive function then f(1) = 0.

Every completely additive function is additive, but not vice versa.

ExamplesEdit

Example of arithmetic functions which are completely additive are:

  • The restriction of the logarithmic function to N.
  • The multiplicity of a prime factor p in n, that is the largest exponent m for which pm divides n.
  • a0(n) - the sum of primes dividing n counting multiplicity, sometimes called sopfr(n), the potency of n or the integer logarithm of n (sequence A001414 in the OEIS). For example:
a0(4) = 2 + 2 = 4
a0(20) = a0(22 · 5) = 2 + 2+ 5 = 9
a0(27) = 3 + 3 + 3 = 9
a0(144) = a0(24 · 32) = a0(24) + a0(32) = 8 + 6 = 14
a0(2,000) = a0(24 · 53) = a0(24) + a0(53) = 8 + 15 = 23
a0(2,003) = 2003
a0(54,032,858,972,279) = 1240658
a0(54,032,858,972,302) = 1780417
a0(20,802,650,704,327,415) = 1240681
  • The function Ω(n), defined as the total number of prime factors of n, counting multiple factors multiple times, sometimes called the "Big Omega function" (sequence A001222 in the OEIS). For example;
Ω(1) = 0, since 1 has no prime factors
Ω(4) = 2
Ω(16) = Ω(2·2·2·2) = 4
Ω(20) = Ω(2·2·5) = 3
Ω(27) = Ω(3·3·3) = 3
Ω(144) = Ω(24 · 32) = Ω(24) + Ω(32) = 4 + 2 = 6
Ω(2,000) = Ω(24 · 53) = Ω(24) + Ω(53) = 4 + 3 = 7
Ω(2,001) = 3
Ω(2,002) = 4
Ω(2,003) = 1
Ω(54,032,858,972,279) = 3
Ω(54,032,858,972,302) = 6
Ω(20,802,650,704,327,415) = 7

Example of arithmetic functions which are additive but not completely additive are:

ω(4) = 1
ω(16) = ω(24) = 1
ω(20) = ω(22 · 5) = 2
ω(27) = ω(33) = 1
ω(144) = ω(24 · 32) = ω(24) + ω(32) = 1 + 1 = 2
ω(2,000) = ω(24 · 53) = ω(24) + ω(53) = 1 + 1 = 2
ω(2,001) = 3
ω(2,002) = 4
ω(2,003) = 1
ω(54,032,858,972,279) = 3
ω(54,032,858,972,302) = 5
ω(20,802,650,704,327,415) = 5
  • a1(n) - the sum of the distinct primes dividing n, sometimes called sopf(n) (sequence A008472 in the OEIS). For example:
a1(1) = 0
a1(4) = 2
a1(20) = 2 + 5 = 7
a1(27) = 3
a1(144) = a1(24 · 32) = a1(24) + a1(32) = 2 + 3 = 5
a1(2,000) = a1(24 · 53) = a1(24) + a1(53) = 2 + 5 = 7
a1(2,001) = 55
a1(2,002) = 33
a1(2,003) = 2003
a1(54,032,858,972,279) = 1238665
a1(54,032,858,972,302) = 1780410
a1(20,802,650,704,327,415) = 1238677

Multiplicative functionsEdit

From any additive function f(n) it is easy to create a related multiplicative function g(n) i.e. with the property that whenever a and b are coprime we have:

g(ab) = g(a) × g(b).

One such example is g(n) = 2f(n).

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Erdös, P., and M. Kac. On the Gaussian Law of Errors in the Theory of Additive Functions. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1939 April; 25(4): 206–207. online

Further readingEdit

  • Janko Bračič, Kolobar aritmetičnih funkcij (Ring of arithmetical functions), (Obzornik mat, fiz. 49 (2002) 4, pp. 97–108) (MSC (2000) 11A25)