Open main menu

Action Park was an amusement and water park located in Vernon, New Jersey, on the grounds of the Vernon Valley/Great Gorge ski resort. The park consisted primarily of water-based attractions and originally opened to the public in 1978 under the ownership of Great American Recreation (GAR).[1]

Action Park
Action Park logo with "where you're the center of the action!" tagline.png
SloganWhere You're the Center of the Action!
LocationVernon, New Jersey, U.S.
Coordinates41°11′26″N 74°30′27″W / 41.19056°N 74.50750°W / 41.19056; -74.50750
OwnerGreat American Recreation
OpenedMay 26, 1978
ClosedSeptember 2, 1996

Action Park featured three separate attraction areas: the Alpine Center, Motorworld, and Waterworld. The latter was one of the first modern American water parks.[2] Many of its attractions were unique, attracting thrill-seekers from across the New York metropolitan area. Action Park's popularity went hand-in-hand with a reputation for poorly designed rides, under-trained, under-aged staff,[3] intoxicated guests and staff, and a consequently poor safety record. At least six people are known to have died as a result of mishaps on rides at the park, and it was given nicknames such as "Traction Park",[3] "Accident Park", and "Class Action Park".[4] Little effort was made by state regulators despite a history of repeat violations. In its later years, personal injury lawsuits led to the closure of more and more rides, and eventually the entire park in 1996.

On February 9, 1998, resort developer Intrawest announced the purchase of the majority of the Vernon Valley/Great Gorge ski area, including Action Park and other developable real estate lands that GAR owned.[5] After a massive overhaul, which included revamping rides and removing attractions deemed either outright unsafe or inappropriate relative to Intrawest's vision of the park,[6] the waterpark was reopened as Mountain Creek Waterpark.

Contents

HistoryEdit

The idea for the park began in 1976 when Eugene Mulvihill and his company Great American Recreation (GAR), the owners of the recently combined Vernon Valley/Great Gorge ski area, wanted to find a way to generate revenue during the summer. That year they followed the trend of many other ski areas and opened a 2,700-foot-long (820 m) alpine slide down one of the steep ski trails.[7] For the summer of 1978, Mulvihill added two water slides and a go-kart track, and named the collection of rides the "Vernon Valley Summer Park".[8] The following year, more water slides and a small deep-water swimming pool, as well as tennis courts and a softball field, were added to what became known as the Waterworld section of "Action Park". By 1980, Motorworld had been carved out of swampy lands the ski area owned across Route 94. Combined, these areas formed one of North America's earliest modern water parks.[3]

Ultimately, the small park consisting of the alpine slide and two water slides evolved to a major destination with 75 rides (35 motorized, self-controlled rides and 40 water slides).[3]

Action Park's most successful years were the early- and mid-1980s. Most rides were still operating, and the park's dangerous reputation had not yet developed. In 1982, two guests died at the park within a week of each other, leading to the permanent closure of one ride.[9] Despite this, people continued to come in massive numbers. The park's fortunes began to turn with two deaths in the summer of 1984, and the legal and financial problems that stemmed from the ensuing lawsuits. A state investigation of misconduct in the leasing of state land to Action Park led to a 110-count grand jury indictment against the nine related companies that ran the park and their executives for operating an unauthorized insurance company.[10] Many took pretrial intervention to avoid prosecution; CEO Eugene Mulvihill pleaded guilty that November to five insurance fraud-related charges.[11] Still, attendance remained high and the park remained profitable, at least on paper.

The park entertained over one million visitors per year during the 1980s, with as many as 12,000 coming on some of the busiest weekends.[3] Park officials said this made the injury and death rate statistically insignificant. Nevertheless, the director of the emergency room at a nearby hospital said they treated from five to ten victims of park accidents on some of the busiest days, and the park eventually bought the township of Vernon extra ambulances to keep up with the volume.[3] In September 1989, GAR negotiated a deal with International Broadcasting Corporation that would result in the sale of Vernon Valley/Great Gorge, and Action Park, for $50 million.[12] IBC, however, backed out of the deal, feeling the site was not suitable for their needs upon further inspections of the properties.[13][14]

By the 1990s, the Action Park was being advertised as the world's largest water park.[15][16] Additionally, the park launched a website on which visitors could find information about rides, directions to the park, and lodging, and even enter a lottery for a chance to win park tickets.[17][18] In September 1991, Great American Recreation attempted to petition the Vernon Township Committee to put a referendum on the November ballot that, if passed, would have legalized the operation of games of skill and chance at Action Park. On September 23, the petition was rejected by the committee because only 643 of the 937 signatures on the petition came from registered voters. [19]

A few rides were closed and dismantled due to costly settlements and rising insurance premiums in the 1990s, and the park's attendance began to suffer as a recession early in that decade reduced the number of visitors. In early 1995, GAR operated Vernon Valley/Great Gorge and Action Park with no liability insurance.[20] New Jersey did not require it, and GAR found it more economical to go to court than purchase liability insurance, since they relied on their own self-insurance.[21][22] However, they ultimately purchased liability insurance from Evanston Insurance Company in May of that year to cover Action Park and the skiing facilities.[23] As 1995 progressed, GAR's financial woes continued to accumulate. First Fidelity Bank, who lent $19 million to GAR and some 15 other connected corporations, filed suit against them in an effort to begin the process of foreclosing on the debt owed to them.[24] Law firms owed money for services rendered between 1991 and 1993 also began filing suit.[25] As November approached, GAR negotiated a deal with Noramco Capital Corp. and the Praedium Fund of CS First Boston, in which they would purchase the debt owed to First Fidelity, temporarily fending off an impending foreclosure.[26]

In February 1996, the creditors who had taken on GAR's debt petitioned to force GAR into bankruptcy over the $14 million owed by the struggling company.[27] GAR filed for Chapter 11 protection that following March, but remained optimistic that they could regain their financial footing "within a year."[28]

Action Park closed at the end of the season as usual on Labor Day, September 2, 1996. As the 1997 summer season approached, GAR remained optimistic that Action Park would open as expected on June 14, in spite of massive layoffs that occurred at the end of the prior ski season.[29] The opening date was pushed back to June 28,[30] then mid July.[31] On June 25, 1997, GAR announced the cessation of all its operations, including Action Park.[32]

Following the demise of GAR in 1997, Praedium Recovery Fund purchased the Vernon Valley/Great Gorge resort, including Action Park, for $10 million.[33] The investment group put Angel Projects in charge of managing the resort, and aimed to spend $20 million to upgrade the ski resort's equipment and trails and to remodel the water park.[34] Canadian resort developer Intrawest, however, purchased the park and surrounding ski area in February 1998. The company revamped the Waterworld section of Action Park and reopened it for the 1998 season as Mountain Creek Waterpark, while the Motorworld and Alpine Center sections were demolished.[35]

Alpine CenterEdit

Action Park Gladiator ChallengeEdit

The Gladiator Challenge attraction, loosely based on the television series American Gladiators, opened in 1992. It allowed guests to compete against other guests in an obstacle course, and against park-employed "Gladiators" in jousting matches. Former bodybuilders Michael and Vince Mancuso designed the attraction, and the employees that guests would compete against in the jousting matches were found by scouting local gyms.[36] Over the course of a day, there were 3 shows, with the guests that ran the fastest obstacle course times in the earlier shows brought back to compete against each other later in the day.[36] By 1995 the attraction was removed and replaced with a beach volleyball court.

Alpine slideEdit

Action Park's 2,700-foot-long (820 m) alpine slide descended the mountain beneath one of the ski area's chairlifts, which provided guests access to the top of the slide. Riders sat on small sleds that had only a brake control stick, and rode down the slide in long chutes built into the slope. The ride, and more specifically the sleds, became notorious for causing injuries. The stick that was supposed to control the sled's speed in practice offered just two options on the infrequently maintained vehicles: extremely slow, and a speed described by one former employee as "death awaits".[3] The chutes the sleds travelled in were made of concrete, fiberglass, and asbestos, which led to serious abrasions on riders who took even mild falls. The tendency of guests to ride in bathing suits made the problem worse. The path underneath the chairlift resulted in verbal harassment and spitting from passengers going up for their turn.[37]

The slide led to the first fatality at the park, a head injury suffered in 1980 by an employee whose sled ran off the track; he then fell down a large embankment and hit his head on a rock, killing him. Hay bales at the curves were put in place in an attempt to cushion the impact of guests whose sleds jumped the track, a frequent occurrence. While park officials regularly asserted its safety, in the early years of the park the slide was responsible for the bulk of the accidents, injuries, lawsuits, and state citations for safety violations.[3] According to state records, in 1984 and 1985 the alpine slide produced 14 fractures and 26 head injuries.[3]

When Intrawest reopened the water park as Mountain Creek in spring 1998, they announced the slide would remain open for one final season. However, riders were required to wear helmets and kneepads. The last day of the slide's operation was September 6 of that year, the day before the park closed for the season, as that year's Labor Day was rainy and the slide had to be closed.

The chutes were torn out afterwards, but the route can still be seen from the gondola that replaced the chairlift.[3] The resort's mountain bike route travels down the site, and crosses over a few wooden footbridges that provided access over the alpine slide. Mountain Creek recently introduced an alpine coaster, which combines elements of an alpine slide and a roller coaster.

Snapple Snap-Up Whipper Snapper RideEdit

In 1991, Action Park opened up a 70-foot-tall (21 m), two-station bungee jumping tower near the alpine slide. The next summer, the tower was upgraded to four jumping stations.[38] Guests could not drop very far, however, and were tethered to a weight that prevented them from bouncing back up to the top of the tower. The attraction closed with the park in 1996.

Skateboard parkEdit

A skatepark briefly existed near the ski area's ski school building, but closed after one season due to poor design. Bowls were separated by pavement, which in many cases did not meet the edges smoothly. Former park employee Tom Fergus was quoted in the magazine Weird NJ as saying that the "skate park was responsible for so many injuries we covered it up with dirt and pretended it never existed".[39]

TransmobileEdit

The Transmobile was a monorail that took riders from the Alpine Center across Route 94 to the Cobblestone Village shopping complex and the park's Motorworld section. Riders would sit sideways in cars built for two people. Each stop had two stations, one for guests heading towards the Alpine Center, and one for guests heading to Motorworld. Rides were one way, and riders were not allowed to stay on the ride and travel round-trip without getting off at either end. This restriction sometimes caused conflicts between park staff, and riders who either did not understand—-or did not want to follow the rules.[40]

Much of the Transmobile was dismantled when Intrawest took over the park in 1998. However, the Cobblestone Village station remains in place, as does the right of way through the Village's mini golf course.[41]

MotorworldEdit

Action Park's Motorworld section consisted of rides based around powered vehicles and boats on the west side of Route 94, opposite the main part of the park. This area closed with Action Park in 1996 and never reopened; they have since been replaced with a condominium development, a restaurant, and additional parking for the Mountain Creek ski resort.

Land ridesEdit

  • Super Go Karts: The Super Go Karts allowed guests to drive around a small loop track at a speed of about 20 mph (32 km/h), controlled by the governor devices on the karts. However, park employees knew how to circumvent the governors by wedging tennis balls into them, and they were known to do so for guests. As a result, an otherwise standard small-engine kart ride became an opportunity to play bumper cars at 50 mph (80 km/h), and many injuries resulted from head-on collisions.[3] Also, the kart's engines were poorly maintained and some riders were overcome by gasoline fumes as they drove.[3]
  • LOLA Cars: The LOLA Cars were miniature open-cockpit race cars on a longer track. Extra money was charged to drive them, and they, too, could be adjusted for speed by park employees, with similarly harmful consequences to riders.[3] Former employees have said that, after park management briefly set up a microbrewery nearby, employees would break into the brewery, steal the beer, and then take the cars out and ride them on Route 94.[39]
  • Battle Action Tanks: Battle Action Tanks was one of the most popular rides in Motorworld, and it was featured prominently in television ads. For an additional fee, guests could enter a chainlink fence-enclosed area and operate small tanks for five minutes at a time. The tanks were equipped with tennis ball cannons that enabled riders to shoot at a sensor prominently mounted on each tank. If hit, the tank stopped operating for 15 seconds, while other guests often took advantage of the delay to hit the disabled vehicle with more fire. Visitors on the outside could also utilize less-costly cannons mounted on the perimeter fence. When workers had to enter the cage to attend to a stuck or crashed tank, which often happened several times a day, they were commonly pelted with tennis balls, despite prohibitions against such behavior. This gave the ride a reputation for being more dangerous for the employees than the guests,[3] making it one of the least popular places to work in the park. It is not known if there were any serious injuries from the tank ride. As of 2018, the area has not been redeveloped and only a vacant lot remains.

Watercraft ridesEdit

  • Super Speedboats: The Super Speedboats were set up in a small pond, known by park staff to be heavily infested with snakes.[3] They could be driven around a small island at 35-40 mph (56–64 km/h). While, unlike the land vehicles, there was no way to tamper and increase their speed, many riders nonetheless used them to play bumper boats, and one seriously inebriated rider had to be rescued by the attendant lifeguard after his boat capsized following a collision.[3]
  • Bumper Boats: Bumper Boats was a supposedly safer ride than the Super Speedboats, but the engines often leaked gasoline, at least once requiring medical attention for one rider who got too much of it on his skin. Tall riders also often were unable to fit their legs on the small-sized boats, resulting in them hanging off of the sides of the boats and being fractured during collisions.[3]

Air ridesEdit

  • Space Shot: The Space Shot attraction was a tower drop ride, common in many amusement parks. This ride was opened for the park's final season in 1996, and again under Mountain Creek management in 1998. In July 1998 the ride was purchased by the Six Flags-owned La Ronde theme park in Montreal, Quebec.[42]
  • Sling Shot: Sling Shot was a bungee cord ride in which two riders sat in a seat and were strapped in while the ride was shot up in the air and supported by a bungee cord. Riders looped upside down. There are a few similar rides still standing in a handful of major amusement parks, the most common name being the Slingshot found at many Six Flags parks, but they are upcharge attractions (an additional charge to admission) due to insurance issues. At Action Park, the extra fee was only $5. This particular ride was open from 1993 to 1995. "We often wondered how many whiplash cases came out of that ride", one former employee recalled.[4]

WaterworldEdit

Water-based attractions made up half of the park's rides and accounted for the greatest share of its casualty count. Mountain Creek Waterpark and its currently revived Action Park still operates some of these attractions. In addition, there was also a miniature golf course as well as standard pools and rides for children. These were sometimes smaller, safer versions of the park's main attractions.

Cannonball LoopEdit

 
Cannonball Loop, the infamous looping water slide, was only opened for brief periods in Action Park's existence.

In the mid-1980s GAR built an enclosed water slide, not unusual for that time; in fact, the park already had several such slides. On this one, however, they decided to build a complete vertical loop at the end, similar to that of a roller coaster.[43] The resulting slide, called the Cannonball Loop, was so intimidating, that employees have reported they were offered a hundred dollars to test it. Fergus, who described himself as "one of the idiots" who took the offer, said, "$100 did not buy enough booze to drown out that memory."[39]

The slide was opened for only one month in summer 1985 before it was closed at the order of the state's Advisory Board on Carnival Amusement Ride Safety, a highly unusual move at the time.[3] One worker told a local newspaper that "there were too many bloody noses and back injuries" from riders, and it was widely rumored, and reported in Weird NJ, that some of the test dummies sent down before it opened had been dismembered and decapitated.[3] A rider also reportedly got stuck at the top of the loop due to insufficient water pressure, and a hatch had to be installed at the bottom of the slope to allow for future extractions.[3]

The ride supposedly reopened a few more times over the years. In the summers of 1995 and 1996, it was opened for several days before further injuries forced its permanent shutdown.

Those who rode the Cannonball Loop have said that more safety measures were taken than was otherwise common at the park. Riders were weighed, hosed down with cold water, instructed to remove jewelry, and then carefully instructed in how they had to position their bodies to complete the ride.[44] For the remainder of the park's existence, Cannonball Loop remained visible near the entrance of Waterworld. It was dismantled shortly after the park closed.

In 2014, video footage that appeared to show riders going down the Cannonball Loop was unearthed and published online.[45]

Other notable water attractionsEdit

  • The Tidal Wave Pool: The first patron death occurred here in 1982; another visitor drowned in this common water-park attraction five years later. It was, however, the number of people the lifeguards saved from a similar fate that made this the only Waterworld attraction to gain its own nickname, "The Grave Pool".[3] It was 100 feet (30 m) wide by 250 feet (76 m) long and could hold 500 to 1,000 people. Waves were generated for 20 minutes at a time with 10-minute intervals between them, and could reach as much as 40 inches (102 cm) in height.[3] It was not always obvious that pool depth increased as one got closer to the far end, and there were patrons who only remembered or realized that they could not swim when they were in over their heads and the waves were going full blast. Even those who could swim sometimes exhausted themselves, causing patrons to crowd the side ladders as the waves began, leading to many accidents.[3] Twelve lifeguards were on duty at all times, and on high-traffic weekends they were known to rescue as many as 30 people, compared to the one or two the average lifeguard might make in a typical season at a pool or lake.[3] Mountain Creek continues to operate this attraction as the "High Tide Wavepool" but made the pool much shallower.
  • Aqua Skoot: Invented by Ken Bailey in the early 1980s,[46] riders would carry a hard, solid plastic sled up to the top of the ride, go down a slide consisting of rollers akin to those found in factories, warehouses, or assembly lines, and end up in a pool that in most areas was no deeper than a puddle. The idea of the ride was to, once the sled hit the water, skip across the water like a stone. In order to do this the rider had to be in a certain position, leaned back. If the rider was not in this position, the sled would sink into the water as soon as it hit the pool, flinging the rider off head-first, which often resulted in head injuries. Other times, riders would be leaving the pool only to have others crash into them as they were riding. This ride consisted of parallel slides originally. At some point in the mid 1980s, a third slide was added. Each slide was 30 feet (9.1 m) long.[47] The slides were removed when Intrawest took over the resort in 1998; the pool was redesigned into the Lost Island River which is part of the children's section. The platform / tower riders climbed to ride the Aqua Skoot became the Treetop Cabanas in 2003.
  • Kamikaze: This was the more "tame" water slide near the Geronimo slides. It was blue in color and featured several drops and rises. Riders would lie on their backs with their arms and legs crossed and go down a "chute" which pitched steeply at first and then went up and down several times before ending in a pool. It survived the Mountain Creek redesign, but was removed and scrapped following the 2009 season.
  • The Kayak Experience: After the second visitor death in the park's history in 1982 occurred at this ride, it was closed permanently. It was an imitation whitewater course that used submerged electric fans to agitate the water above. Frequently the kayaks got stuck or tipped over, and people had to get out of them to remedy the situation.[3]
  • The Tarzan Swing: This was a steel arch hanging from a 20-foot (6.1 m)-long cable over a spring-fed pool. Patrons waited in long lines for the chance to hang from it, swing out over the water, then jump off as the beam reached its height. In early years the area patrons jumped off from was not over the water but a cushioned area. Some people who let go as soon as they started their swing would land on the cushion and then slide/crash into the water. In the mid-1980s the starting position was shifted so that patrons started over the water. Some patrons hung on too long and scraped their toes on the concrete at the far side. Others used the ride properly, but were then surprised to find out the water underneath was very cold. It was cold enough, in fact, that the lifeguards sometimes had to rescue people who were so surprised by the sudden chill that they could not swim out of the pool.[3] In 1984, one man died from a heart attack after experiencing the swing.[3]
  • Roaring Rapids: This was a standard raft-based whitewater ride. Reports that the park filed with the state in 1984 noted fractured femurs, collar bones and noses, and dislocated knees and shoulders. This attraction is still open. The left side is known as The Gauley and riders use a single tube. The right side is known as Thunder Run and is a double tube rafting ride.
  • Surf Hill: This ride, common to other water parks at the time, allowed patrons to slide down a water-slick sloped surface on mats into small puddles, until they reached a foam barrier after an upslope at the end. Barriers between lanes were minimal, and people frequently collided with each other on the way down, or at the end. The seventh lane was known as the "back breaker", due to its special kicker two-thirds of the way down intended to allow jumps and splashdowns into a larger puddle.[3] Employees at the park used to like eating at a nearby snack bar with a good view of the attraction, since it was almost guaranteed that they could see some serious injuries, lost bikini tops, or both.[3] Mountain Creek kept this attraction open through 2005, then reopened it in 2012.
  • Super Speed Water Slides: These two water slides, also known as Geronimo Falls, were set slightly apart from the rest of the park and took advantage of nearly vertical slopes to allow riders to attain higher speeds than usually possible. One started with riders going almost vertically downwards and was covered with screening for the first several feet. As barriers on the side of the slides were very low, lifeguards reminded every user to remain flat on their back with their arms at their side as they descended, since there was no way to ride it otherwise and stay on. The fall from both slides had the potential for very serious injury. Those who made it to the bottom found their progress arrested by water—which made a large splash—and then a small pool. Only one of these slides remains today; however, the track was replaced with one that was not as steep. The tracks the old slides followed are still visible. Today it is known as the H-2-Oh-No. Vertigo and Vortex, two adjacent enclosed tube slides, still use the same end splash pool that two of the other old speed slides used.[3]
  • Diving cliffs: The area around Roaring Rapids was (and still is) laid out like a kind of grotto, with many lower-intensity attractions. One was a pair of diving cliffs—one 23 feet (7 m), the other 18 feet (5.4 m)—above a 16-foot (5 m) deep pool. However, the pool below was not blocked off from those who might be swimming in or away from other attractions, and nothing at water level gave any indication to swimmers below that they could expect people to dive in right next to them—or right on top of them. The sole lifeguard on duty often had his or her hands full dealing with the results of those collisions.[37] Also, nonswimmers would jump off the cliffs, not fully appreciating how deep the water below was, and have to be rescued. Former employee Tom Fergus says the bottom of the pool was eventually painted white to make it easier to spot any bodies on the bottom. The large pool into which people jumped is no longer used for regular swimming, only to deposit used tubes.[39] Still operating, known as Canyon Cliffs.
  • Colorado River Ride: The Colorado River Ride, which still exists, is a 4-person raft ride that winds its way down a heavily wooded area on the side of the park, with numerous forks allowing riders to take different routes. Unlike in other parks, the river trough was crafted to look like a natural river bed, with jets in the bed at various points adding to the rapid roughness. Riders carried their rafts from the bottom of the ride up to the starting point. Once on the ride, riders would travel down a short incline, propelling them down the ride. As they make it past the first turn, it was common to gain speed. After a few turns, the riders would come to a fork.
    • The Main Fork: Riders would ride under a drenching waterfall into a dark tunnel with many twists, turns, and jagged rocks. Upon exiting the tunnel, riders would twist and turn some more until they reached a small rock pool, and slowly floated out. The final stretch of the river consisted of a large downhill portion complete with bumps, and a foot-high (30 cm) jump where the rafts would momentarily catch air and then slam back onto the surface.
    • The Alternative Forks: Riders would float along a relatively smooth path until they rounded a corner with a waterfall,[48] and another fork. One path would take riders back to the main path, and dump them at the tunnel's end. The other fork would reconnect with the main path before the rock pool.[49] Originally, a fork carried riders down a set of steep drops, before a curved drop into the main path right at the end.[50] In the late 1980s, this path was merged into the main pathway, creating the rock pool, and final hill, that are still in use today. Today, the first fork is closed off, but the points where the forks reconnect to the main path are still connected to the ride.[49]
Originally, riders rode this attraction two at a time, in yellow inflatable dinghies.[50] This was later replaced with large circular four-person rafts. In the Mountain Creek era, a lift was put in place that carried rafts to the beginning of the ride, eliminating the need for riders to carry them all the way up the hill. Because the ride trough was designed to look and feel like actual river bed, the ride was rough. It was not uncommon for people to hit heads with the other riders, or for the rafts to climb the walls after hitting them at high speed, so now they wear football helmets. A rider recounted to Weird NJ how a friend's mother suffered a broken nose when their raft was thrown into a rock wall.[51] On the curve before the first fork, it was common for rafts to get stuck – requiring riders to have to jump out, and push the raft – or wait for the raft behind them to hit them.[52] Inside the tunnel were jagged rocks, which could cause cuts or scrapes if riders placed their hands out.

The AerodiumEdit

The Aerodium is a skydiving simulator wind tunnel invented in Germany in 1984. In 1987, Action Park built and opened their own Aerodium in the Waterworld section of the park, becoming the first American amusement park to open an Aerodium. The attraction was operated by Aerodium Inc., who would act as a concessionaire for the park through 1997.[53] Stadium seating encircled the perimeter of the Aerodium, allowing friends and spectators to watch riders fly. Riders wearing a special skydiving suit, helmet, and earplugs would join the bodyflight instructor one by one on a trampoline-like netting directly over the fan. The instructor would grab each rider's wrists and guide the rider to fall forward, allowing the fan to lift the rider skyward. After a few seconds of flight, the attendant operating the fan would cut the power, causing the rider to fall onto the air cushions surrounding the fan. Park guests' flights were limited to a maximum of 6 or 7 feet (2 m) above the ground, approximately a foot or two over the instructor's head. The Aerodium also caused severe injuries, for example, when a rider instinctively tried to break his fall by extending his arm, which caused shoulder dislocation, severed nerves, and near-permanent paralysis of the arm.

Factors contributing to the park's safety recordEdit

A range of factors contributed to accidents at the park, from the design and construction of the rides themselves to the makeup of both visitors and staff, and lax government oversight.

Ride designEdit

Action Park and its defenders often pointed out that it was one of the first water parks in the nation and thus pioneered ideas that were later widely copied. This meant that visitors were using rides that had not been tested through practical use for very long. Ride designers may have had insufficient training in physics or engineering. "They seemed to build rides," one attendee recalled, "not knowing how they would work, and [then let] people on them."[54]

GAR, as its legal troubles would suggest, was accused of cutting corners to maximize its profits. For example, it was accused of building rides cheaply, sporadically maintaining many of them, and failing to renovate rides to take advantage of later safety improvements to its ideas made by other facilities. These practices may have taken place in a range of its operations, including customer safety. (In the park's last year, it kept part of the ski area open despite being unable to obtain liability insurance).

EmployeesEdit

The vast majority of workers at Action Park, at least the ones regularly seen by visitors, were teenagers. Jim DeSaye, a security director for the park, says he got that job at the age of 21, after having worked at the park for two years. His experience was not uncommon.[55]

Most were underaged, undertrained, often under the influence of alcohol and cared little for enforcing park rules and safety requirements.[citation needed] Height- and weight-based restrictions were often ignored.[citation needed]

VisitorsEdit

Since it was closer and slightly cheaper than Six Flags Great Adventure, Action Park attracted many visitors from urban enclaves of the New York metropolitan area. Many of them were often from lower-income neighborhoods where they had few, if any, opportunities to swim, much less learn how. The park greatly overestimated these abilities, and this was a factor in many accidents as well as the drownings, according to park officials. DeSaye faults management's decision to broaden the customer base by advertising in Spanish-language media as contributing to the accident rate, since few employees spoke Spanish and no written information was made available in that language.[55]

The staff's indifference to many of the park's own rules led to a similarly lawless culture among visitors, who generally liked the high level of control they had over their experience. Accidents were usually deemed by park employees to be the fault of the riders. A state official lamented that many water-slide accidents were due to guests who, in blatant violation of an explicitly posted rule, would often discard their mats midway down the slide and wait at a turn for their friends so they could go down together.[3]

Since many rides routed their lines so that those waiting could see every previous rider, many played to the audience with risque and bawdy behavior when it did finally come to be their turn. The Tarzan Swing in particular was known for outbursts of foul language (not always planned) and exhibitionism as people jumped off the swing in full view of the whole line behind them.[37]

Availability of alcohol on groundsEdit

The park also sold beer in many kiosks on the grounds, with similarly relaxed enforcement of the drinking age as with other restrictions in the park. Doctors treating the injured often reported that many of them were intoxicated.[3][55]

Lax regulatory climateEdit

Despite many citations for safety violations between 1979 and 1986, including allowing minors to operate some rides and failing to report accidents (which was unique among New Jersey's amusement parks), an investigation by the New Jersey Herald, Sussex County's main daily newspaper, later found that the park was fined only once. It was also unique in that department in that all other amusement parks were fined for first offenses—except Action Park. It asked if there was some sort of special relationship between GAR and the state.[3]

Some of the state's regulations failed to adequately address the situation. After the 1987 drowning, it was reported that the Tidal Wave Pool was considered a pool by the state, not a ride. Under state regulations at the time, that meant that the company merely had to keep the water clean and make sure that certified lifeguards were on duty.[3]

FatalitiesEdit

Six people are known to have died directly or indirectly from rides at Action Park:

  • July 8, 1980: A 19-year-old park employee was riding the Alpine Slide when his car jumped the track and his head struck a rock, killing him.[56]
  • July 24, 1982: A 15-year-old boy drowned in the Tidal Wave Pool.[56][57]
  • August 1, 1982: A 27-year-old man from Long Island got out of his tipped kayak on the Kayak Experience to right it. While doing so, he stepped on a grate that was either in contact with, or came too close to, a section of live wiring for the underwater fans that somehow became exposed and he suffered a severe electric shock, which sent him into cardiac arrest. Several other members of his family nearby were also injured. He was taken to a hospital in nearby Warwick, New York where he died later of the shock-induced cardiac arrest.[3][56] The park at first disputed that the electric current caused his death, saying there were no burns on his body, but the coroner responded that burns generally do not occur in a water-based electrocution.[3] The ride was drained and closed for the investigation. Accounts differed as to the extent of the exposed wiring: the park said it was "just a nick", while others argued it was closer to 8 inches (20 cm). The state's Labor Department found that the fan was properly maintained and installed and cleared the park of wrongdoing; however, it also said that the current had the possibility to cause bodily harm under certain circumstances.[56] The park claimed it had been vindicated, although it never reopened the ride, saying that people would be afraid to go on it afterwards.[3]
  • 1984 (Date Unknown): A fatal heart attack suffered by one visitor was unofficially believed to have been triggered by the shock of the cold water in the pool beneath the Tarzan Swing. The water on the ride and in that swimming area was 50-60 °F (10-16 °C) while other water areas were in the 70-80 °F (21-27 °C) range more typical of swimming pools. The Tarzan Swing and the Cannonball ride in this area were operated by spring water.[3]
  • August 27, 1984: A 20-year-old from Brooklyn drowned in the Tidal Wave Pool.[58]
  • July 19, 1987: An 18-year-old drowned in the Tidal Wave Pool.[56]

LegacyEdit

Action Park was a cultural touchstone for many Generation X-ers who grew up in North and Central Jersey, as well as nearby locales in New York and Connecticut. A popular list of "You Know You're from New Jersey When ..." that circulates in email begins with, "You've been seriously injured at Action Park."[59]

Some even credit the park for making them learn some difficult lessons. In 2000, one Matthew Callan recalled Action Park thus:

Chris Gethard, a writer for Weird NJ and the associated book series, concurs:

On August 1, 1993, MTV's Headbanger's Ball taped an episode at the park. The host, Riki Rachtman, interviewed and went on the rides with the band Alice In Chains.

Action Park was the topic of the first episode of the Relay FM podcast Ungeniused in June 2016, which explores the legacy of the park, how unsafe it was, and why people continued to visit it.

The original version of the park's notoriety for its unsafe reputation inspired a film by Jackass star Johnny Knoxville; filming started in March 2017 and wrapped in June 2017.[60][61][62] The film was released under the title Action Point by Paramount Pictures on June 1, 2018.[63]

2014 RevivalEdit

In 2010, the whole Mountain Creek ski area and water park was sold[64] to a group led by Eugene Mulvihill, the former owner of Great American Recreation and the owner of the adjacent Crystal Springs Resort; however, he died two years later.[65][66] Under the new ownership the name of the water park was changed back to Action Park, starting with the 2014 season.[67] In 2016, the Mountain Creek Waterpark name was restored to the park, thus retiring the Action Park name again.[68]

Spinoff locationsEdit

Pocono Action Park and MotorworldEdit

On April 14, 1980, Pocono Action Park Inc. was formed by Great American Recreation, which later opened Pocono Action Park and Motorworld. Located in the town of Tannersville, Pennsylvania, it had a Waterworld section with slides and tube rides, as well as a Motorworld section featuring many of the same racing themed attractions—including LOLA race cars and go-karts—as the Vernon park.[citation needed] By late 1991,[69] the park was closed. The rides were torn down in stages, and The Crossings Premium Outlets was built over the location. Even after the park closed, however, Pocono Action Park Inc. continues to exist, and is listed as an active business.[70]

Action MountainEdit

In June 1984, Stony Point Recreation, a subsidiary of GAR, opened Action Mountain in Pine Hill, New Jersey. The park offered an alpine slide, go-karts, LOLA race cars, bumper boats, speed slides, tube slides, swimming pools, as well as a diving platform.[71] By 1986, Stony Point Recreation had accumulated some $398,697 in back taxes owed to the town of Pine Hill, and in an effort to relieve the debt sold off the park.[72] In 1999, the site was redeveloped into the Pine Hill Golf Course.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Action Park Waterpark, Vernon NJ". Mountain Creek. Archived from the original on June 1, 2012. Retrieved April 3, 2014.
  2. ^ Arthur Levine. "The Action is back at Mountain Creek". About.com. Retrieved August 29, 2013.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al Austin, Joanne; "Revisiting Traction ... Er, Action, Park," Weird NJ, October 2005, pages 20–24
  4. ^ a b Jersey Ed; May 2006; "We Called it Accident Park" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 28.
  5. ^ http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Intrawest+Adds+Ninth+Resort+to+Network-a020216861 - Press release announcing Intrawest's purchase of Vernon Valley - Great Gorge's ski resort, Action Park, and GAR owned real estate
  6. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/19980425131249/http://www.actionpark.com/3-98.html - Internet archive copy of a press release on Mountain Creek's website announcing the waterpark's planned opening on June 15, 1998
  7. ^ "So What If There's No Snow, Go Sliding Down Hill Anyway" - Ocala Star-Banner, November 5, 1976 - https://news.google.com/newspapers?id=_o9PAAAAIBAJ&sjid=AAYEAAAAIBAJ&pg=3698%2C1193697
  8. ^ https://archive.org/stream/towntopicsprince3328unse/towntopicsprince3328unse_djvu.txt - Town Topics (Princeton, N.J), Sep. 13, 1978
  9. ^ "There was Nothing in the World Like Action park". Sometimes-Interesting. Retrieved 16 July 2015.
  10. ^ McKay, Martha; May 12, 2005; Ultimate wine snob Archived December 22, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.; New Jersey Herald, retrieved August 27, 2006.
  11. ^ New Jersey State Commission of Investigation, date not given, Concrete Results: Ensuring Justice, Saving Taxpayers' Money, 47, retrieved August 27, 2006.
  12. ^ "OWNER AGREES TO SELL ACTION PARK, SKI AREA" - The Record (New Jersey) - September 7, 1989
  13. ^ "FIRM BREAKS OFF DEAL FOR VERNON VALLEY" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - September 27, 1989
  14. ^ "GREAT GORGE DEAL ICED INT'L BROADCASTING AXES ITS PURCHASE OF SKI, ACTION AREAS" - The Record (New Jersey) - September 28, 1989
  15. ^ Action Park commercial from 1994 (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LoqAmcgovZw
  16. ^ MTV's Headbanger's Ball with Alice in Chains at Action Park, Vernon, NJ, July 1993 (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FpdCGfaxl7w
  17. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/19961227075424/http://www.actionpark.com/ - Internet Archive copy of actionpark.com from December 27th, 1996
  18. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/19970412161034/http://www.actionpark.com/ - Internet Archive copy of actionpark.com from April 12th, 1997
  19. ^ "VERNON REJECTS PETITION ON ACTION PARK GAMES" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - September 24, 1991
  20. ^ "N.J. SKI AREA HAS NO LIABILITY INSURANCE BIG ACCIDENT COULD BANKRUPT IT" - The Record (New Jersey) - February 14, 1995
  21. ^ "LARGEST SKI RESORT IN N.J. HAS NO LIABILITY INSURANCE" - Press of Atlantic City, The (NJ) - February 15, 1995
  22. ^ "VERNON VALLEY SKI RESORT RELIES ON OWN INSURANCE" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - February 15, 1995
  23. ^ "ACTION PARK, SKI AREA BUY COVERAGE" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - May 19, 1995
  24. ^ "SUSSEX RESORTS SUED IN STEP TO FORECLOSURE" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - May 20, 1995
  25. ^ "TROUBLES MOUNT FOR VERNON RESORTS AS LAWYERS SUE FOR $175,000 IN FEES" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - May 24, 1995
  26. ^ "VERNON RESORT GETS BAILED OUT, MULVIHILL BOWS OUT" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - November 14, 1995
  27. ^ "Debt avalanche threatens to bury ski resort Court petition seeks involuntary bankruptcy of Great American Recreation in Sussex" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - February 22, 1996
  28. ^ "Action Park, Vernon Valley seek court protection from creditors" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - April 3, 1996
  29. ^ "Great Gorge issues host of pink slips" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - April 19, 1997
  30. ^ "North Jersey". North Jersey.
  31. ^ "SEASON OF DISCONTENT Bankrupt Action Park remains out of action Great American exec cautiously optimistic on opening by July" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - June 11, 1997
  32. ^ "For Action Park, the summer's over" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - June 28, 1997
  33. ^ "Court accepts bid for ski area" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - September 12, 1997
  34. ^ "New owner to reopen Vernon Valley slopes" - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - October 18, 1997
  35. ^ "Days of beer and bungees end as Action Park goes `family' - Star-Ledger, The (Newark, NJ) - April 2, 1998
  36. ^ a b Rice, Bill (July 26, 1992). "'Action' fitting name for Northern New Jersey Amusement Park". The Daily Gazette (Schenectady, NY).
  37. ^ a b c d Gethard, Chris; October 2005, "Brothers in Wounded Arms (And Legs) Serving Together at Action Park," Weird NJ, 23.
  38. ^ https://news.google.com/newspapers?nid=1957&dat=19920726&id=9N5QAAAAIBAJ&sjid=UukMAAAAIBAJ&pg=1147,6299177 - "'Action' Fitting Name For Northern New Jersey Amusement Park" - The Daily Gazette - July 26, 1992.
  39. ^ a b c d Fergus, Tom; May 2006; "Another Action Park Employee Spills His Guts", in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29
  40. ^ http://thecenteroftheaction.blogspot.com/2010/05/showdown-at-transmobile.html "Showdown at the Transmobile" post at The Center of the Action blog
  41. ^ http://abnf.co/NJ-action_park.htm Abandoned But Not Forgotten's Action Park page
  42. ^ "CATAPULTED INTO AMUSEMENT PARK HISTORY" - The Record (New Jersey) - July 24, 1998
  43. ^ See picture on this discussion thread
  44. ^ Braybrook, Steve; May 2006; "A Survivor from Action Park Writes In", in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29.
  45. ^ Barry Petchesky. "Rare Video Of People Actually Riding Action Park's Infamous Water Slide". The Concourse. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  46. ^ http://www.slideshare.net/amusementrides/amusement-rides-by-bailey - Amusements by Bailey slideshow
  47. ^ http://articles.mcall.com/1990-07-29/entertainment/2760035_1_water-rides-water-slides-water-park/2 - "Plunge, If You Dare, Into The Watery Fun At New Jersey Park", The Morning Call, July 29, 1990
  48. ^ 1991 footage of Action Park (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1xXcQdVr1Zg
  49. ^ a b Mountain Creek Colorado River Ride footage from 2013 showing both points where the alternative pathways reconnected with the main path of the ride. (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyiD_lk-4Fk
  50. ^ a b 1987 footage of Action Park (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b0iJoL1Q9FY
  51. ^ Shpunder, Greg; May 2006; "Action Park Designed to Hurt People" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 28.
  52. ^ More Action Park footage from 1991 (Youtube link) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iz2gxQGF1Wc
  53. ^ http://www.aerodium.com/general_information.htm - The Aerodium Story, Aero Interactive Inc
  54. ^ a b Callan, Matthew; Nov. 22, 2000, In Memoriam: Action Park, Freezerbox.
  55. ^ a b c DeSaye, Jim; May 2006; "From Former Vermin Valley Great Gorge Manager" in "The Reaction to Traction at Action Park"; Weird NJ, 29.
  56. ^ a b c d e Water Ride Fatalities 1972-1997 at rideaccidents.com, retrieved January 12, 2006.
  57. ^ "Brooklyn Man Drowns in Pool At a Jersey Amusement Park". New York Times. August 27, 1984. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  58. ^ "18-Year-Old Drowns At Amusement Park". New York Times. July 20, 1987. Retrieved 2006-08-26.
  59. ^ "You Know You're from New Jersey When ..." at inav.net, retrieved January 10, 2006.
  60. ^ "Johnny Knoxville is done shooting the 'Action Park' movie!". New Jersey 101.5 – Proud to be New Jersey – New Jersey News Radio.
  61. ^ "Action Park movie will star Johnny Knoxville: report". 2 February 2017.
  62. ^ "Action Point". 1 June 2018 – via www.imdb.com.
  63. ^ Holub, Christian (March 21, 2018). "Johnny Knoxville runs a stunt-filled amusement park in Action Point trailer". Entertainment Weekly. Retrieved March 21, 2018.
  64. ^ Perone, Joseph (May 27, 2010). "Mountain Creek resort in N.J. sold to developer Gene Mulvihill". The Star-Ledger. Newark, NJ: Advance Publications. Retrieved September 12, 2010.
  65. ^ "'Visionary' developer Eugene Mulvihill dies". New Jersey Herald. 2012-10-27. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  66. ^ Hunnicutt, Trevor. "Franklin Templeton billionaire escapes contentious lawsuit". www.investmentnews.com. Retrieved 2018-08-11.
  67. ^ "The dangerous return of the world's most insane theme park - New York Post". New York Post. Retrieved 12 April 2015.
  68. ^ "Park Info - Mountain Creek Water Park". Mountain Creek Water Park. Retrieved 2018-08-12.
  69. ^ "http://www.videoparadise-sanjose.com/1990arcades.htm" A listing of amusement park locations that had arcades as of January 1st, 1991, which lists Pocono Action Park of Tannersville, PA
  70. ^ "http:/t/www.bizapedia.com/pa/POCONO-ACTION-PARK-INC.html" Business information for Pocono Action Park, Inc.
  71. ^ https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=G7IQMukct3E - WPHL 17 commercial block from the mid 80s with a commercial for Action Mountain
  72. ^ "Judge Approves Sale Of Action Mountain Site". Philadelphia Inquirer. Apr 5, 1989.

External linksEdit