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Actinidia polygama (also known as silver vine, cat powder and matatabi) is a nontoxic plant in the Actinidiaceae family. It grows in the mountainous areas of Japan and China at elevations between 500 and 1900 m.

Actinidia polygama
Actinidia polygama1SHSU.jpg
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Ericales
Family: Actinidiaceae
Genus: Actinidia
Species: A. polygama
Binomial name
Actinidia polygama
(Siebold & Zucc.) Maxim.

Silver vine can reach up to 5–6 m high at maturity. It is a deciduous climber and is frost tender. The petiole leaves are silver and white in color and 6–13 cm long and 4–9 cm wide. These colorful markings make the plant identifiable from afar, until the flowering season when the leaves turn completely green.

The flowering season lasts from late June to early July, in which the plant bears white flowers about 2.5 cm in diameter. The longevity of an individual flower is 2–3 d, when the plant also starts to develop small, yellow to yellow-red, egg-shaped, fleshy, and multiseeded fruits, which mature from September to October. The fruit is about 1.5 cm wide and 3.0–4.0 cm long. The inside of the fruit resembles the common kiwifruit, but it is orange in color rather than green.

The silver vine plant requires moist, well-drained soil, and partial shade to full sun. This fast-growing vine makes for good cover on a fence or trellis. It is becoming increasingly popular as an edible fruit crop.

Contents

UsesEdit

Traditional medicineEdit

Silver vine has been used for its medicinal benefits for centuries,[1] as a preventative health aid, is still commonly used as an alternative therapy for hypertension, arthritic pain,[2] and was investigated as treatment for cancer.[3][full citation needed][3] In traditional Chinese and Japanese medicine, it has been used for a wide range of health problems, including:

Heart tonic Rheumatism[2] Circulatory stimulant
Cystitis Arthritic pain[2] Hypertension
Cholesterol reduction Liver protection[4] Kidney disease
Cardiac ailments[5] Stroke

In Korean Buddhism, silver vine was soaked in traditional Korean sauces and used for diuresis, alleviation of pain, hypertension, genital troubles, and bronchitis.[6]

It is said that:
“Old, weary travelers, (come) back to life to eat the fruit of [silver vine] and then continue their journey”.[7]

Silver vine leaves also have a high content of flavonoids, terpenoids, saponins,[5] beta-carotene,[8]vitamin C and vitamin E.

CulinaryEdit

The fruit in the “acorn” shape can be salted and eaten raw, fried in oil, added to rice, or mixed with sesame seeds and mayonnaise to top salads. The fruit may also be fermented to make Matatabi sake and miso, a fruit wine, or used to extract the juice. The leaves, buds, and stems can also be ground into a powder or cut, steamed, and seeped to make tea. Adding mint or sugar can give variations in the tea.

ProductsEdit

Grinding the leaves and stems into a coarser grind than needed for the tea makes Matatabi grass, which is used as bath salts. The vine is used as material for folk crafts, and the sap is collected to make lotions.

PetsEdit

Silver vine (also called matatabi) has long been known to elicit euphoric response in cats.[9] It is the most popular cat treat in Asia, thus sometimes cited in manga as matatabi.[10] The reaction to silver vine is similar to the catnip response, but appears to be more intense.[11] Silver vine is a great alternative to catnip, and many cats who are immune to catnip will respond positively to silver vine powder made from dried fruit galls.[11] Typical behaviors include rolling, chin and cheek rubbing, drooling, and licking. The effect usually lasts between five and 30 minutes, and cats will usually visit silver vine again after about 20–30 minutes.[citation needed]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Konoshima, 1963
  2. ^ a b c Kim, YK; Kang, HJ; Lee, KT; Choi, JG; Chung, SH (2003). "Anti-inflammation activity of Actinidia polygama". Archives of pharmacal research. 26 (12): 1061–6. doi:10.1007/bf02994759. PMID 14723341. 
  3. ^ a b Yoshizawa, Yuko; Fukiya, Yoshihiro; Izumi, Yoshikatsu; Hata, Keishi; Iwashita, Jun; Murofushi, Noboru; Abe, Tatsuya (2002). "Induction of Apoptosis with an Extract of Actinidia polygama Fruit in the Promyelocytic Leukemia Cell Line HL-60" (PDF). Journal of Health Science. 48 (4): 303–309. doi:10.1248/jhs.48.303. 
  4. ^ Sakurai, H. (2005b.). Hepatoprotective effects of tea and extract powders from Silver Vine leaves. 26th World Congress and Exhibition of the ISF. Poster presentation, Prague, Czech Republic
  5. ^ a b Sakurai, H. (2005). Antihyperlipemic and antitumor effects of components of matatabi leaves. 26th World Congress and Exhibition of the ISF. Poster presentation, Prague, Czech Republic
  6. ^ Kim, H.; Song, M-J.; Potter, D. (2005). "Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism". Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 104 (1-2): 32–46. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.08.041. PMID 16216457. 
  7. ^ www.love-nature.jp 昔、疲れきった旅人が、マタタビの実を食べて生気を取り戻し、意気洋々とまた旅を続けたという名の由来が次に続く。
  8. ^ McGhie, T. K.; Ainge, G. D. (2002). "Color in fruit of the genus Actinidia: Carotenoid and chlorophyll compositions". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 50: 117–121. doi:10.1021/jf010677l. 
  9. ^ (Siebold.&Zucc.)Maxim. (2012). "Actinidia polygama - (Siebold.&Zucc.)Maxim". PFAF Database. PFAF. Retrieved 2015-01-09. 
  10. ^ See the Episode 8 of Hayate the Combat Butler (Season 2).
  11. ^ a b Bol, Sebastiaan (16 March 2017). "Responsiveness of cats (Felidae) to silver vine (Actinidia polygama), Tatarian honeysuckle (Lonicera tatarica), valerian (Valeriana officinalis) and catnip (Nepeta cataria)". BMC Veterinary Research. doi:10.1186/s12917-017-0987-6. PMID 28302120.