Achromobacter xylosoxidans

Achromobacter xylosoxidans (formerly Alcaligenes xylosoxidans) is a Gram-negative, aerobic, oxidase and catalase-positive, motile bacterium with peritrichous flagella, from the genus Achromobacter. It is generally found in wet environments. Achromobacter xylosoxidans can cause infections such as bacteremia,[3][4] especially in patients with cystic fibrosis.[5] In 2013, the complete genome of an A. xylosoxidans strain from a patient with cystic fibrosis was sequenced.[6]

Achromobacter xylosoxidans
Achromobacter xylosoxidans.tif
Scientific classification
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A. xylosoxidans
Binomial name
Achromobacter xylosoxidans
Yabuuchi and Yano 1981[1]
Type strain
ATCC 27061, BCRC 12839, CCM 2741, CCRC 12839, CCTM La 3521, CCUG 12689, CDC KC 1064, CDCKC1064, CECT 467 = Colección Española de Cultivos, CECT 927, CGMCC 1.2007, CIP 71.32, DSM 10346, DSM 2402, DSMZ 10346, DSMZ 2402, EY 543, GIFL 543, GIFU 543, Hugh 2838, IAM 12684, IFO 15126, IMD 101001, JCM 9659, KACC 10205, KM 543, LMG 1863, NBRC 15126, NCIB 12033, NCIMB 12033, NCTC 1 O807, NCTC 10807, NRRL 84082, NRRL B-4082, NXRX 10807, PCM 2222, R-16924, R. Hugh 2838, R.Hugh 2838, RH 2838, RIMD 101001, strain KM 543, strain Takeda, VTT E-991282 Yabuuchi KM 543[2]

BacteriologyEdit

A. xylosoxidans is a Gram-negative rod that does not form spores. It is motile, with peritrichous flagella that distinguish it from Pseudomonas species, and is oxidase-positive, catalase-positive, and citrate-positive. It is urease and indole-negative. It produces acid oxidatively from xylose, but not from lactose, maltose, mannitol, or sucrose. It grows well on MacConkey agar and other inhibitory growth media such as deoxycholate, Salmonella-Shigella, and nalidixic acid-cetrimide agars.[3][7][8]

It is usually resistant to a variety of antibiotics including penicillins, ; cephalosporins, quinolones, and aminoglycosides. Ampicillin and carbenicillin, which are penicillins, are an exception. It is variably susceptible to tetracyclines, chloramphenicol, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and colistin.[7]

Pathogenesis and clinical characteristicsEdit

Originally isolated from patients with otitis media,[7] A. xylosoxidans has since been periodically described as a pathogen of humans. In addition to otitis, it can cause a variety of other infections, including pneumonia, pharyngitis, peritonitis in association with catheters used for peritoneal dialysis, and urinary tract infections.[3][9] Infection is sometimes associated with underlying immunodeficiency, including immunoglobulin M deficiency, various cancer chemotherapies, inhaled steroids, surgical procedures, prolonged or broad-spectrum antimicrobial treatment for other infections,[3] and cystic fibrosis.[5] It has also been the cause of hospital-acquired infections.[9]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Genus Achromobacter". LPSN (List of Prokaryotic Names with Standing in Nomenclature). Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  2. ^ "Taxon Passport: Achromobacter xylosoxidans". StrainInfo. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  3. ^ a b c d Igra-Siegman, Y.; Chmel, H.; Cobbs, C. (February 1980). "Clinical and Laboratory Characteristics of Achromobacter xylosoxidans Infection". Journal of Clinical Microbiology. 11 (2): 141–145. PMC 273340. PMID 7358838.
  4. ^ Duggan, J.M.; Goldstein, S.J.; Chenoweth, C.E.; Kauffman, C.A.; Bradley, S.F. (1996). "Achromobacter xylosoxidans bacteremia: report of four cases and review of the literature". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 23 (3): 569–576. doi:10.1093/clinids/23.3.569. PMID 8879782. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  5. ^ a b "Achromobacter xylosoxidans". Cystic Fibrosis Medicine. Retrieved 11 November 2015.
  6. ^ Jakobsen, T.H.; Hansen, M.A.; Jensen, P.Ø.; Hansen, L.; Riber, L.; et al. (22 July 2013). "Complete Genome Sequence of the Cystic Fibrosis Pathogen Achromobacter xylosoxidans NH44784-1996 Complies with Important Pathogenic Phenotypes". PLoS ONE. 8 (7): e68484. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068484. PMC 3718787.
  7. ^ a b c Yabuuchi, Eiko; Ohyama, Akio (1971). "Achromobacter xylosoxidans n. sp. from Human Ear Discharge". Japanese Journal of Microbiology. 15 (5): 477–481. doi:10.1111/j.1348-0421.1971.tb00607.x. PMID 5316576.
  8. ^ Holmes, B.; Snell, J.J.S.; Lapage, S.P. (1977). "Strains of Achromobacter xylosoxidans From Clinical Material". Journal of Clinical Pathology. 30 (7): 595–601. doi:10.1136/jcp.30.7.595. PMC 476493. PMID 886012.
  9. ^ a b Gomez-Cerezo, J.; Suarez, I.; Rios, J.J.; Pena, P.; Garcia de Miguel, M.J.; et al. (16 May 2003). "Achromobacter xylosoxidans Bacteremia: A 10-Year Analysis of 54 Cases". European Journal of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. 22 (6): 360–363. doi:10.1007/s10096-003-0925-3. PMID 12750959.

External linksEdit