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Achatinella apexfulva

Achatinella apexfulva is a reportedly extinct species of colorful, tropical, arboreal pulmonate land snail in the family Achatinellidae once present on Oahu, Hawaii.

Achatinella apexfulva
Zoological Illustrations Achatinella pica.jpg
Drawing of a shell of Achatinella apexfulva.
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
(unranked):
Superfamily:
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Genus:
Subgenus:
Achatinella
Species:
A. apexfulva
Binomial name
Achatinella apexfulva
(Dixon, 1789)[2]
Synonyms

A. apexfulva is the type species of the genus Achatinella. The specific name, apexfulva, meaning "yellow-tipped", refers to the yellow tip of the snail's shell.

DistributionEdit

This species was endemic to forests of the island of Oahu in the Hawaiian archipelago, United States, but is now extinct in the wild. In April 2011, it was reported that the species had been reduced to a single, captive individual.[3][4] A major cause of its population decline in the wild was predation by the rosy wolfsnail. The rosy wolfsnail, a central-American native, was introduced to Hawaii in the 1950s to control agricultural pests.[5] It has been the cause of at least 8 other snail extinctions in Hawaii.[6]

In January 2019, it was reported that the last member of the species, a 14-year-old snail named George, had died.[7][5][8] However, as of January 2019 the IUCN's 1996 conservation status assessment (the most recent IUCN coverage of the species) still lists the species as Critically Endangered.[1]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Hadfield M. & Hadway L. (1996). "Achatinella apexfulva". The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN. 1996: e.T168A13038669. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.1996.RLTS.T168A13038669.en. Retrieved 10 January 2018.
  2. ^ Pilsbry, Henry A. (1912–1914). "Historical Notes on the Literature". Manual of Conchology. XXII. Retrieved 29 February 2016. The first Achatinellid shells brought to Europe, so far as we know, were obtained by Captain George Dixon, who visited the Hawaiian Islands in 1786 and 1787. They were strung on a lei or necklace, which seems to have been made entirely of Achatinella apexfulva and A. decora. It appears that four specific names were based upon these specimens.
  3. ^ "Achatinella apexfulva". The Recently Extinct Plants and Animals Database. Retrieved 28 October 2013.
  4. ^ Thom van Dooren (2013) "The last snail: conservation and extinction in Hawai’i" February 28, 2013. Retrieved 8 January, 2016.
  5. ^ a b "George, Reclusive Hawaiian Snail And Last Of His Kind, Dies At 14". NPR.org. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  6. ^ Kurt Auffenberg & Lionel A. Stange (November 2001). "Snail-eating snails of Florida, Gastropoda". University of Florida. EENY251. Retrieved October 7, 2012.
  7. ^ January 04, Star-Advertiser staff Posted; January 4, 2019; January 4, 2019 Updated; 2019 10:29am (2019-01-04). "Last known Hawaiian land snail of its kind dies". Honolulu Star-Advertiser. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  8. ^ "World's loneliest snail dies, and a species goes extinct". 2019-01-08. Retrieved 2019-01-08.