Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement

The Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement or Accra Peace Agreement was the final peace agreement in the Second Liberian Civil War. It was signed on the August 18, 2004, in Accra, Ghana. It was created following the signing of a ceasefire agreement on June 17, 2004, and "intensive back-door negotiations" beginning on June 4 in Akosombo, Ghana.[2]

Accra Peace Agreement
Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement
Signed18 August 2004
LocationAccra
SignatoriesGovernment of the Republic of Liberia, the Liberians United for Reconciliation and Democracy (LURD) and the Movement for Democracy in Liberia (MODEL). In addition, a number of political parties signed: National Patriotic Party, Unity Party, Liberian People's Party, National Reformation Party, Labor Party, Liberia Unification Party, Liberian Action Party, People's Democratic Party, National democratic Party, Free Democratic Party, Reformation Alliance Party, All-Liberian Coalition Party, True Whig Party, United People's Party, Liberia National Union, Equal Rights Party, Progressive Peoples Party, and the New Deal Movement.[1]
LanguageEnglish

The Agreement called for the establishment of a post-war two-year transitional government (National Transitional Government of Liberia) which would consist of 76 members: 12 each from the three warring parties; 18 from political parties; seven from civil society and special interest groups; and one from each of Liberia's 15 counties.[3] The warring parties, the opposition parties and civil society groups agreed to share ministerial portfolios and employment opportunities in the cabinet and parliament and elections were to be held no later than 2005.[4]

The peace agreement covered a broad range of intended reforms; committing to a human rights inquiry through a truth commission, and vetting of the security forces on human rights grounds. Former Nigerian Head of State General Abdulsalami Abubakar facilitated the negotiations that led to the agreement.[5] However, civil society played a strong role in the talks as well. Individuals representing inter-religious, human rights, pro-democracy, women’s rights, and legal organisations were included as official delegates, and many others attended unofficially as observers. Women were especially vocal in these peace discussions. Everyday between 150-200 refugee women activists arrived at the hotel where the talks were taking place to advocate to stop the shelling of Monrovia and the violence in their country.[6] These women were organized by the 'Women of Liberia Mass Action for Peace'.

Timeline before signing of AgreementEdit

  • Aug. 4, 2003 - 198 Nigerian commandos arrived in Monrovia aboard United Nations helicopters.[7]
  • Aug. 11, 2003- Charles Taylor resigned and flew to Nigeria.[8]
  • Aug. 15, 2003- 200 American Marines under Joint Task Force Liberia landed in Monrovia joining a marine platoon that had been protecting the U.S. Embassy over the previous month.[9]
  • Aug. 18, 2003- Accra Comprehensive Peace Agreement is signed in Accra.

AftermathEdit

Some fighting still continued following the signing of the Peace Agreement. In October. 2003 the UN Security Council authorized a Chapter VII mandate (allowing for intervention) and established a UN Mission in Liberia (UNMIL), which included the deployment of 15,000 peacekeepers.[10]

On October 14, 2003, an interim government under Gyude Bryant was sworn into power[11] and ruled until the 2005 national elections.

The Liberian general election of 2005 took place on October 11, 2005 and a runoff election was held on November 8, 2005 which resulted in Ellen Johnson Sirleaf winning the presidency.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Uppsala Conflict Data Program Conflict Encyclopedia, Liberia, Peace Agreements, Accra Peace Agreement".
  2. ^ "Liberians fail to sign Comprehensive Peace Agreement". www.ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  3. ^ "UCDP - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". www.ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  4. ^ "UCDP - Uppsala Conflict Data Program". www.ucdp.uu.se. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  5. ^ "Liberians fail to sign Comprehensive Peace Agreement". www.ghanaweb.com. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  6. ^ "PDF Tracking" (PDF). Retrieved 2016-09-06.
  7. ^ Weiner, Tim (2003-08-15). "200 U.S. Marines Land in Liberia to Aid African Force". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  8. ^ Weiner, Tim (2003-08-15). "200 U.S. Marines Land in Liberia to Aid African Force". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2019-11-06.
  9. ^ Rhem, Kathleen T. "21 Marines Sent Into Liberia at Ambassador's Request, July 21, 2003. Retrieved on October 24, 2008.
  10. ^ Internal Displacement Monitoring Centre, Accra Peace Agreement of August 2003 brings high hopes for peace but instability remains (October 2003), "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-12-27. Retrieved 2013-07-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. ^ "Bryant takes power in Liberia". The Guardian. October 14, 2003. Retrieved July 23, 2011.

External linksEdit