Accessory fruit

An accessory fruit is a fruit in which some of the flesh is derived not from the floral ovary but from some adjacent tissue exterior to the carpel.[1] Accessory fruits are usually indehiscent.[2]

A selection of accessory fruits (from left to right: pear, fig, and strawberry)

TerminologyEdit

Alternative terms for accessory fruit are false fruit, spurious fruit, pseudofruit, or pseudocarp. These are older terms for accessory fruit that have been criticized as "inapt",[1] and are not used by some botanists today.[citation needed]

ExamplesEdit

The following are examples of accessory fruits listed by the plant organ from which the accessory tissue is derived:[3]

Fruit with fleshy seeds, such as pomegranate or mamoncillo, are not considered to be accessory fruits.[4]

ResearchEdit

Current research has proposed that a single class of genes may be responsible for regulating accessory fruit formation and ripening.[5] A study using strawberries concluded that hormone signaling pathways involving gibberellic acid and auxin affect gene expression, and contribute to the initiation of accessory fruit development.[6] Metabolic modifications in different developing accessory fruit tissues are due to the varied distributions of compounds such as triterpenoids and steroids.[7]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b Esau, K. 1977. Anatomy of seed plants. John Wiley and Sons, New York.
  2. ^ "Glossary Details - The William & Lynda Steere Herbarium". sweetgum.nybg.org. Retrieved 2021-03-17.
  3. ^ Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary entries for syconium, accessory fruit, core, and strawberry, Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2006
  4. ^ Holland, D.; Hatib, K.; Bar-Ya'akov, I. (2009), "Pomegranate: Botany, Horticulture, Breeding", Horticultural Reviews, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, pp. 127–191, doi:10.1002/9780470593776.ch2, ISBN 978-0-470-59377-6, retrieved 2021-11-28
  5. ^ Ireland, Hilary; Yao, Jia-Long; Tomes, Sumathi; Sutherland, Paul; Nieuwenhuizen, Niels; Gunaseelan, Kularajathevan; Winz, Robert; David, Karine; Schaffer, Robert (13 December 2012). "Apple SEPALLATA1/2-like genes control fruit flesh development and ripening". The Plant Journal. 73 (6): 1004–1056. doi:10.1111/tpj.12094.
  6. ^ Zhou, Junhui; Sittmann, John; Guo, Lei; Xiao, Yuwei; Huang, Xiaolong; Pulapaka, Anuhya; Liu, Zhongchi (March 2021). "Gibberellin and auxin signaling genes RGA1 and ARF8 repress accessory fruit initiation in diploid strawberry". Plant Physiology. 185 (3): 1059–1075. doi:10.1093/plphys/kiaa087. PMC 8133647. PMID 33793929.
  7. ^ Dashbaldan, Soyol; Rogowska, Agata; Pączkowski, Cezary; Szakiel, Anna (25 August 2021). "Distribution of Triterpenoids and Steroids in Developing Rugosa Rose (Rosarugosa Thunb.) Accessory Fruit". Molecules. 26 (17): 5158. doi:10.3390/molecules26175158. PMC 8433923. PMID 34500591.