Abu Ubaid al-Qasim bin Salam

Abu Ubaid al-Qasim ibn Salam al-Khurasani al-Harawi (Arabic: أبو عبيد القاسم بن سلاّم الخراساني الهروي, romanizedAbū ‘Ubayd al-Qāsim ibn Sallām al-Khurāsānī al-Harawī; c. 770–838) was an Arab philologist and the author of many standard works on lexicography, Qur’anic sciences, hadith, and fiqh.

Abu Ubaid
Bornc. 154 AH/770 CE
Died224 AH/838 (aged 68)
EraIslamic golden age
Main interest(s)History, Tafsir, Hadith, Fiqh
Muslim leader

He was born in Herat, the son of a Byzantine slave. He left his native town and studied philology at the Basra school under many famous scholars such as al-Asmaʿi (d. 213/828), Abu ʿUbayda (d. c.210/825), and Abu Zayd al-Ansari (d. 214 or 215/830–1), and at the Kufa school under Abu ʿAmr al-Shaybani (d. c.210/825), al-Kisaʾi (d. c.189/805), and others.

He was the first to develop a recorded science for tajwid, giving the rules of tajwid names and putting it into writing in his book called al-Qirā'āt. He wrote about 25 reciters, including the 7 mutawatir reciters.[2] He made the reality, transmitted through reciters of every generation, a science with defined rules, terms, and enunciation.[3][4] He wrote extensively on the originally revealed, but now missing and lost, verses from the Qur’an. [5][6]

Selected worksEdit

  • Kitab al-Amwal (The Book of Revenue)[7]
  • Kitab Al-Nāsikh wa-l-mansūkh (The Book of Abrogation)[8]
  • Kitab Fada’il-al-Qur’an (The Excellent Qualities of the Holy Quran)


  1. ^ Fleet, Kate; Krämer, Gudrun; Matringe, Denis; Nawas, John; Rowson, Everett (eds.). "Abū ʿUbayd al-Qāsim b. Sallām". Encyclopaedia of Islam, THREE. Brill Online. ISSN 1873-9830. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  2. ^ Ajaja, Abdurrazzak. "القراءات : The readings".
  3. ^ el-Masry, Shadee. The Science of Tajwid. Safina Society. p. 8. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  4. ^ "What is Tajweed?". Online Quran Teachers. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  5. ^ Jeffery, Arthur (1938). "Abu Ubaid on the verses missing from the Qur'an". The Muslim World. 28: 61–65. doi:10.1111/j.1478-1913.1938.tb02422.x.
  6. ^ Ibn Warraq, Origins of the Koran – Classic Essays on Islam’s Holy Book, [Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY 1998], Part Two: The Collections and the Variants of the Koran, 9. Abu ‘Ubaid on the Verses Missing from the Koran, by Arthur Jeffery, p. 151.
  7. ^ "The Book of Revenue : Kitab Al-Amwal". BookDepository. Retrieved 2019-01-08.
  8. ^ "Kitab Al-Nasikh Wa-l-Mmansukh of Abu 'Ubaid Al-Qasim B. Sallam". BookDepository. Retrieved 2019-01-08.