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Abell 1689 is a galaxy cluster in the constellation Virgo nearly 2.2 billion light-years away.

Abell 1689
New Hubble view of galaxy cluster Abell 1689.jpg
Hubble view of galaxy cluster Abell 1689. It combines both visible and infrared data, with a combined exposure time of over 34 hours.[1]
Observation data (Epoch J2000)
Right ascension 13h 11m 34.2s[2]
Declination−01° 21′ 56″
Richness class4[3]
Bautz–Morgan classificationII-III[3]
754 Mpc (2,459 Mly) h−1
X-ray flux(14.729 ± 8.1%)×1011 erg s−1 cm−2 (0.1–2.4 keV)[2]
See also: Galaxy groups, Galaxy clusters, List of galaxy clusters



Abell 1689 is one of the biggest and most massive galaxy clusters known and acts as a gravitational lens, distorting the images of galaxies that lie behind it.[4] It has the largest system of gravitational arcs ever found.[5]

Abell 1689 shows over 160,000 globular clusters, the largest population ever found.[6]

There is evidence of merging and gases in excess of 100 million degrees.[5] The very large mass of this cluster makes it useful for the study of dark matter and gravitational lensing.[7][8]

At the time of its discovery in 2008, one of the lensed galaxies, A1689-zD1, was the most distant galaxy found.[9][10]


See alsoEdit


  1. ^ "New Hubble image of galaxy cluster Abell 1689". ESA/Hubble Press Release. Retrieved 14 September 2013.
  2. ^ a b c d "NASA/IPAC Extragalactic Database". Results for Abell 1689. Retrieved 2012-03-17.
  3. ^ a b Abell, George O.; Corwin, Harold G., Jr.; Olowin, Ronald P. (May 1989). "A catalog of rich clusters of galaxies" (PDF). Astrophysical Journal Supplement Series. 70 (May 1989): 1–138. Bibcode:1989ApJS...70....1A. doi:10.1086/191333. ISSN 0067-0049. Retrieved March 12, 2012.
  4. ^ Falcon-Lang, Howard (19 August 2010). "Fate of Universe revealed by galactic lens". BBC News. BBC. Archived from the original on 19 August 2010. Retrieved 19 August 2010.
  5. ^ a b "Purple Haze, Part Deux". NASA. 12 September 2008. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  6. ^ "Globular clusters within Abell 1689". HUBBLE/ESA. 12 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
  7. ^ "Detailed Dark Matter Map Yields Clues to Galaxy Cluster Growth". NASA. 11 December 2010. Retrieved 19 September 2012.
  8. ^ Diego, Jose M.; Broadhurst, T.; Benitez, N.; Umetsu, K.; Coe, D.; Sendra, I.; et al. (2014). "A Free-Form Lensing Grid Solution for A1689 with New Multiple Images". MNRAS. 446 (1). arXiv:1402.4170. Bibcode:2015MNRAS.446..683D. doi:10.1093/mnras/stu2064.
  9. ^ "Astronomers Eye Ultra-Young, Bright Galaxy in Early Universe". 2008-02-12. Retrieved 2008-02-25.
  10. ^ "Astronomers Uncover One of the Youngest and Brightest Galaxies in the Early Universe". Space Telescope Science Institute Baltimore, Md. / 2008-02-12. Archived from the original on 17 February 2008. Retrieved 2008-02-25.

External linksEdit