Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke (Somali: Cabdirashiid Cali Sharmaarke, Arabic: عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي) (June 8, 1919 – October 15, 1969), also known as Abdirashid Shermarke, was Prime Minister of Somalia from July 12, 1960, to June 14, 1964, and President of Somalia from July 6, 1967, until his assassination on October 15, 1969. He was the father of Somali Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke.
Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke
عبد الرشيد علي شارماركي
|2nd President of Somalia|
July 6, 1967 – October 15, 1969
|Prime Minister||Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal|
|Preceded by||Aden Abdullah Osman Daar|
|Succeeded by||Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein|
|3rd Prime Minister of Somalia|
12 July 1960 – 14 June 1964
|Preceded by||Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal|
|Succeeded by||Abdirizak Haji Hussein|
|Born||June 8, 1919|
Harardhere, Mudug, Italian Somaliland
|Died||October 15, 1969 (aged 50)|
Las Anod, Somali Republic
|Political party||Somali Youth League (SYL)|
|Alma mater||Sapienza University of Rome|
Sharmarke was born in 1919 in the town of Harardhere in the north-central Mudug region of Somalia. His father hailed from the Majeerteen Osman Mohamoud clan and his mother from the Habar Gidir (Sacad Siciid) clan.
Raised in Mogadishu by his mother, Sharmarke attended Qur'anic schools and completed his elementary education in 1936. He then embarked on a career as a trader and later as a civil servant in the Italian colonial administration.
In 1943, the year of its inauguration, Sharmarke joined the incipient Somali Youth League political party. He entered the British administration's civil service the following year.
While still a civil servant, Sharmarke completed his secondary education in 1953. He earned a scholarship to study at the Sapienza University of Rome, where he obtained a BA in Political Science. In 1960, his son, Omar Abdirashid Ali Sharmarke, who would later become Prime Minister of the Somali Transitional Federal Government, was born.
On 26 June 1960, British Somaliland gained independence as the State of Somaliland. On 1 July 1960, the State of Somaliland and the Trust Territory of Somaliland (previously Italian Somaliland) united to form the Somali Republic. (The anniversaries of both events are now celebrated on the Independence Day of Somalia as a public holiday in Somaliland and Somalia).
On 1 July 1960, with the creation of the Somali Republic, the then-incumbent President Aden Abdullah Osman Daar appointed Sharmarke Prime Minister of Somalia. Sharmarke's duties as Prime Minister saw him travel abroad extensively in pursuit of a non-aligned and neutral foreign policy. He remained Prime Minister until March 1964, when the first general elections were held and which saw him re-elected as a member of Parliament.
In the 1967 presidential elections, Sharmarke beat out Daar to become the second President of Somalia. He was sworn into office on July 6, 1967.
In 1968, Sharmarke narrowly escaped an assassination attempt. A grenade exploded near the car that was transporting him back from the airport, but failed to kill him.
On October 15, 1969, while paying an official visit to the northern town of Las Anod, Sharmarke was shot dead by one of his own bodyguards. On duty outside the guest-house where the president was staying, the officer fired an automatic rifle at close range, instantly killing Sharmarke. Observers suggested that the assassination was inspired by personal rather than political motives.
Sharmarke's assassination was quickly followed by a military coup d'état on October 21, 1969 (the day after his funeral), in which the Somali Army seized power without encountering armed opposition — essentially a bloodless takeover. The putsch was spearheaded by Major General Muhammad Siad Barre, who at the time commanded the army.
- Somalia - Worldstatesmen.com
- Rulers.org profile - Abdirashid Ali Shermarke
- Colin Legum, John Drysdale, Africa contemporary record: annual survey and documents, Volume 2, (Africa Research Limited., 1970), p.B-174.
- Encyclopaedia Hispano-Americana, supplement 1969-1970, p.289.
- Arab Observer, Issues 185-197, (University of California: 1964), p.32.
- Farley, Benjamin R. "Calling a state a state: Somaliland and international recognition." Emory Int'l L. Rev. 24 (2010): 777.
- In commemoration of the late Somali President Abdirashid Ali sharmarke
- Samatar, Said (1991). Somalia. MRG. p. 17. Retrieved 10 June 2014.
- Europa Publications Limited, p.970.
- Moshe Y. Sachs, Worldmark Encyclopedia of the Nations, Volume 2, (Worldmark Press: 1988), p.290.
- Europa Publications Limited (1970). The Middle East and North Africa, Volume 17. Europa Publications.
Aden Abdullah Osman Daar
| President of Somalia
Sheikh Mukhtar Mohamed Hussein
| Prime Minister of Somalia
Abdirizak Haji Hussein