Abdications of Bayonne
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The Abdications of Bayonne is the name given to a series of forced abdications of the Kings of Spain that led to what the Spanish-speaking world calls the Guerra de la Independencia Española (Spanish War of Independence) (1808–1814), which overlaps with the Peninsular War. The failed El Escorial Conspiracy preceded the Mutiny of Aranjuez, which forced King Charles IV to abdicate the throne to his son Ferdinand VII in 1808 by order of the Spanish Royal Council. Ferdinand VII also abdicated later that year.
Napoleon's designation of his brother, Joseph, as King of Spain was resisted by the Spanish people and led to the Peninsular War. Napoleon was eventually forced to release Ferdinand, and, on December 11, 1813, he appointed Ferdinand as the King of Spain.
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