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Abu Bakr Abd al-Qāhir bin Abd ar-Rahman bin Muhammad al-Jurjānī (400 – 471 or 474 A.H.) (died 1078 AD)[1]; surnamed "Al-Nuhwī" (the grammarian), he was a renowned Persian[2] grammarian of the Arabic language, literary theorist of the Muslim Shafi'i sect, and a follower of al-Ash'ari. He wrote several celebrated works on grammar and rhetoric, among these are Mi,ut Amil and Al-Jumal - introductions to Arabic syntax - and a commentary titled Al-Mughnī in three volumes.[3]

Abd al-Qahir al-Jurjani
Born
Died1078 AD
Academic background
InfluencesSibawayh, Abi Helal al-'Askari al Balaghi, Abu Ali al-Farisi
Academic work
Main interestsliterary theory, grammar
Notable worksal Maghna fi Sharh al-Idah

Al-Jurjānī was born in the town of Gorgan in Iran and is said not to have left his home town of Gorgan all his life, yet his reputation reached many Arabic scholars who came to see him. He excelled in the two sciences of ilm al balaghah (eloquence and rhetorical art) and ilm al bayan (a branch of Arabic rhetoric dealing with metaphorical language), which he explained in his two books Asrār al-Balāghah (Secrets of Rhetoric), and Dalāʾīl al-ʿIjāz fi-l-Qurʾān (Arguments of the Miraculous Inimitability of the Quran). Al-Jurjānī was influenced by his predecessors such as the grammarian Sibawayh, the critic Abi Helal al-'Askari al Balaghi, and the linguist and literary theorist Abu Ali al-Farisi, known for his book al-Idah (Elucidation).

Ali al-Farisi's nephew, Abi al-Hussein Muhammad Bin al-Hassan Bin Abd al-Wareth al-Faressi al-Nawawi, was al-Jurjānī's teacher, and taught al-Jurjānī the al-Idah. Later al-Jurjānī was to write a thirty-volume work of commentary on al-Idah entitled al Maghna fi Sharh al-Idah .

In modern critical opinionEdit

In his volume Asrar al-Balaghah, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em Khafagi writes "the Swiss linguist Saussure's theory of deconstruction is preceded by Abd al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī’s theory of deconstruction".[4]

Also, in the introduction of Muhammad Abdul Muttaleb's book Issues of Modernism in the Works of Abd-al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī, Muttaleb writes of al-Jurjānī and Noam Chomsky "there is a similarity between these two men".[5]

PublicationsEdit

  • Asrār al-Balāghah (The Secrets of Elucidation)
  • Al-Awāmil al-Mi’ah (The Hundred Elements)
  • Dalā’il al-Iʿjaz (Intimations of Inimitability)
  • Iʿjaz al-Qur’ān (The inimitability of the Qur'an)
  • Al-Jumal (Sentences)
  • Kitab ʿArūd (Poetic Structure)
  • Al-Maghna fī Sharḥ al-Idah’, thirty volumes
  • Al-Miftāḥ (The Key)
  • Muʿjam al-taʿrifāt (Compendium of Definitions)
  • Al-Muqtasad, a short version of Al Maghna.
  • Sharḥ al-Fātiḥa fī Mujallad (Explaining Al-Fatiha in a Volume)
  • Al-Talkhiss bi Sharḥihi (The Brief of Sentence Elucidation)
  • Al-'Umhad fī al-Taṣrīf (The Basis of Morphology)
  • An anthology collection on the works of Abi-tammam, al-Buh'turi, and al-Mutannabī.

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "Jurjānī, al-". Encyclopædia Britannica (15th ed.). 1978.
  2. ^ "ʿABD-AL-QĀHER JORJĀNĪ – Encyclopaedia Iranica". www.iranicaonline.org. Encyclopedia Iranica. Retrieved 11 February 2017.
  3. ^ Lockett 1814, p. xv.
  4. ^ Jurjānī (al-) 1972, Asrar al-Balaghah.
  5. ^ Muttaleb 1995.

BibliographyEdit

  • Deeb, K. Abu (2007). "al-Jurjānī, Abū Bakr Abd al-Qāhir b. Abd al- Rahmān (d. 471/1078)". In Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; Donzel, E. van; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.). Encyclopaedia of Islam. Brill Online: Brill.
  • Sutherland (Consultant), John (1999). "Vol.1 A-K". In Murray, Chris (ed.). Encyclopedia of Literary Critics and Criticism. London: Fitzroy Dearborn.
  • Abbs, Ihsn (1971). Tarikh al-Naqd al-Adabi 'inda al-'Arab, Naqd al-Shi'r min al-Qarn al-Thani hattá al-Qarn al-Thamin al-Hijri. History of Arabic Literary Criticism (A comprehensive study of Arabic literary criticism from the second century to the eighth century AH. It covers most of the literary critics from al-Asma'ei to Ibn-Khaldoun.). Beirut: Dr al-Amnah.
  • Jurjānī (al-), Abd Al-Qāhir (1972). Khafagi, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em (ed.). Asrar al-Balaghah. Cairo: Maktabet al Qāhira.
  • Jurjānī (al-), Abd Al-Qāhir (1991). Khafagi, Muhammad Abdul Mun'em; Sharaf, Abdul Aziz (eds.). Asrar al-Balaghah. Beirut: Dar Al Jeel.
  • Jurjānī (al-), Abd Al-Qāhir (1959). Al Imam Al Sheikh, Mohammad Abdo; Ridah, Mohammad Rashid (eds.). Asrar al-Balaghah in the Art of Rhetoric (6th ed.). Midan Al Azhar: Mohammad Ali Subeih.
  • Jurjānī (al-), Abd Al-Qāhir (1972). Haydar, Ali (ed.). al-Jummal. Damascus.
  • Jurjānī (al-), Abd Al-Qāhir (1990). Usri Abd al-Ghani, Abdallah (ed.). al-Jummal in Grammar (1st ed.). Beirut: Dar Al Kutub al Ilmieh.
  • Muttaleb, Muhammad Abdul (1995). Mahmoud Ali Makki (ed.). Issues of Modernism in the works of Abd-al-Qāhir al-Jurjānī. Egypt: Longman.

External linksEdit