A Separation (Persian: جدایی نادر از سیمین Jodaí-e Nadér az Simín, "The Separation of Nader from Simin") is a 2011 Iranian domestic tragedy film written and directed by Asghar Farhadi, starring Leila Hatami, Peyman Moaadi, Shahab Hosseini, Sareh Bayat, and Sarina Farhadi. It focuses on an Iranian middle-class couple who separate, the disappointment and desperation suffered by their daughter due to the egotistical disputes and separation of her parents, and the conflicts that arise when the husband hires a lower-class caregiver for his elderly father, who suffers from Alzheimer's disease. A Separation won the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film in 2012, becoming the first Iranian film to win the award. It received the Golden Bear for Best Film and the Silver Bears for Best Actress and Best Actor at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival, becoming the first Iranian film to win the Golden Bear. It also won the Golden Globe for Best Foreign Language Film. and the Asia Pacific Screen Award for Best Feature Film. The film was nominated for the Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay, making it the first non-English film in five years to achieve this.
Iranian theatrical release poster
|Directed by||Asghar Farhadi|
|Produced by||Asghar Farhadi|
|Written by||Asghar Farhadi|
|Music by||Sattar Oraki|
|Edited by||Hayedeh Safiyari|
|Box office||$24.4 million|
Simin wants to leave the country with her husband, Nader, and daughter, Termeh, as the former does not want Termeh to grow up under the prevailing conditions. This desire is not shared by Nader, who is concerned for his father, who lives with the family and suffers from Alzheimer's disease. When Nader determines to stay in Iran, Simin files for divorce.
The family court judges the couple's problems insufficient to warrant divorce and rejects Simin's application. She leaves her husband and daughter and moves back in with her parents. On the recommendation of Simin, Nader hires Razieh, a young, deeply religious woman from a poor suburb, to take care of his father while he is at work. Razieh has applied for the job without consulting her hot-tempered husband, Hodjat, whose approval, according to tradition, would have been required. Her family is financially dependent on the job, and she takes her daughter to the house with her.
Razieh soon becomes overwhelmed by taking care of Nader's father, which is physically and emotionally demanding. She finds the work very heavy, especially as she is pregnant. The job even tests her religious beliefs when the old man wets himself, and she must call a hotline to determine whether it would be sinful for her to clean him.
One day, Nader and Termeh return to discover her grandfather lying unconscious on the floor in his bedroom, with one of his arms tied to the bed. Razieh is nowhere to be found. When she returns, Nader accuses her of neglecting his father and of having stolen money from his room (unbeknownst to Nader, Simin used the money to pay movers). Outraged, Nader shoves Razieh out of the apartment. She falls in the stairwell outside. Hodjat's sister later calls Simin to inform her that Razieh is in the hospital because she has suffered a miscarriage.
A prosecution is assigned to determine the cause of the miscarriage and Nader's potential responsibility for it. If it is proved that Nader knew of Razieh's pregnancy and caused the miscarriage, he could be sentenced for murder. Nader accuses Razieh of neglecting his father. The hot-headed and aggressive Hodjat physically confronts Nader on several occasions, and threatens him, his family, and Termeh's teacher, who testifies on Nader's behalf. When Hodjat is detained for another outburst, Razieh reveals that he has mental disorders, and that he is under therapy, leading to his release. Nader learns that the reason Razieh was absent that day was because she had gone to visit a physician, which Razieh had avoided revealing earlier. This news, combined with Hodjat's explosive temper, causes Nader to wonder if Hodjat is physically abusive to Razieh and had caused her miscarriage.
Termeh protects Nader's position with a false statement and Simin, fearing for Termeh's safety, attempts to arrange a financial deal with Razieh and Hodjat, to pay blood money for the loss of their child. Nader is initially outraged by Simin's suggestion, as he feels that it would be an admission of guilt. But he also must admit that he lied about his knowledge of Razieh's pregnancy. However, Razieh reveals to Simin she has serious doubts as to whether Nader's actions caused the miscarriage, considering she had earlier been hit by a car while retrieving Nader's father when he had wandered out of the apartment and had first experienced symptoms of the miscarriage that night. Razieh fears that without the money Nader can provide in or out of court Hodjat will not be able to pay back his debtors, destroying their family. After another full-blown argument, Simin forces Termeh to leave with her. Nader agrees to the payment and asks Razieh to swear on the Qur'an that he is the cause of her miscarriage. Since she has doubts, she refuses, though Hodjat tries to force her to avoid dishonor in front of his creditors.
Later, at the family court, Nader and Simin have filed for a divorce once again. The judge makes their separation permanent, and asks Termeh which parent she chooses to live with. She states that she has made a decision, but asks that the judge tell her parents to wait outside before she tells him.
The concept came from a number of personal experiences and abstract pictures which had been in Asghar Farhadi's mind for some time. Once he decided to make the film, about a year before it premiered, it was quickly written and financed. Farhadi described the film as the "logical development" from his previous film, About Elly. Like Farhadi's last three films, A Separation was made without any government support. The financing went without trouble much thanks to the success of About Elly. The production was granted US$25,000 in support from the Motion Picture Association's APSA Academy Film Fund. In September 2010, Farhadi was banned from making the film by the Iranian Ministry of Culture and Islamic Guidance, because of an acceptance speech held during an award ceremony where he expressed support for several Iranian film personalities. Notably he had wished to see the return to Iranian cinema of Mohsen Makhmalbaf, an exiled filmmaker and Iranian opposition profile, and of the imprisoned political filmmaker Jafar Panahi, both of whom had been connected to the Iranian Green Movement. The ban was lifted in the beginning of October after Farhadi claimed to have been misperceived and apologized for his remarks.
The film premiered on 9 February 2011 at the 29th Fajr International Film Festival in Tehran. Six days later it played in Competition at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival. Farhadi had previously competed at the festival's 2009 edition with About Elly, for which he had received the Silver Bear for Best Director. A Separation was distributed in Iran through Filmiran. Distribution rights for the United Kingdom were acquired by Artificial Eye.
As of 17 April 2014, A Separation has grossed worldwide over $24 million on an estimated budget of $800,000, making it a box-office success.
The film has been met with universal acclaim from film critics. It currently holds a 99% "fresh" rating on Rotten Tomatoes, based on 161 reviews with an average rating of 8.9/10. The website's critical consensus states, "Morally complex, suspenseful, and consistently involving, A Separation captures the messiness of a dissolving relationship with keen insight and searing intensity", as well as a score of 95 on Metacritic based on 41 reviews, making it the best-reviewed film of 2011.
Deborah Young of The Hollywood Reporter wrote from the Berlinale:
Just when it seemed impossible for Iranian filmmakers to express themselves meaningfully outside the bounds of censorship, Asghar Farhadi's Nader and Simin, A Separation comes along to prove the contrary. Apparently simple on a narrative level yet morally, psychologically and socially complex, it succeeds in bringing Iranian society into focus for in a way few other films have done.
Young noted how Farhadi portrayed Iran's social and religious divisions, and complimented the film's craft:
As in all the director's work, the cast is given top consideration and their realistic acting results in unusual depth of characterization. All five main actors stand out sharply in Mahmood Kalari's intimate cinematography. Though the film lasts over two hours, Hayedeh Safiyari's fast-moving editing keeps the action tensely involving from start to finish.
In a strongly positive review from Screen Daily, Lee Marshall wrote:
Showing a control of investigative pacing that recalls classic Hitchcock and a feel for ethical nuance that is all his own, Farhadi has hit upon a story that is not only about men and women, children and parents, justice and religion in today's Iran, but that raises complex and globally relevant questions of responsibility, of the subjectivity and contingency of "telling the truth", and of how thin the line can be between inflexibility and pride – especially of the male variety – and selfishness and tyranny.
Alissa Simon from Variety called it Farhadi's strongest work yet and described it:
Tense and narratively complex, formally dense and morally challenging... The provocative plot casts a revealing light on contempo Iranian society, taking on issues of gender, class, justice and honor as a secular middle-class family in the midst of upheaval winds up in conflict with an impoverished religious one.
You cannot watch the film without feeling kinship with the characters and admitting their decency as well as their mistakes. The American films made this year that deal with the internal detail and difficulty of family life – like The Descendants — are airy, pretty and affluent compared with A Separation. With the best will in the world, George Clooney cannot discard his aura of stardom, yet the actors in the Iranian film seem caught in their characters’ traps.
The film won the Fajr Film Festival's Crystal Simorghs for Best Director, Best Screenplay, Best Cinematographer and Best Sound Recorder. It also received the Audience Favourite Film award. It won the top award, the Golden Bear for Best Film, at the 61st Berlin International Film Festival. The actress ensemble received the Silver Bear for Best Actress, and the actor ensemble the Silver Bear for Best Actor. In addition it received the Competition Prize of the Ecumenical Jury and the Berliner Morgenpost Readers' Prize. Isabella Rossellini, the Jury president of the Berlin International Film Festival, said that the choice of Farhadi's film for the Golden Bear was "pretty unanimous". Farhadi commented that he never would have thought he would win the Golden Bear, and that the film's victory offered "a very good opportunity to think of the people of my country, the country I grew up in, the country where I learned my stories – a great people". Ahmad Miralaii, the director of Iran's Farabi Cinematic Foundation, said that "Iranian cinema is proud of the awards", as he welcomed Farhadi at the airport upon the director's return from Berlin.
A Separation was voted the second best film of 2011 in the annual Sight & Sound critic poll, as well as in the LA Weekly Film Poll 2011. The film was also voted No. 3 in the annual indieWire critic survey for 2011, No. 4 in the 2011 poll by Film Comment, and was ranked No. 5 on Paste Magazine's 50 Best Movies of 2011. Roger Ebert ranked the film No. 1 on his The Best Films of 2011 list and wrote: "A Separation will become one of those enduring masterpieces watched decades from now".
Top ten listsEdit
The film has appeared on numerous critics' top ten lists for 2011, some notable of which are the following:
Awards and nominationsEdit
|Award||Date of ceremony||Category||Recipients and nominees||Result|
|Academy Awards||26 February 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Best Original Screenplay||Asghar Farhadi||Nominated|
|Asia Pacific Screen Awards||24 November 2011||Best Feature Film||A Separation||Won|
|Achievement in Directing||Asghar Farhadi||Nominated|
|Best Performance by an Actor||Peyman Moaadi||Nominated|
|Best Screenplay||Asghar Farhadi||Nominated|
|Asian Film Awards||19 March 2012||Best Film||A Separation||Won|
|Best Director||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Best Actress||Leila Hatami||Nominated|
|Favorite Actress||Leila Hatami||Nominated|
|Best Screenwriter||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Best Editor||Hayedeh Safiyari||Won|
|BBC Four World Cinema Awards||20 November 2011||BBC Four World Cinema Award||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Berlin International Film Festival||20 February 2011||Golden Bear||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Best Actress||Sareh Bayat, Sarina Farhadi, Leila Hatami and Kimia Hosseini||Won|
|Best Actor||Peyman Moaadi, Shahab Hosseini, Ali-Asghar Shahbazi and Babak Karimi||Won|
|Prize of the Ecumenical Jury||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Bodil Awards||3 March 2012||Best Non-American Film||A Separation||Won|
|Boston Society of Film Critics||11 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Runner-up|
|British Academy Film Awards||12 February 2012||Best Film Not in the English Language||A Separation||Nominated|
|British Independent Film Awards||4 December 2011||Best Foreign Film||A Separation||Won|
|Broadcast Film Critics Association||12 January 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Camerimage||5 December 2011||Silver Frog||Mahmoud Kalari||Won|
|Chicago Film Critics Association||19 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|César Awards||24 February 2012||Best Foreign Film||A Separation||Won|
|Dallas-Fort Worth Film Critics Association||16 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|David di Donatello Award||4 May 2012||Best Foreign Film||A Separation||Won|
|Durban International Film Festival||29 July 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Fajr International Film Festival||19 February 2011||Audience Award – Best Film||A Separation||Won|
|Crystal Simorgh Award – Best Director||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Crystal Simorgh Award – Best Cinematography||Mahmoud Kalari||Won|
|Crystal Simorgh Award – Best Screenplay||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Crystal Simorgh Award – Best Sound Recording||Mahmoud Samakbashi||Won|
|Diploma of Honor – Best Actor in a Supporting Role||Shahab Hosseini||Won|
|Diploma of Honor – Best Actress in a Supporting Role||Sareh Bayat||Won|
|Golden Globe Awards||13 January 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Guldbagge Awards||23 January 2012||Best Foreign Film||A Separation||Won|
|Independent Spirit Awards||25 February 2012||Best Foreign Film||A Separation||Won|
|International Film Festival of India||3 December 2011||Best Director||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Kansas City Film Critics Circle||8 January 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|London Film Critics' Circle||19 January 2012||Foreign Language Film of the Year||A Separation||Won|
|Film of the Year||A Separation||Nominated|
|Director of the Year||Asghar Farhadi||Nominated|
|Screenwriter of the Year||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Supporting Actress of the Year||Sareh Bayat||Won|
|Los Angeles Film Critics Association||11 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Runner-up|
|Best Screenplay||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Melbourne International Film Festival||24 August 2011||Most Popular Feature Film||A Separation||Won|
|National Board of Review||1 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|National Society of Film Critics||7 January 2012||Best Film||A Separation||3rd Place|
|Best Screenplay||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|New York Film Critics Circle||29 November 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Online Film Critics Society||2 January 2012||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Palm Springs International Film Festival||15 January 2012||FIPRESCI award for best actress||Leila Hatami, Sareh Bayat and Sarina Farhadi||Won|
|Satellite Awards||18 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Nominated|
|Southeastern Film Critics Association||18 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Won|
|Sydney Film Festival||20 June 2011||Best Film||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Toronto Film Critics Association||14 December 2011||Best Foreign Language Film||A Separation||Runner-up|
|Toronto International Film Festival||18 September 2011||People's Choice Award||Asghar Farhadi||Runner-up|
|Vancouver International Film Festival ||16 October 2011||Roger's People's Choice Award||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
|Yerevan International Film Festival||18 July 2011||Grand Prix – Golden Apricot for Best Feature Film||Asghar Farhadi||Won|
^[I] Each date is linked to the article about the awards held that year wherever possible.
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- M. Smith, Nigel. "Emotional Love and Modern Tragedy: 8 Insights From Oscar-Winning Iranian Filmmaker Asghar Farhadi at the Zurich Film Fest". indiewire.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
Classic tragedy is the fight between good and bad,” Farhadi said. Citing “A Separation” as an example, he followed that up by saying, “The modern tragedy is the fight between good and good. We don’t know who is right. Both sides want to understand each other, but the situation pushed them to fight.
- Gronvall, Andrea. "The Gronvall Files: Asghar Farhadi, Writer/Director Of A Separation". moviecitynews.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
A Separation is a domestic drama, at least at first. Then it evolves into tragedy. As in many tragedies, the main characters are essentially good, well-intentioned people. But as in ancient Greek tragedies, here they each have a flaw that leads to downfall. In your work in the theatre, was tragedy one of your preferred modes?" - Andrea Gronvall When I was working in theatre I was reading a lot of tragedies. But this kind of tragedy—if you want to compare it to the classic tragedies of the past—has one historic difference. In a classic tragedy, there is a war between good and evil, but in modern tragedies, the war is between good and good. In classic tragedies, you hope the bad guy dies, so you feel better. But in this modern tragedy, you don’t know which character you want to win, which one you want to lose, and you’re probably not going to feel good about either. There’s also another difference between the classic tragedy and the modern tragedy. The weakness–the Achilles heel–of the classic tragic hero comes from within himself. For example, Hamlet doubts too much. King Lear is not very with it. Macbeth is too hungry for power. But for the characters of the modern tragedy, their weaknesses don’t come from within themselves; they come from the environment, the pressure that the environment puts on them." - Asghar Farhadi
- Biancolli, Amy. "A Separation review: Till tragedy us do part". sfgate.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- O'Malley, Shiela. "A Separation: An Iranian culture clash disguised as a tragic, epic domestic drama". politico.comm. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Heath Jr., Glenn. "Slow-Motion Dive: Asghar Farhadi's A Separation". sandiego.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
A slow motion dive of a film, A Separation reveals resonance and tragedy in the small details of compromise and miscommunication, a process that is invariably hard to watch at times.
- Morris, Wesley. "A Separation: When farce becomes tragedy". boston.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Bradshaw, Peter. "A Separation – review". theguardian.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
With great power and subtlety, Farhadi transforms this ugly quarrel into a contemporary tragedy.
- Morris, Wesley. "A Separation: When farce becomes tragedy". boston.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
- Edelstein, David. "Iranian Devolution". nymag.com. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
The first third of A Separation sets up the tragedy; the rest chronicles the attempt at justice via Iran’s byzantine legal system, in which various parties make impassioned statements (and scream and plead) before being thrown into the street or into jail.
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