ARM Holdings is a British multinational semiconductor and software design company, owned by SoftBank Group and its Vision Fund. With its headquarters in Cambridgeshire, within the United Kingdom, its primary business is in the design of ARM processors (CPUs), although it also designs software development tools under the DS-5, RealView and Keil brands, as well as systems and platforms, system-on-a-chip (SoC) infrastructure and software. As a "Holding" company, it also holds shares of other companies. It is considered to be market dominant for processors in mobile phones (smartphones or otherwise) and tablet computers. The company is one of the best-known "Silicon Fen" companies.
|Founded||27 November 1990|
|Founders||Jamie Urquhart, Mike Muller, Tudor Brown, Lee Smith, John Biggs, Harry Oldham, Dave Howard, Pete Harrod, Harry Meekings, Al Thomas, Andy Merritt,David Sealand Hermann Hauser |
|Masayoshi Son (Chairman)|
Simon Segars (CEO)
|Products||Microprocessor designs and graphics processing unit (GPU) designs|
|Revenue||JPY ¥152.42 billion (2017)|
|JPY ¥24.29 billion (2017)|
|JPY ¥(31.79) billion (2017)|
|Total assets||US$3.21 billion (2016)|
|Owner||SoftBank Group 75%|
Vision Fund 25%
Number of employees
|Circa 6,250 (2018) |
Processors based on designs licensed from ARM, or designed by licensees of one of the ARM instruction set architectures, are used in all classes of computing devices (including in space). Examples of those processors range from the world's smallest computer to the processors in some supercomputers on the TOP500 list. Processors designed by ARM or by ARM licensees are used as microcontrollers in embedded systems, including real-time safety systems (cars' ABS), biometrics systems (fingerprint sensor), smart TVs (e.g. Android TV), all modern smartwatches (such as Qualcomm Toq), and are used as general-purpose processors in smartphones, tablets, laptops, desktops (even also for running, traditional x86, Microsoft Windows programs), servers and supercomputers/HPC, e.g. a CPU "option" in Cray's supercomputers.
ARM's Mali line of graphics processing units (GPU) are used in laptops, in over 50% of Android tablets by market share, and some versions of Samsung's smartphones and smartwatches (Samsung Galaxy Gear). It is the third most popular GPU in mobile devices.
Systems, including iPhone smartphones, frequently include many chips, from many different providers, that include one or more licensed ARM cores, in addition to those in the main ARM-based processor. ARM's core designs are also used in chips that support many common network related technologies in smartphones: Bluetooth, WiFi and broadband, in addition to corresponding equipment such as Bluetooth headsets, 802.11ac routers, and network providers' cellular LTE.
ARM's main CPU competitors in servers include Intel and AMD. In mobile applications, Intel's x86 Atom is a competitor. AMD also sells ARM-based chips as well as x86; MIPS Technologies offers another RISC design for embedded systems. ARM's main GPU competitors include mobile GPUs from Imagination Technologies (PowerVR), Qualcomm (Adreno) and increasingly Nvidia and Intel. Despite competing within GPUs, Qualcomm and Nvidia have combined their GPUs with an ARM licensed CPU.
ARM had a primary listing on the London Stock Exchange and was a constituent of the FTSE 100 Index. It also had a secondary listing on NASDAQ. However Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for ARM on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by ARM's shareholders, valuing the company at £23.4 billion (short scale). The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.
The acronym ARM was first used in 1983 and originally stood for "Acorn RISC Machine". Acorn Computers' first RISC processor was used in the original Acorn Archimedes and was one of the first RISC processors used in small computers. However, when the company was incorporated in 1990, What 'ARM' stood for changed to "Advanced RISC Machines", in light of the company's name "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd." - and according to an interview with Steve Furber the name change was also at the behest of Apple who did not wish to have the name of a former competitor - namely Acorn - in the name of the company. At the time of the IPO in 1998, the company name was changed to "ARM Holdings", often just called ARM like the processors.
On 1 August 2017, the styling and logo were changed. The logo is now all lowercase and other uses of 'ARM' are in sentence case except where the whole sentence is upper case, so, for instance, it is now 'ARM Holdings'.
The company was founded in November 1990 as Advanced RISC Machines Ltd and structured as a joint venture between Acorn Computers, Apple Computer (now Apple Inc.) and VLSI Technology. The new company intended to further the development of the Acorn RISC Machine processor, which was originally used in the Acorn Archimedes and had been selected by Apple for their Newton project. Its first profitable year was 1993. The company's Silicon Valley and Tokyo offices were opened in 1994. ARM invested in Palmchip Corporation in 1997 to provide system on chip platforms and to enter into the disk drive market. In 1998, the company changed its name from Advanced RISC Machines Ltd to ARM Ltd. The company was first listed on the London Stock Exchange and NASDAQ in 1998 and by February 1999, Apple's shareholding had fallen to 14.8%.
In 2010, ARM joined with IBM, Texas Instruments, Samsung, ST-Ericsson (since dissolved) and Freescale Semiconductor (now NXP Semiconductors) in forming a non-profit open source engineering company, Linaro.
- Micrologic Solutions, a software consulting company based in Cambridge
- Allant Software, a developer of debugging software
- Infinite Designs, a design company based in Sheffield
- EuroMIPS a smart card design house in Sophia Antipolis, France
- The engineering team of Noral Micrologics, a debug hardware and software company based in Blackburn, England
- Adelante Technologies of Belgium, creating its OptimoDE data engines business, a form of lightweight DSP engine
- Axys Design Automation, a developer of ESL design tools and Artisan Components, a designer of Physical IP (standard cell libraries, memory compilers, PHYs etc.), the building blocks of integrated circuits
- KEIL Software, a leading developer of software development tools for the microcontroller (MCU) market, including 8051 and C16x platforms. ARM also acquired the engineering team of PowerEscape.
- Falanx (now called ARM Norway), a developer of 3D graphics accelerators and SOISIC, who specialise in developing silicon-on-insulator physical IP
- Obsidian Software Inc., a privately held company that creates processor verification products
- Prolific, a developer of automated layout optimisation software tools, and the Prolific team will join the ARM physical IP team
- Internet of Things startup Sensinode
- Cadence’s PANTA family of high-resolution display processor and scaling coprocessor IP cores
- PolarSSL, a software library implementing the SSL and TLS protocols. (In February 2015, PolarSSL has been rebranded to mbed TLS to better show its fit inside the mbed ecosystem.)
- Duolog Technologies, an electronic design automation company that developed a suite of tools that automate the process of IP configuration and IP integration
- Sansa Security, a provider of hardware security IP and software for advanced system-on-chip components deployed in Internet of Things (IoT) and mobile devices
- Wicentric, a Bluetooth Smart stack and profile provider
- Sunrise Micro Devices, a provider of sub-one volt Bluetooth radio intellectual property (IP).
- Offspark, a provider of IoT security software
- Carbon Design Systems, a provider of cycle-accurate virtual prototyping solutions
- On 19 November, ARM, alongside Cisco Systems, Dell, Intel, Microsoft, and Princeton University, founded the OpenFog Consortium, to promote interests and development in fog computing.
- Apical, a provider of Imaging and Embedded computer vision IP products
- Allinea Software, a leading provider of software tools for HPC
Change of ownershipEdit
|Wikinews has related news: ARM to be bought by SoftBank|
Japanese telecommunications company SoftBank Group made an agreed offer for ARM on 18 July 2016, subject to approval by ARM's shareholders, valuing the company at £23.4 billion (US$32 billion). The transaction was completed on 5 September 2016.
Unlike most traditional microprocessor suppliers, such as Intel, Freescale (the former semiconductor division of Motorola, now NXP Semiconductors) and Renesas (a former joint venture between Hitachi and Mitsubishi Electric), ARM only creates and licenses its technology as intellectual property (IP), rather than manufacturing and selling its own physical CPUs, GPUs, SoCs or microcontrollers. This model is similar to fellow British design houses: ARC International, and Imagination Technologies (that both have stopped competing, at least as such, as both were bought out) who have similarly been designing and licensing GPUs, CPUs, and SoCs, along with supplying tooling and various design and support services to their licensees.
The company has offices and design centres across the world, including Cambridge, Bangor, Belfast, Glasgow, Loughborough, Manchester, Sheffield, Warwick in United Kingdom; San Jose, Austin, Chandler, Mountain View, San Diego, Waltham, Richardson and Bellevue in the United States; Vancouver in Canada; Bangalore and Noida in India; Copenhagen in Denmark; Oulu in Finland; Sophia Antipolis in France; Grasbrunn in Germany; Budapest in Hungary; Galway in Ireland; Ra'anana in Israel; Trondheim in Norway; Katowice in Poland; Sentjernej in Slovenia; Cape Town in South Africa; Lund in Sweden; Yokohama, Tokyo in Japan; Beijing, Shenzhen, in China; Hsinchu, Taipei in Taiwan; Seoul in South Korea.
A characteristic feature of ARM processors is their low electric power consumption, which makes them particularly suitable for use in portable devices. In fact, almost all modern mobile phones and personal digital assistants contain ARM CPUs, making them the most widely used 32-bit microprocessor family in the world. As of 2005, ARM processors accounted for over 75% of all 32-bit embedded CPUs.
ARM processors are used as the main CPU for most mobile phones, including those manufactured by Apple, HTC, Nokia, Sony Ericsson and Samsung; many PDAs and handhelds, like the Apple iPod and iPad, Game Boy Advance, Nintendo DS, 3DS and Switch, PlayStation Vita, Game Park GP32 and GamePark Holdings GP2X; as well as many other applications, including GPS navigation devices, digital cameras, digital televisions, network devices and storage. The WLAN processor of Sony's PlayStation Portable is an older ARM9.
ARM offers several microprocessor core designs that have been "publicly licensed" 830 times including 249 times for their newer "application processors" (non-microcontroller) used in such applications as smartphones and tablets. Three of those companies are known to have a licence for one of ARM's 64-bit Cortex-A72 (some including ARM's other 64-bit core the Cortex-A53) and four have a licence to their most powerful 32-bit core, the Cortex-A15.
Cores for ARMv8.2-A include the Cortex-A77, Cortex-A65AE, Cortex-A76, Cortex-A75 and Cortex-A55. Cores for ARMv8-A include the Cortex-A73, Cortex-A72, Cortex-A32, Cortex-A35, Cortex-A57 and Cortex-A53. ARM's cilent roadmap includes Hercules in 2020.
Cores for 32-bit architectures include Cortex-A32, Cortex-A15, Cortex-A12, Cortex-A17, Cortex-A9, Cortex-A8, Cortex-A7 and Cortex-A5, and older "Classic ARM Processors", as well as variant architectures for microcontrollers that include these cores: Cortex-R7, Cortex R5, Cortex-R4, Cortex-M4, Cortex-M3, Cortex-M1, Cortex-M0+, and Cortex-M0 for licensing; the three most popular licensing models are the "Perpetual (Implementation) License", "Term License" and "Per Use License".
Companies often license these designs from ARM to manufacture and integrate into their own System on chip (SoC) with other components such as GPUs (sometimes ARM's Mali) or modem/radio basebands (for mobile phones). ARM also offers Artisan POP IP, where ARM partners with foundries to provide physical implementation, which allows faster time to market.
In February 2016, ARM announced the Built on ARM Cortex Technology license often shortened to Built on Cortex (BoC) license. This license allows companies to partner with ARM and make modifications to ARM Cortex designs. These design modifications will not be shared with other companies. These semi-custom core designs also have brand freedom, for example Kryo 280.
In addition to licenses for their core designs and BoC license, ARM offers an "architectural license" for their Instruction set architectures, allowing the licensees to design their own cores that implement one of those instruction sets. An ARM architectural license is more costly than a regular ARM core license, and also requires the necessary engineering power to design a CPU based on the instruction set.
Processors believed to be designed independently from ARM include Apple's (architecture license from March 2008) A6, A6X, A7 and all subsequent Apple processors (used in iPhone 5, iPad and iPhone 5S), Qualcomm's Snapdragon series (used in smartphones such as the US version of the Samsung Galaxy S8) and Samsung's Exynos ("Mongoose" M1 cores).
ARM core licenseesEdit
Companies that are current licensees of the 64-bit ARMv8-A core designs include AMD, AppliedMicro (X-Gene), Broadcom, Calxeda, HiSilicon, Rockchip, Samsung, and STMicroelectronics.
Companies that are current or former licensees of 32-bit ARM core designs include AMD, Broadcom, Freescale (now NXP Semiconductors), Huawei (HiSilicon), IBM, Infineon Technologies (Infineon XMC 32-bit MCU families), Intel (older "ARM11 MPCore"), LG, Microsemi, NXP Semiconductors, Renesas, Rockchip, Samsung, STMicroelectronics, and Texas Instruments.
ARM architectural licenseesEdit
Companies with a 64-bit ARMv8-A architectural license include Applied Micro, Broadcom, Cavium, Huawei (HiSilicon), Nvidia, AMD, Qualcomm, Samsung, and Apple.
Companies with a 32-bit ARM architectural license include Broadcom (ARMv7), Faraday Technology (ARMv4, ARMv5), Marvell Technology Group, Microsoft, Qualcomm, Intel, and Apple.
ARM Built on ARM Cortex Technology licenseesEdit
Artisan POP IPEdit
ARM Neoverse infrastructureEdit
In October 2018, ARM rebranded their infrastructure portfolio under the ARM Neoverse brand and launched the ARM ServerReady certificate. Neoverse aims to scale from Servers, WAN Routers, Gateways, Cellular base stations and Top-of-Rack switches. Neoverse Platforms include Cosmos, Ares and in the future Zeus and Poseidon. The Cosmos Platform includes the Cortex-A72 and Cortex-A75. The Ares Platform includes the Neoverse N1 and Neoverse E1.
The supercomputer maker Cray has added "ARM Option" (i.e. CPU blade option, using Cavium ThunderX2 CPUs) to their XC50 supercomputers, and Cray claims that ARM is "a third processor architecture for building next-generation supercomputers", for e.g. the US Department of Energy.
Fujitsu (the supercomputer maker of June 2011 world's fastest K computer according to TOP500) announced at the International Supercomputing Conference in June 2016 that its future exascale supercomputer will feature processors of its own design that implement the ARMv8 architecture, rather than the SPARC processors used in earlier supercomputers. These processors will also implement extensions to the ARMv8 architecture equivalent to HPC-ACE2 that Fujitsu is developing with ARM Holdings. The Fujitsu supercomputer post-K planned, will use 512-bit scalable vector extension (ARMv8-A SVE) with "the goal of beginning full operations around 2021. [..] With post-K, Fujitsu and RIKEN aim to create the world's highest-performing supercomputer"; SVE is a new extension for ARMv8 allowing "implementation choices for vector lengths that scale from 128 to 2048 bits."
The Cray XC50-series supercomputer for the University of Bristol is called Isambard, named after Isambard Kingdom Brunel. The supercomputer is expected to feature around 160 nodes, each with two 32-core ThunderX2 processors running at 2.1 GHz. Peak theoretical performance of the 10,240 cores and 40,960 threads is 172 teraFLOPS.
The Vanguard project by Sandia National Laboratories is to deliver a exascale ARM machine. The first generation was called Hammer, it was based on X-Gene by Applied Micro. The second generation was called Sullivan was based Cavium's ThunderXs processors. The third generation of the Sandia National Laboratories' Vanguard project called Mayer was based on pre-production ThunderX2 and consisted of 47 nodes. The fourth generation also based on ThunderX2 is called Astra and will become operation by November 2018. Each Astra node will feature two 28-core ThunderX2 processors running at 2.0 GHz with 128 GB DDR4. Each rack has 18x Hewlett Packard Enterprise Apollo 70 chassis with 72 compute nodes along with 3 InfiniBand switches. Astra will feature a total of 36 racks. Thus Astra will have 5,184 ThunderX2 processors, 145,152 ThunderX2 cores and 580,608 threads. Astra's peak theoretical performance is 4.644 PFLOPS in Single Precision, and 2.322 PFLOPS in Double Precision and will support 324 TB DDR4. Astra is the first ARM-based Petascale supercomputer to enter the TOP500 list. As of November 2018 it is ranked at 204.
ARM-based CPU market share in 2010: over 95% in smartphone market; 10% in mobile computers; 35% in digital TVs and set-top boxes; however, ARM did not have any market share in servers and desktop PCs. The first mobile phone to use an ARM processor was 1997's Nokia 6110 mobile phone.
In the fourth quarter of 2010, 1.8 billion chips based on an ARM design were manufactured.
In May 2012, Dell announced the Copper platform, a server based on Marvell’s ARM powered devices. In October 2012, ARM announced the first set of early licensees of the 64-bit-capable Cortex-A57 processor.
ARM's goal was to have, by 2015, ARM-based processors in more than half of all tablets, mini-notebooks and other mobile PCs sold.
|Year||Billion units||Relative size|
University of MichiganEdit
In 2011, ARM renewed a five-year, US$5 million research partnership with University of Michigan, which extended their existing research partnership to 2015. This partnership will focus on ultra-low energy and sustainable computing.
- World's smallest computer
In October 2017, Arduino announced its partnership with ARM. The announcement said, in part, "ARM recognized independence as a core value of Arduino ... without any lock-in with the ARM architecture." Arduino intends to continue to work with all technology vendors and architectures.
Warren East was appointed Chief Executive Officer of ARM Holdings in October 2001. In the 2011 financial year, East received a total compensation of £1,187,500 from ARM, comprising a salary of £475,000 and a bonus of £712,500. East said in March 2013 that he would retire from ARM in May, with president Simon Segars taking over as CEO. In March 2014, former Rexam chairman Stuart Chambers succeeded John Buchanan as chairman. Chambers, a non-executive director of Tesco and former chief executive of Nippon Sheet Glass Group, had previously worked at Mars and Royal Dutch Shell.
- "ARM's first press release" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 January 2016. Retrieved 19 November 2015.
- Saxby, Robin (23 November 2006). "Chips With Everything" (PDF). Retrieved 27 May 2011.
- "ARM founder says Softbank deal is 'sad day' for UK tech".
- Erin Griffiths (16 November 2017). "Phone-chip Designer Tackles 'Industrial' Internet of Things". Wired. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Arm Segment | Financials and Filings | Investor Relations | About Us | SoftBank Group". SoftBank Group. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "ARM Holdings on the Forbes World's Most Innovative Companies List".
- "ARM Holdings on the Forbes World's Most Innovative Companies List". Forbes.
- "Barber Casanovas Ruffles - Chartered Architects: Arm, Peterhouse Technology Park". bcr-architects.co.uk. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "ARM CPU Core Dominates Mobile Market – Nikkei Electronics Asia – Tech-On!". Techon.nikkeibp.co.jp. Archived from the original on 11 September 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "VA10820 - Radiation Hardened ARM® Cortex®-M0 MCU | Vorago Technologies | Opening up new possibilities". www.voragotech.com. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "Air Force, NASA to develop radiation-hardened ARM processor for next-generation space computing". www.militaryaerospace.com. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "Astra - Apollo 70, Cavium ThunderX2 CN9975-2000 28C 2GHz, 4xEDR Infiniband | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 11 January 2019. The Cavium ThunderX2 CPUs are ARM-based.
- "ARMv8-R Architecture". www.arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Biometric Access Control Implementation Using 32 bit Arm Cortex Processor - IEEE Conference Publication". ieeexplore.ieee.org. Retrieved 16 July 2018.
- Branscombe, Mary. "Windows 10 on ARM: S versus Pro, emulation and 64-bit app support | ZDNet". ZDNet. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
only 32-bit x86 applications are supported
- Sinofsky, Steven. "Building Windows for the ARM processor architecture". Building Windows 8. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "ARM and Canonical to Bring Full Ubuntu Desktop Experience to Low-Power, ARM Technology-Based Computing Devices". arm.com (Press release). 13 November 2008. Retrieved 2 March 2018.
- "Red Hat Deploys ARM-Based Servers for Fedora Project". eWEEK. 15 May 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "nCore HPC Rolls Out BrownDwarf ARM DSP Supercomputer". insideHPC. 17 June 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- Barak, Sylvie (6 December 2011). "Nvidia: ARM supercomputer to be more efficient than x86". EE Times.
- "Smartphone chips may power servers, researchers say". PCWorld. 25 May 2013. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "Cray Adds ARM Option to XC50 Supercomputer | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 14 November 2017.
Cray claims its ARM compiler demonstrated better performance in two-thirds of 135 benchmarks, and much better performance – 20 percent or more – in one-third of them, compared to open source ARM compilers from LLVM and GNU. The Cray ThunderX2 blades can be mixed with other XC50 blades outfitted with Intel Xeon-SP or Xeon Phi processors and NVIDIA Tesla GPUs. Both air-cooled and liquid-cooled options are available. Cray already has one customer lined up for the ThunderX2-powered XC50: the Great Western 4 (GW4) Alliance, a research consortium of four UK universities (Bristol, Bath, Cardiff and Exeter). In January 2017, the alliance announced it had contracted Cray to build "Isambard," a 10,000-core ARM-based supercomputer, which will provide a Tier 2 HPC service. The UK’s Met Office was also involved on the deal, since it was interested in seeing how its weather and climate codes would run on such a machine. The system will be paid for out of a £3 million award from the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC). It’s scheduled to be fully deployed by the end of this year.
- "Multimedia - Graphics Processing from ARM". www.arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Clarke, Peter (26 September 2013). "ARM Closes in on Imagination in GPU Shipments".
- "Apple iPhone Update: Whats changed since the iPhone 4". 6 September 2012.
- "802.11a/b/g/n MAC/Baseband/Radio with Integrated Bluetooth 4.0+HS & FM Transceiver" (Press release). Archived from the original on 10 April 2016.
- "Single-Chip Bluetooth® Mono Headset IC". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Klug, Brian (5 June 2012). "ARM: Broadcom Announces BCM4708x and BCM5301x SoCs for 802.11ac routers". Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- "Marvell Expands its Broad 4G LTE Product Portfolio with the ARMADA Mobile PXA1088LTE Pro Platform to Support the Issuing of 4G TD-LTE Licenses in China and Operators" (Press release). Retrieved 21 September 2014.
- Merritt, Rick. "Cavium Flexes ARM Server Upgrade: 14nm ThunderX2 will pack 54 cores".
- "Opteron™ A-Series Processors - AMD". www.amd.com.
- BBC. “ARM chip designer to be bought by Japan's SoftBank 18 July 2016. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "SoftBank finally completes £24bn ARM takeover". Silicon Republic. 5 December 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2016.
- "Acquisition of ARM Holdings plc. by SoftBank Group Corp". silver.arm.com.
- "Company Description (as filed with the SEC)". NASDAQ. Archived from the original on 5 May 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Eric Brown (7 August 2017). "Chip IP designer ARM becomes "Arm" — or is it arm?". LinuxGizmos.com.
- "ARM milestones". www.arm.com. Retrieved 8 April 2015.
- Andrews, Jason (2005). "3 SoC Verification Topics for the ARM Architecture". Co-verification of hardware and software for ARM SoC design. Oxford, UK: Elsevier. p. 69. ISBN 978-0-7506-7730-1.
ARM started as a branch of Acorn Computer in Cambridge, United Kingdom, with the formation of a joint venture between Acorn, Apple and VLSI Technology. A team of twelve employees produced the design of the first ARM microprocessor between 1983 and 1985.
- Weber, Jonathan (28 November 1990). "Apple to Join Acorn, VLSI in Chip-Making Venture". Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
Apple has invested about $3 million (roughly 1.5 million pounds) for a 30% interest in the company, dubbed Advanced Risc Machines Ltd. (ARM) [...]
- "PALMCHIP Introduces Fully-Integrated, Low-Power Controller Core for OEM Mass Storage Design". EE Times. 16 May 1997.
- "ARM Company Milestones". www.arm.com.
- "Advanced RISC Machines Ltd is now ARM Ltd". Findarticles.com. 19 October 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM wins billion dollar valuation in IPO". Findarticles.com. 20 April 1998. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Davis, Jim (3 February 1999). "Short Take: Apple sells ARM shares". CNET. Retrieved 6 February 2012.
Apple still holds 14.8 percent of ARM [...]
- McGlaun, Shane (3 June 2010). "IBM, Freescale, Samsung Form Linaro to Aid in Developing ARM-compatible Software". Daily Tech. Archived from the original on 1 August 2017.
- "Robin Saxby". The Wall Street Transcript. 26 June 2000. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- "ARM acquires Allant Software". Design-reuse.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Clarke, Peter (10 April 2000). "ARM acquires privately-held design firm". EE Times. Retrieved 1 July 2014.
- "Samsung and Incard Launch World's First 32-BitSmart Card for High-Volume SIM Applications". Allbusiness.com. 24 October 2000. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM buys Noral debug design team". Electronicsweekly.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Yoshida, Junko (28 July 2003). "ARM buys Adelante's design office, leaves core". EE Times. Archived from the original on 15 June 2009.
- "ARM Holdings agrees to buy Aachen EDA company". Commsdesign.com. 16 August 2004. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Coates, Ron. "ARM to buy designer of systems on a chip". News.cnet.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM Purchases Keil Software". Microcontroller.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Smith, Tony (23 June 2006). "ARM buys Falanx". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "ARM acquires SOISIC". Channel-e.biz. Archived from the original on 6 July 2011. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- Peter Clarke, EE Times. "ARM buys processor verification firm Obsidian." 22 June 2011. Retrieved 22 June 2011.
- Anton Shilov (1 November 2011). "ARM Acquires Developer of Automated Chip Layout Tools". XbitLabs. Archived from the original on 4 November 2011. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
- "ARM Acquires Internet Of Things Startup Sensinode To Move Beyond Tablets And Phones". TechCrunch. AOL. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "ARM Acquires Advanced Display Technology from Cadence". www.arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- Paul Bakker (24 November 2014). "PolarSSL is now a part of ARM". Polar SSL. Archived from the original on 24 November 2014. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "mbed TLS 1.3.10 released". 8 February 2015. Retrieved 9 February 2015.
- "ARM Concludes its Acquisition of Duolog Technologies". www.arm.com. 1 August 2014.
- "ARM Expands IoT Security Capability with Acquisition of Sansa Security". www.arm.com. 30 July 2015.
- "ARM Announces Acquisition of Wicentric and Sunrise Micro". www.arm.com. 16 April 2015.
- "ARM buys Leading IoT Security Company Offspark as it Expands its mbed Platform". www.arm.com. 9 February 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "ARM to Offer Cycle-Accurate Virtual Prototyping for Complex SoCs Through an Asset Acquisition from Carbon Design Systems". www.arm.com. 20 October 2015. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- Janakiram, MSV (18 April 2016). "Is Fog Computing the Next Big Thing in the Internet of Things?". Forbes Magazine. Retrieved 18 April 2016.
- Andrew (18 May 2016). "ARM Acquires Apical – a Global Leader in Imaging and Embedded Computer Vision". Apical. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "ARM extends HPC offering with acquisition of software tools provider Allinea Software". www.arm.com. 16 December 2016.
- Stu Woo; Ric Carew; Eva Dou (18 July 2016). "SoftBank to Buy ARM Holdings for $32 Billion". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 22 July 2016.
- "Processor Licensees". ARM Limited.
- "Company Worldwide offices - ARM". ARM Limited.
- ARM Processor Overview, Arm company website. Retrieved 5 February 2008
- "Product Backgrounder" (PDF). Arm Holdings. January 2005. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2007.
- "ARM". Symbian. Archived from the original on 26 January 2008. Retrieved 5 February 2008.
ARM is the market-leading architecture in mobile devices worldwide, with 80% of all handsets containing at least one ARM core.
- "What processor does the iPod, iPod mini, iPod nano, iPod touch, and iPod shuffle use?". Everymac.com. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- iPhone powered by Samsung, not Intel?, engadget, 11 January 2007
- "ARM Powered Products". ARM. Archived from the original on 30 September 2009.
- "Sony PlayStation Portable – PSP". Arm Holdings. Archived from the original on 29 September 2009. Retrieved 18 April 2011.
- "Processor Licensees". arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "ARM Sets New Standard for the Premium Mobile Experience". Arm Holdings. Retrieved 21 October 2016.
- Ltd, Arm. "Arm acquires Treasure Data to set the stage for IoT transformation". Arm | The Architecture for the Digital World. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- "Licensing ARM IP". Arm Holdings. Retrieved 20 September 2013.
- Frumusanu, Andrei. "ARM Details Built on ARM Cortex Technology License". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Shimpi, Anand Lal (28 June 2013). "The ARM Diaries, Part 1: How ARM's Business Model Works". Anandtech. p. 3. Retrieved 21 September 2013.
- How Apple Designed Own CPU For A6 // Linley on Mobile, 15 September 2012
- Lai Shimpi, Anand (10 September 2013). "Apple Announces A7, World's First 64-bit Smartphone SoC". AnandTech. Retrieved 16 September 2013.
- Whitwam, Ryan (26 August 2011). "How Qualcomm's Snapdragon ARM chips are unique". Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Arm, "ARM Launches Cortex-A50 Series, the World’s Most Energy-Efficient 64-bit Processors." Retrieved 30 October 2012.
- "AppliedMicro Showcases World's First 64-bit ARM v8 Core". AppliedMicro. 27 October 2011. Retrieved 18 September 2013.
- "ROCKCHIP EXTENDS PARTNERSHIP WITH ARM BY SUBSCRIPTION LICENSE OF ARM PROCESSOR AND GPU TECHNOLOGIES" (Press release). Arm Holdings. 5 November 2013. Retrieved 8 November 2013.
- "AMD Strengthens Security Solutions through Technology Partnership with ARM" (Press release). 13 June 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Advanced Low-Cost HSPA/EDGE Multimedia Baseband Processor - BCM21654". Broadcom. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "i.MX Applications Processors". Freescale. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Vybrid Controller Solutions based on ARM® Technology". Freescale. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Merritt, Rick (26 February 2012). "Huawei claims quad-core chip outguns Tegra3".
- "IBM and ARM to Collaborate on Advanced Semiconductor Technology for Mobile Electronics" (Press release). 17 January 2011.
- "32-bit Industrial Microcontrollers based on ARM® Cortex™-M".
- Savov, Vlad (26 April 2011). "LG licenses ARM Cortex-A15 and Mali-T604 graphics, starts scheming up mobile processors of its own". Engadget. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "LG Electronics Becomes Lead Partner For ARM Cortex-A50 Family Of Products And Next-Generation Mali GPUs" (Press release). 23 May 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "SoC FPGAs | FPGA & SoC | Products". www.microsemi.com. Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- "Microcontrollers :: NXP Semiconductors". NXP Semiconductors. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "R-Car M1A/S". Renesas. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Samsung announce 1GHz ARM CORTEX-A8 Hummingbird CPU". GSMArena. 27 July 2009. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Samsung Exynos 5 Dual". Samsung. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "STM32 32-bit ARM Cortex MCUs". STMicroelectronics. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "ARM-Based Processor Platforms". Texas Instruments. Retrieved 20 December 2015.
- A long look at how ARM licenses chips. Part 1: 7 License types to rule them all, one company to bind them // SemiAccurate, 7 August 2013 by Charlie Demerjian
- Fergie (31 October 2012). "ARM Cortex-A50: Broadening Applicability of ARM Technology in Servers". Arm (Community portal). Archived from the original on 17 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: "Applied Micro announced their intent to develop a 64-bit ARM powered server device. ARM demands compatibility between companies that develop their own ARM processors (achieved through an architecture license) ... three publicly announced ARMv8 architecture licensees (Applied Micro, Cavium and NVIDIA)"
- Clarke, Peter (1 November 2013). "London Calling: Are ARM's core days numbered?". EETimes. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: "the number of architectural licenses seems to have increased with Applied Micro and Cavium"
- Broadcom takes two ARM architecture licenses // EETimes, Peter Clarke, 1 September 2013
- ARM and Broadcom Extend Relationship with ARMv7 and ARMv8 Architecture Licenses. Business Wire (8 January 2013). Retrieved on 2 August 2013.
- "ARM and Cavium Extend Relationship with ARMv8 Architecture License" (Press release). 1 August 2012.
- "Huawei announces global agreement to licence ARMv8 architecture" (Press release). 4 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- Huawei to licence ARMv8 chip architecture // TechWorld, 4 September 2013
- "NVIDIA Announces "Project Denver" To Build Custom CPU Cores Based On ARM Architecture, Targeting Personal Computers To Supercomputers" (Press release). 5 January 2011. Archived from the original on 21 September 2013. Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "NVIDIA Charts Its Own Path to ARMv8" (PDF). Tirias. 11 August 2014. p. 1. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 September 2014. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: "NVIDIA announced back in 2011 that it had taken an architecture license for the 64-bit ARMv8 instruction set and was building a custom ARM core. The result is Project Denver. "
- "AMD Unveils Ambidextrous Computing Roadmap. Announces 64-bit ARM Core Architecture License and Future "K12" ARM-based Core" (Press release). San Francisco, California: AMD. 5 May 2014. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Merritt, Rick (5 May 2014). "AMD Takes Swing at Custom ARM First up, pin-compatible ARM, x86 SoCs". San Francisco: EETimes. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Snapdragon 820 and Kryo CPU: heterogeneous computing and the role of custom compute". Qualcomm. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 6 September 2015.
- "Samsung to Jump up Its Application Processor Competitiveness". etnews. 29 July 2013. Retrieved 16 September 2014.:"It is known that Samsung signed an architecture license with ARM two to three years ago ... also 64bit ARMv8 architecture is included in the contract."
- "Faraday Technology Corporation - ARM Cores".
- "HDD Markets and Technologies". Retrieved 19 September 2013.
As one of a few select companies to hold a full ARM architecture license, Marvell is uniquely positioned to leverage the pervasiveness of the ARM architecture.
- Clarke, Peter (23 July 2010). "Microsoft takes ARM architectural license". Retrieved 19 September 2013.
- "Qualcomm's New Snapdragon S4: MSM8960 & Krait Architecture Explored". AnandTech. 7 October 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: "Qualcomm has an ARM architecture license enabling it to build its own custom micro architectures that implement the ARM instruction set."
- Gwennap, Linley (19 July 2010). "TWO-HEADED SNAPDRAGON TAKES FLIGHT" (PDF). Microprocessor Report. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: "The Scorpion CPU implements the ARMv7-A instruction set, ... under an architecture license from ARM."
- "Intel adopts power conscious strategy to counter ARM". TGDaily. 17 May 2011. Retrieved 16 September 2014.: Intel CEO Paul Otellini, "we have an ARM architecture license. we have no intention to use [it] again to build chip."
- "Allwinner A33 Processor Goes Official, Cortex-A7 Quad-core And Mali-400 MP2 GPU". GSM Insider. Archived from the original on 8 June 2014. Retrieved 5 June 2014.
- Shilov, Anton. "Arm and Samsung Extend Artisan POP IP Collaboration to 7LPP and 5LPE Nodes". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Frumusanu, Andrei. "ARM Announces New 28nm POP IP For UMC Foundry". www.anandtech.com. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Schor, David (16 December 2018). "Arm Targets Data Centers with New Roadmaps, Architectures, and Standards". WikiChip Fuse. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Schor, David (20 February 2019). "Arm Launches New Neoverse N1 and E1 Server Cores". WikiChip Fuse. Retrieved 26 May 2019.
- Morgan, Timothy Prickett. "Inside Japan's Future Exascale ARM Supecomputer". The Next Platform. Retrieved 13 July 2016.
- "Fujitsu Completes Post-K Supercomputer CPU Prototype, Begins Functionality Trials - Fujitsu Global". www.fujitsu.com (Press release). Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "The scalable vector extension sve for the Armv8 a architecture". Arm Community. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "A Look at Cavium's New High-Performance ARM Microprocessors and the Isambard Supercomputer". WikiChip Fuse. 3 June 2018. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- Schor, David (25 August 2018). "Cavium Takes ARM to Petascale with Astra". WikiChip Fuse. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- "Astra - Apollo 70, Cavium ThunderX2 CN9975-2000 28C 2GHz, 4xEDR Infiniband | TOP500 Supercomputer Sites". www.top500.org. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- Timothy Prickett Morgan, The Register. "ARM Holdings eager for PC and server expansion Record 2010, looking for Intel killer 2020." 1 February 2011. Retrieved 21 September 2011.
- Shimpi, Anand Lal (31 March 2014). "ARM Partners Ship 50 Billion Chips Since 1991 - Where Did They Go?". AnandTech. Retrieved 16 September 2014.
- "Q4 revenue came from the sale of 1.8 billion ARM-processor based chips", Arm press release, 1 February 2011
- Ashok Bindra (28 July 2011). "ARM, Windows 8 to Power Future Notebooks, says IHS". TMCnet. Retrieved 2 August 2011.
- "Windows 10 on ARM". Microsoft | Docs.
- "Copper enables the ARM server ecosystem". Dell. Archived from the original on 21 January 2013.
- Martyn Williams, IDG News. "ARM Expects Half of Mobile PC Market by 2015." 29 May 2011. Retrieved 18 July 2011.
- "ARM Holdings - Investor Relations - ARM Holdings plc - Financial Reports - annual reports". arm.com. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "HEXUS.net - ARM Everywhere". hexus.net. Retrieved 15 March 2015.
- "Share Sleuth: tech titan ARM on sale". Money Observer. 23 February 2016. Retrieved 19 March 2016.
- Peter Clarke, EE Times. "ARM extends Michigan research deal." 31 August 2011. Retrieved 20 September 2011.
- Edwards, Chris (31 August 2011). "Low Power Design". Electronics Weekly. Retrieved 2 November 2018.
- "U-M researchers create world's smallest 'computer'" (Press release). University of Michigan. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 8 July 2018.
- "Arduino reborn partners with ARM". Electronics Weekly. 6 October 2017. Retrieved 3 November 2017.
- "Arm cozies up to Intel for second time in a week – this time to borrow tools from Yocto Project for Mbed Linux".
- "Warren East: Executive Profile & Biography". BusinessWeek. Bloomberg. Retrieved 21 March 2012.
- "Warren East profile". Forbes. Retrieved 23 August 2009.
- "ARM CEO Warren East steps down". PC Pro. Retrieved 19 March 2013.
- Bertoni, Steven. "PODCAST: How Arm Holdings Got Into Every Tech Gadget You Own". Forbes. Retrieved 11 December 2017.
- "Appointment Of New Chairman". ARM Investor Relations. Arm Investor Relations. 27 January 2014. Retrieved 2 November 2018.