Antonov An-124 Ruslan
The Antonov An-124 Ruslan (Ukrainian: Антонов Ан-124 Руслан, lit. 'Ruslan') (NATO reporting name: Condor) is a strategic airlift quadjet. It was designed in the 1980s by the Antonov design bureau in the Ukrainian SSR, then part of the Soviet Union (USSR). Until the Boeing 747-8F, the An-124 was, for thirty years, the world's heaviest gross weight production cargo airplane and second heaviest operating cargo aircraft, behind the one-off Antonov An-225 Mriya (a greatly enlarged design based on the An-124). The An-124 remains the largest military transport aircraft in current service. The lead designer of the An-124 (and the An-225) was Viktor Tolmachev.
|An An-124 of 224th Flight Unit|
|Role||Heavy transport aircraft|
|National origin||Soviet Union|
|Built by||Aviastar-SP |
Antonov Serial Production Plant (former)
|First flight||24 December 1982|
|Primary users||Russian Air Force|
|Developed into||Antonov An-225|
During development it was known as Izdeliye 400 (Product #400) in house, and An-40 in the West. First flown in 1982, civil certification was issued on 30 December 1992. In July 2013, 26 An-124s were in commercial service with 10 on order.
In August 2014, it was reported that plans to resume joint production of the Antonov An-124 had been shelved due to the ongoing political tensions between Russia and Ukraine. The sole remaining production facility is Russia's Aviastar-SP in Ulyanovsk. The various operators of the An-124 are in discussions with respect to the continuing airworthiness certification of the individual An-124 planes. The original designer of the An-124 is responsible for managing the certification process for its own products, but Russian/Ukrainian conflicts are making this process difficult to manage. Military operators are able to self-certify the airworthiness of their own aircraft, but Russian civil operators must find a credible outside authority for certification if Ukraine is unable or unwilling to participate in the process.[unreliable source?]
- 1 Development
- 2 Design
- 3 Operational history
- 4 Variants
- 5 Operators
- 6 Notable accidents
- 7 Specifications (An-124-100M)
- 8 Notable appearances in media
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
During the 1970s, the Military Transport Aviation (Komandovaniye voyenno-transportnoy aviatsii or VTA) arm of the Soviet Air Forces had a shortfall in strategic heavy airlift capacity. Its largest planes consisted of about 50 Antonov An-22 turboprops, which were used heavily for tactical roles. A declassified 1975 CIA analysis concluded that the USSR did "...not match the US in ability to provide long-range heavy lift support."
The An-124 was manufactured in parallel by two plants: the Russian company Aviastar-SP (ex. Ulyanovsk Aviation Industrial Complex) and by the Kyiv Aviation Plant AVIANT, in Ukraine. Design work started in 1971 and construction of facilities began in 1973. Manufacturing on the first airframe began in 1979. Ultimately this project brought together over 100 factories contracted to produce systems and parts.
The first flight took place in December 1982 and the first exposure to the West followed in 1985 at the Paris Air Show.
In the early 2000s, Volga-Dnepr upgraded its freighters with engine improvements to meet Chapter 4 noise regulations, structural improvements to increase service life, and avionics and systems changes for four persons operations down from six or seven.
Russia and Ukraine agreed to resume the production in the third quarter of 2008. In May 2008, a new variant—the An-124-150—was announced; it featured several improvements, including a maximum lift capacity of 150 tonnes. However, in May 2009, Antonov's partner, the Russian United Aircraft Corporation announced it did not plan production of An-124s in the period 2009–2012. In late 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev ordered production of the aircraft resumed. It is expected that Russia will purchase 20 new aircraft. In August 2014, Jane's reported that, Russian Deputy Minister of Industry and Trade Yuri Slusar announced that Antonov An-124 production was stopped due to ongoing political tensions between Russia and Ukraine.
As of late 2017, An-124s are being upgraded by the Aviastar-SP plant in Ulyanovsk, Russia, with three upgraded planes due to be ready by 2018. After Russia–Ukraine relations soured, Antonov had to source new suppliers and pushes to westernize the An-124. In 2018, GE Aviation was studying reengining it with CF6s for CargoLogicAir, a Volga-Dnepr subsidiary. This would likely provide a range increase, and Volga-Dnepr Group operates 12 aircraft, implying a 50-60 engines with spares program.
In January 2019, Antonov revealed its plans to restart the An-124 production without support from Russia.
Russian replacement designEdit
At MAKS Air Show in 2017, the TsAGI announced its Slon (elephant) design to replace the similar An-124. The design was detailed in January 2019 before Wind tunnel testing scheduled for August–September. It should be produced at the Aviastar-SP factory in Ulyanovsk but would be a difficult investment without substantial foreign orders. It should transport 150 t (330,000 lb) over 3,800 nmi (7,000 km) (up from 1,675 nmi, 3,102 km), or 180 t (400,000 lb) over 2,650 nmi (4,910 km) at 460 kn (850 km/h). The Russian MoD wants a range of 4,100 nmi (7,600 km) with five Sprut-SDM-1 light tanks, their 100 crew and 300 armed soldiers.
It would be larger at 82.3 m (270 ft) long from 69 m (227 ft), with a 87–88 m (286–290 ft) span versus 73.3 m (240.5 ft) and 24.0 m (78.7 ft) high compared with 21.0 m (68.9 ft). A new higher aspect ratio, composite wing and a 214–222 t (472,000–489,000 lb) airframe would allow a 490–500 t (1,080,000–1,100,000 lb) gross weight. It should be powered by Russian PD-35s developed for the CR929 widebody, producing 35 tf (77,000 lbf) up from 23 tf (51,000 lbf). Two fuselages are planned, one for Volga-Dnepr with a width of 5.3 m (17.4 ft) from the An-124's 4.4 m (14.4 ft), and one for the Russian MoD of 6.4 m (21 ft) wide to carry vehicles in two lines.
Externally, the An-124 is similar to the American Lockheed C-5 Galaxy, having a double fuselage to allow for a rear cargo door (on the lower fuselage) that can open in flight without affecting structural integrity. It is slightly shorter, with a slightly greater wingspan, and a 17% larger payload. Instead of the Galaxy's T-tail, the An-124 uses a conventional empennage, similar in design to that of the Boeing 747. The An-124's main engine is the Lotarev D-18 (238–250 kN).
The aircraft uses oleo strut suspension for its 24 wheels. The suspension has been calibrated to allow landing on rough terrain and is able to kneel to allow easier front loading. The plane has an onboard overhead crane capable of lifting up to 30 tonnes of cargo, and items up to 120 tonnes can be winched on board.
Up to 150 tonnes (150 long tons; 170 short tons) of cargo can be carried in a military An-124; it can also carry 88 passengers in an upper deck behind the wing centre section. The cargo compartment of An-124 is 36×6.4×4.4 m (118×21×14 ft), ca. 20% larger than the main cargo compartment of the C-5 Galaxy, which is 36.91×5.79×4.09 m (121.1×19.0×13.4 ft). Due to limited pressurisation in the main cargo compartment (24.6 kPa, 3.57 psi), it seldom carries paratroopers.
Pilots have stated that the An-124 is light on the controls and easy to handle for an aircraft of its size.
Germany led the recent effort to lease An-124s for NATO strategic airlift requirements. Two aircraft are leased from SALIS GmbH as a stopgap until the Airbus A400M is available. Under NATO SALIS programme NAMSA is chartering six An-124-100 transport aircraft. According to the contract An-124-100s of Antonov Airlines and Volga-Dnepr are used within the limits of NATO SALIS programme to transport cargo by requests of 18 countries: Belgium, Hungary, Greece, Denmark, Canada, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Norway, United Kingdom, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Slovenia, Finland, France, Germany, Czech Republic and Sweden. Two An-124-100s are constantly based on full-time charter in the Leipzig/Halle airport, but the contract specifies that if necessary, two more aircraft will be provided at six days' notice and another two at nine days' notice. The aircraft proved extremely useful for NATO especially with ongoing operations in Iraq and Afghanistan.
United Launch Alliance (ULA) contracts the An-124 to transport the Atlas V launch vehicle from its facilities in Decatur, Alabama to Cape Canaveral. ULA also uses the An-124 to transport the Atlas V launch vehicle and Centaur upper stage from their manufacturing facility in Denver, Colorado to Cape Canaveral and Vandenberg Air Force Base. Two flights are required to transfer each launch vehicle (one for the Atlas V main booster stage and another for the Centaur upper stage). It is also contracted by Space Systems Loral to transport satellites from Palo Alto, CA to the Arianespace spaceport in Kourou, French Guiana and by SpaceX to transport payload fairings between their factory in Hawthorne, California and Cape Canaveral.
Airbus Transport International, a subsidiary of Airbus, has selected a Russian cargo company, Polet Airlines, as "designated carrier" to the company. Polet expects its three An-124-100s will transport astronautic equipment manufactured by EADS, which is Airbus' parent company, and components of the Airbus A380 superjumbo.
- On May 1987, an An-124 set a world record, covering the distance of 20,151 km (10,881 nmi) without refuelling. The flight took 25 hours and 30 minutes; the takeoff weight was 455,000 kg.
- In July 1985, an An-124 carried 171,219 kg (377,473 lb) of cargo to an altitude of 2,000 m (6,600 ft) and 170,000 kg to an altitude of 10,750 m (35,270 ft).
- An An-124 was used to transport the Obelisk of Axum back to its native homeland of Ethiopia from Rome in April 2005.
- An An-124 was used to transport an EP-3E Aries II electronic intelligence aircraft from Hainan Island, China on 4 July 2001 following the Hainan Island incident.
- In July 2010, an An-124 was used to transport four 35-foot and three 21-foot skimmer boats from France to the US to assist with the clean-up of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill
- An An-124 was used in April 2011 to airlift a large Putzmeister concrete pump from Germany to Japan to help cool reactors damaged in the Fukushima nuclear accident. The An-225 was used to transport an even larger Putzmeister concrete pump to Japan from the United States.
- An An-124 was used in May 2018 to transport an 87,000 lb die tools from Eaton Rapids, Michigan, USA to Nottingham, England in order to restart Ford F-150 production due to a fire in the Eaton Rapids Magnesium Casting Facility.
- An-124 Ruslan
- Strategic heavy airlift transport aircraft
- Commercial transport aircraft
- Commercial transport version fitted with Western avionics
- Commercial transport version with an EFIS flight deck
- Planned new variant with EFIS based on Rockwell Collins avionic parts
- Proposed version
- Variant with one seat in the rear and the rest of the cargo area (approx. 1,800 square feet) dedicated to freight
- New variant with increased payload (150 tonnes)
- Proposed version with General Electric CF6-80C2 engines, each rated at 59,200 lbf (263 kN)
- Joint proposal with Air Foyle to meet UK's Short Term Strategic Airlifter (STSA) requirement, with Rolls-Royce RB211-524H-T engines, each rated 60,600 lbf (264 kN) and Honeywell avionics—STSA competition abandoned in August 1999, reinstated, and won by the Boeing C-17A.
- Variant ordered by the Russian Air Force with new avionics, a new improved braking system and a payload of 150 tonnes.
- Russian Aerospace Forces
- Russian Air Force – 12 in service, 14 in reserve. In 2008, a contract was signed with Aviastar-SP for modernization of 10 aircraft by 2015. As of December 2019, at least 11 aircraft were modernized.
- 12th Military Transport Aviation Division
- 18th Military Transport Aviation Division
- 224th Air Detachment of Military Transport Aviation – Migalovo (air base), Tver Oblast
- Russian Air Force – 12 in service, 14 in reserve. In 2008, a contract was signed with Aviastar-SP for modernization of 10 aircraft by 2015. As of December 2019, at least 11 aircraft were modernized.
Former military operatorsEdit
- Soviet Air Force – aircraft were transferred to Russian and Ukrainian Air Forces after the dissolution of the Soviet Union.
In July 2013, 26 An-124s were in commercial service.
Former civil operatorsEdit
- Libyan Arab Air Cargo – had 2 aircraft in service as of 2013; 1 seized by Ukraine in 2017, and 1 destroyed on ground at Mitiga International Airport in June 2019.
- Aeroflot Russian International Airlines – retired from fleet in 2000
- Ayaks Cargo (Ayaks Polet Airlines)
- Polet Airlines – ceased operations 2014
- Rossiya Airlines – retired from fleet
- Transaero Airlines – retired from fleet
- Aeroflot Soviet Airlines – transferred to the Russian Aeroflot fleet
- Air Foyle (in partnership with Antonov Design Bureau) – joint venture dissolved 2006
- HeavyLift Cargo Airlines (in partnership with Volga-Dnepr Airlines) – ceased operations 2006
- Antonov AirTrack – ceased operations
- Titan Cargo – company ceased operations 2002
- TransCharter Titan Cargo – ceased operations 2003
- On 13 October 1992, SSSR-82002, operated by Antonov Airlines crashed near Kiev, Ukraine during flight testing, suffering nose cargo door failure during high-speed descent (part of test program) resulting in total loss of control. The airplane came down in a forest near Kiev, killing eight of the nine crew on board.
- On 15 November 1993, RA-82071, operated by Aviastar Airlines crashed into a mountain at 11,000 feet (3,400 m) while in a holding pattern at Kerman, Iran. 17 fatalities.
- On 8 October 1996, RA-82069, owned by Aeroflot but operated by Ayaks Cargo, crashed at San Francesco al Campo, Italy, while initiating a go-around after a low visibility approach on Turin Caselle airport's runway 36. Four fatalities.
- On 6 December 1997, RA-82005, operated by the Russian Air Force, crashed in a residential area after take-off in Irkutsk, Russia. All 23 people on board and 49 people on the ground were killed.
Data from Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2006-07
- Crew: 6 (pilot, copilot, navigator, senior flight engineer (+flight engineer, radio man) + 2 loadmasters)
- Capacity: 88 passengers in upper aft fuselage, or the hold can take an additional 350 pax on a palletised seating system / 150,000 kg (330,693 lb)
- Length: 69.1 m (226 ft 8 in)
- Wingspan: 73.3 m (240 ft 6 in)
- Height: 21.08 m (69 ft 2 in)
- Wing area: 628 m2 (6,760 sq ft)
- Aspect ratio: 8.6
- Airfoil: TsAGI Supercritical
- Empty weight: 181,000 kg (399,037 lb)
- Gross weight: 214,000 kg (471,789 lb) maximum fuel weight
- Max takeoff weight: 402,000 kg (886,258 lb) *Maximum landing weight: 330,000 kg (727,525 lb)
- Fuel capacity: 348,740 l (92,130 US gal; 76,710 imp gal)
- Powerplant: 4 × Progress D-18T high-bypass turbofan engines, 229 kN (51,000 lbf) thrust each
- Cruise speed: 865 km/h (537 mph, 467 kn) max
- 800–850 km/h (500–530 mph; 430–460 kn) at FL 328-394 (32,800–39,400 ft (9,997–12,009 m) at regional pressure setting)
- Approach speed: 230–260 km/h (140–160 mph; 120–140 kn)
- Range: 3,700 km (2,300 mi, 2,000 nmi) with max payload
- 8,400 km (5,200 mi; 4,500 nmi) with 80,000 kg (176,370 lb) payload
- 11,500 km (7,100 mi; 6,200 nmi) with 40,000 kg (88,185 lb) payload
- Ferry range: 14,000 km (8,700 mi, 7,600 nmi) with max fuel and minimum payload
- Service ceiling: 12,000 m (39,000 ft) max certified altitude
- Wing loading: 640.1 kg/m2 (131.1 lb/sq ft)
- Thrust/weight: 0.23
- Take-off run (maximum take-off weight): 3,000 m (9,800 ft)
- Landing roll (maximum landing weight): 900 m (3,000 ft)
Notable appearances in mediaEdit
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Airbus Beluga
- Boeing 747-400F
- Boeing 747-8F
- Boeing C-17 Globemaster III
- Lockheed C-5 Galaxy
- Ilyushin Il-106 PAK VTA
- "Era of Ruslan: 25 years" (Press release). Antonov. 24 December 2007. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 25 February 2008.
- "An-124 Production List". russianplanes.net (in Russian). Archived from the original on 23 February 2013. Retrieved 21 May 2014.
-  Archived 11 January 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- "AN-124-100 Performance". Antonov. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 10 August 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Though the as planned An-124-100M-150 enlarged version has a 7% higher payload than the operational Boeing 747-8F. The 747-8F has over two times the range (5,050 mi or 8,130 km) with a payload of 295,800 lb (134,000 kg) than the An-124-100M-150 with the same payload. The An-124-100M-150 is to carry less than half the payload at the same range.
- Nikolai, Novichkov (2 December 2014). "Russia completes initial An-124 upgrade programme". janes.com. Archived from the original on 19 October 2015. Retrieved 5 July 2015.
- 08/11/2014 (24 December 1982). "Volga-Dnepr Group Celebrates 80th Birthday of Legendary Chief Designer of the An-124 and An-225 Transport Aircraft". Volga-dnepr.com. Archived from the original on 12 June 2018.
- E. Gordon, Antonov's Heavy Transports, Midland Publishing.
- "World Airliner Census". Flight International, 16–22 August 2013
- UPDATE: Time called on An-124 production re-start IHS Jane's Defence Industry. Retrieved 5 May 2015.
- "The Tragic Fate of Ukraine's Antonov, Once a Legendary Name in Aeronautics". Sputnik. 16 September 2016. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 28 November 2016.
- Trends in Soviet Military Programs Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine (October 1976) (originally Top Secret), Central Intelligence Agency.
- Era of Ruslan: 25 years. Antonov, Accessed: 6 November 2011.
- The Condor: A New Soviet Heavy Transport Archived 31 May 2012 at the Wayback Machine (originally classified Secret), 1986, Central Intelligence Agency.
- Guy Norris (10 October 2018). "Freighter Growth And Possible An-124 Reengining Boost CF6 Prospects". Aviation Week & Space Technology.
- "Ukraine, Russia to resume production of giant cargo planes". Forbes. Kiev. Thomson Financial. 28 April 2008. Archived from the original on 30 August 2008. Retrieved 28 April 2008.
- Taverna, Michael A. "Russia, Ukraine Near Deal on Relaunch of Modernized An-124". Berlin: Aviation Week. Archived from the original on 21 May 2011. Retrieved 16 August 2008.
- Kingsley-Jones, Max (7 May 2009). "Superjet the biggest casualty as Russia slashes airliner output plans". Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 10 May 2009. Retrieved 9 May 2009.
- Maternovsky, Dennis (2009). "Russia to Resume Making World's Largest Plane, Kommersant Says" Archived 19 October 2015 at the Wayback Machine. Bloomberg.com. 24 December 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 23 September 2014. Retrieved 6 February 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Sputnik (20 June 2016). "Aging Russian-Ukrainian An-124 May Be Replaced With Russian Cargo Jet – Sputnik International". Sputniknews.com. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 5 January 2019.
- "Antonov resumes the production of An-124 Ruslan without Russia". Airlinerwatch. 16 January 2019. Retrieved 16 January 2019.
- Vladimir Karnozov (4 February 2019). "An-124 Ruslan Replacement Takes Shape". AIN online. Archived from the original on 6 February 2019. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
- David Kaminski-Morrow (5 November 2019). "Windtunnel beckons for An-124 successor". Flightglobal.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 February 2015. Retrieved 6 February 2015.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- An124-100 technical specification Ruslan International. Retrieved: 24 July 2010.
- Antonov's Heavy Transports. Midland Publishing
- Phillips, CPT W. Scott (31 August 1999). "Fixed-Wing Aircraft". Federation of American Scientists Military Analysis Network. Archived from the original on 27 February 2006. Retrieved 22 February 2006.
- "AVIATION Reports – 2000 – A00O0279" Archived 17 October 2013 at the Wayback Machine. Transportation Safety Board of Canada, 31 July 2008. Retrieved 24 April 2012. Quote: "The AN124 has been described by training personnel and pilots as being very easy to handle for an aircraft of its size. The AN124 tends to be very light on the controls."
- Nielsen, Erik. "Copenhagen Airport, Use of auxiliary power unit (APU)". Copenhagen Airport / Boeing. p. 6.5. Archived from the original on 9 May 2013. Retrieved 22 January 2013.
- "Strategic airlift agreement enters into force". NATO Update. 23 March 2006. Archived from the original on 7 April 2006. Retrieved 7 April 2006.
- Strategic Airlift Interim Solution (SALIS) Archived 9 May 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Antonov An-124 NATO SALIS Program Extended Through End of 2010 Archived 23 September 2012 at the Wayback Machine. deagel.com
- Lockheed Martin Atlas rocket on The History Channel Archived 16 April 2010 at the Wayback Machine.
- Lockheed Martin Delivers Atlas V to Cape Canaveral for NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission Archived 25 April 2017 at the Wayback Machine. Ilslaunch, 4 April 2005.
- Space Systems/Loral Delivers World'S Largest Satellite To Launch Base Archived 9 March 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Ukraine's Antonov helps SpaceX transport rocket hardware". Ukrinform. Archived from the original on 12 January 2018. Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- "Airbus Taps Russian Carrier". Kommersant. 25 November 2005. Archived from the original on 30 September 2007. Retrieved 25 November 2005.
- "30 years since the AN-124 Ruslan maiden take-of". Antonov.com. Archived from the original on 22 January 2018. Retrieved 21 June 2013.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link)
- Оружие России; Ан-124 "Руслан" (Condor), дальний тяжелый военно-транспортный самолет Archived 3 June 2009 at the Wayback Machine
- Аэрокосмическое общество Украины; Международная авиационная федерация зарегистрировала 124 мировых рекорда, установленных на самолёте Ан-225 Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "BBC News; Obelisk arrives back in Ethiopia". Archived from the original on 30 September 2009. Retrieved 2 September 2009.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 7 April 2014. Retrieved 2 April 2014.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
- Germany sends giant pump to help cool Fukushima reactor
- "SRS pump will head to Japan". Archived from the original on 20 July 2011. Retrieved 2 April 2011.
- Ford's plan to rescue F-150: Drama worthy of a James Bond script Archived 17 May 2018 at the Wayback Machine. Detroit Free Press
- "Russian Air Force Gets First Modernized An-124s". RIA Novosti. 17 May 2012. Archived from the original on 12 May 2013. Retrieved 21 June 2013.
- "Антонов Ан-124". russianplanes.net. Archived from the original on 26 March 2019. Retrieved 13 January 2019.
- "Петр Бутовски об Ан-124 "Руслан"" [Peter Butovskaya about AN-124 "Ruslan"] (in Russian). bmpd.livejournal.com. 9 May 2013. Archived from the original on 16 November 2013. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- ""Авиастар-СП" успешно выполнил гособоронзаказ на модернизацию шести самолетов Ан-124-100 "Руслан"". Armstrade.org. 24 November 2014. Archived from the original on 5 January 2015. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Modernization of another An-124-100 "Ruslan" completed". engineeringrussia.wordpress.com. 13 July 2015. Archived from the original on 14 January 2019. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Именной Ан-124-100 "Руслан" "Олег Антонов" совершил ознакомительный полет после модернизации". armstrade.org. 21 December 2017. Archived from the original on 24 November 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "566th Solnechnogorskiy Red Banner order of Kutuzov Military-Transport Aviation Regiment". ww2.dk. Archived from the original on 4 June 2018. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "В ВКС России восстановлена 18-я военно-транспортная авиационная дивизия". bmpd.livejournal.com. 1 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "В Ульяновске восстановлен 235-й военно-транспортный авиационный полк". bmpd.livejournal.com. 3 December 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2019.
- "Fleet in Flight Radar". Archived from the original on 25 September 2017. Retrieved 24 September 2017.
- "Ukraine to auction Libya's An-124 Ruslan if Libya fails to pay $1.2 mln of debt for aircraft servicing". en.interfax.com.ua. 13 October 2017. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "5A-DKN hull-loss incident". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 June 2019.
- "ASN Aviation Safety Database: Antonov 124-100". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 23 June 2016.
- "Accident Description, Anotonov 124-100, Tuesday 13 October 1992". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 15 October 2010. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
- "Accident Description, Antonov 124-100, Monday 15 November 1993". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 18 January 2012. Retrieved 14 August 2008.
- "Accident Description, Antonov 124-100, Tuesday 8 October 1996". Aviation Safety Network. Archived from the original on 7 June 2011. Retrieved 22 April 2008.
- Velovich, Alexander (17 December 1997). "Multiple engine failure blamed for An-124 Irkutsk accident". Moscow: Flightglobal. Archived from the original on 29 November 2016. Retrieved 2 December 2010.
- Jackson, Paul, MRAeS, ed. (2005). Jane's all the World's Aircraft 2006-07 (97th ed.). London: Jane's Publishing Group. pp. 569–571. ISBN 978-0-7106-2745-2.
- Lednicer, David. "The Incomplete Guide to Airfoil Usage". m-selig.ae.illinois.edu. Retrieved 16 April 2019.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Antonov An-124.|
|Company documentary video|