1698 (MDCXCVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar and a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar, the 1698th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 698th year of the 2nd millennium, the 98th year of the 17th century, and the 9th year of the 1690s decade. As of the start of 1698, the Gregorian calendar was 10 days ahead of the Julian calendar, which remained in localized use until 1923.
|Ab urbe condita||2451|
|Balinese saka calendar||1619–1620|
|English Regnal year||10 Will. 3 – 11 Will. 3|
|Chinese calendar||丁丑年 (Fire Ox)|
4394 or 4334
— to —
戊寅年 (Earth Tiger)
4395 or 4335
|- Vikram Samvat||1754–1755|
|- Shaka Samvat||1619–1620|
|- Kali Yuga||4798–4799|
|Japanese calendar||Genroku 11|
|Julian calendar||Gregorian minus 10 days|
|Minguo calendar||214 before ROC|
|Thai solar calendar||2240–2241|
1824 or 1443 or 671
— to —
1825 or 1444 or 672
- January 1 – The Abenaki tribe and the Massachusetts colonists sign a treaty, ending the conflict in New England.
- January 4 – The Palace of Whitehall in London, England is destroyed by fire.
- January 23 – George Louis (who in 1714 will become King George I of Great Britain) becomes Elector of Hanover upon the death of his father, Ernest Augustus. Because the widow of Ernest Augustus, George's mother Sophia, was heiress presumptive as the cousin of Anne, Queen of Great Britain, and Anne's closest eligible heir, George will become King of Great Britain.
- January 30 – William Kidd, who initially seized foreign ships under authority as a privateer for the British Empire before becoming a pirate, becomes an outlaw and uses his ship, the Adventure Galley, to capture a French an Indian ship, the valuable Quedagh Merchant, near India.
- February 17 – In what is now the Tamil Nadu state of India, the Maratha Empire fort at Gingee falls after a siege of almost nine years by the Mughal Empire as King Rajaram escapes to safety. General Swarup Singh Bundela, who led the scaling of the fortress walls and Gingee's capture, is rewarded by Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb with command of the area. 
- March 8 – The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, the oldest Anglican mission organization in the world, is founded by English clergyman Thomas Bray and four other people at Lincoln's Inn in London, along with Sir Humphrey Mackworth, Maynard Colchester, Lord Guilford and John Hooke.
- March – English Bishop Jeremy Collier publishes his pamphlet A Short View of the Immorality and Profaneness of the English Stage, accusing several contemporary playwrights of undermining public morality in their popular comedies by using profanity, blasphemy and indecency.
- March – Samuel Cranston becomes the governor of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations (now the U.S. state of Rhode Island) and goes on to serve for the next 29 years until his death on April 26, 1727.
- April 1 – Scottish pirate Captain Kidd, and his crew arrive at Île Sainte-Marie off of the coast of Madagascar in Kidd's Adventure Galley and bringing with them the cargo of the captured ships Quedagh Merchant and Rouparelle. Upon arrival, all but 13 of Kidd's crew desert to work for another pirate, Robert Culliford. The Adventure Galley, which is leaking and falling apart, sinks and the Rouparelle is sunk by the deserters. Kidd and his 13 henchmen depart on Quedah Merchant.
- May 1 – The Banishment Act of 1697 goes into effect for Roman Catholic church officials in Ireland, having been the deadline for all "popish archbishops, bishops, vicars general, deans, jesuits, monks, friars, and other regular popish clergy" to have reported to Irish ports for deportation. Re-entry to Ireland after May 4, 1698, is a criminal offense with a penalty of 12 months imprisonment and expulsion, while a second re-entry is punishable by death as treason.
- May 4 – At the imperial capital at Inwa, Sanay Min of the Toungoo dynasty becomes the new King of Burma upon the death of his father, Minye Kyawhtin.
- June 21 – John Churchill, Earl of Marlborough is reinstated in the English Army, after a period in disgrace, with readmission to the Privy Council by King William III. On July 26, he is selected as one of the Lords Justice. 
- June 24 – The Trade with Africa Act 1697 goes into effect in the British Empire, ending the monopoly of the Royal African Company in the African slave trade by opening trade to any English merchants who pay a 10 percent fee to the company.
- July 7 – The English House of Commons is dissolved, and new elections are held between July 19 and August 10 for a parliament to be summoned on August 24. 
- July 14 – Darien scheme: The first Scottish settlers leave for an ill-fated colony in Panama.
- July 25 – English engineer Thomas Savery obtains a patent for a steam pump.
- August 24 – King William III opens the newly elected House of Commons at Westminster. 
- August 25 – Peter the Great arrives back in Moscow; General Patrick Gordon has already crushed the Streltsy Uprising, with 341 rebels sentenced to be decapitated (tradition holds that tsar Peter decapitated some of them himself).
- September 5 –
- In an effort to move his people away from Asiatic customs, Tsar Peter I of Russia imposes a tax on beards: all men except priests and peasants are required to pay a tax of either 100 or 60 rubles a year, depending upon status; peasants are required to pay two half kopecks each time they enter a city.
- A charter is granted by King William III of England to the new East India Company of England, called "the New Company" or "the English Company" to break the monopoly that has existed in India since 1689 with the existing British East India Company, after lobbying by traders who were not members of the B.E.I.C. 
- October 11 – The Treaty of the Hague is signed between the Dutch Republic, England and France.
- October 24 – Iberville and Bienville sail from Brest to the Gulf of Mexico, to defend the southern borders of New France; they will eventually found three capitals of Louisiana (New France), as the future American cities of Mobile, Biloxi & New Orleans.*
- November 14 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse, built off Plymouth, England, is illuminated.
- November 16 – A congress begins in Sremski Karlovci to discuss a treaty between the Ottoman Empire and the Holy League.
- November – Tani Jinzan, astronomer and calendar scholar, observes a fire destroy Tosa (now Kōchi) in Japan at the same time as a Leonid meteor shower, taking it as evidence to reinforce belief in the "Theory of Areas".
- December 8 – King William III of England issues a proclamation of "our most gracious pardon unto all such pirates in the East Indies, viz., all eastward of the Cape of Good Hope, who shall surrender themselves for piracies or robberies committed by them upon sea or land" before April 30, 1699 to Captain Thomas Warren, but specifically "excepting Henry Every, alias Bridgman, and William Kidd. 
- December 9 – Francis Nicholson becomes the new British colonial governor of Virginia, succeeding Sir Edmund Andros.  Nicholson had previously been the royal governor of Maryland since 1694.
- December 12 – In Africa, Mombasa (referred to at the time as Fort Jesus, and now part of Kenya )falls under control of the Emirate of Oman, with Imam Sa'if ibn Sultan as the first Omani Governor.
- Bucharest becomes the capital of Wallachia (part of modern-day Romania).
- In Africa, Zanzibar is captured by Oman.
- The Whigs sponsor Captain Kidd of New York as a privateer against French shipping.
- Humphrey Hody is appointed regius professor of Greek at Oxford.
- January 3 – Metastasio, (b. Pietro Antonio Domenico Trapassi), Italian poet and opera librettist (d. 1782)
- February – Colin Maclaurin, Scottish mathematician (d. 1746)
- February 16 – Pierre Bouguer, French mathematician, geophysicist, geodesist, and astronomer (d. 1758)
- March 26 – Václav Prokop Diviš, Czech priest, scientist and inventor (d. 1765)
- May 8 – Henry Baker, English naturalist (d. 1774)
- May 17 – Gio Nicola Buhagiar, Maltese painter (d. 1752)
- July 17 – Pierre Louis Moreau de Maupertuis, French mathematician (d. 1759)
- July 19 – Johann Jakob Bodmer, Swiss author (d. 1783)
- September 6 – Jean Thurel, French soldier (d. 1807)
- September 26 – William Cavendish, 3rd Duke of Devonshire (d. 1755)
- November 4 – Caleb Fleming, English dissenting minister, polemicist (d. 1779)
- November 28 – Charlotta Frölich, Swedish agronomist (d. 1770)
- December 24 – William Warburton, English critic and Bishop of Gloucester (d. 1779)
- date unknown
- January 15 – Richard Boyle, 1st Earl of Burlington, Anglo-Irish nobleman, Lord High Treasurer of Ireland, Cavalier (b. 1612)
- January 10 – Louis-Sébastien Le Nain de Tillemont, French historian (b. 1637)
- January 22 – Frederick Casimir Kettler, Duke of Courland and Semigallia (b. 1650)
- January 23 – Ernest Augustus, Elector of Brunswick-Lüneburg (b. 1629)
- February 16 – Sir James Rushout, 1st Baronet, English politician (b. 1644)
- March 6 – Philip Sidney, 3rd Earl of Leicester, English politician (b. 1619)
- March 14 – Claes Rålamb, Swedish statesman (b. 1622)
- March 16 – Leonora Christina Ulfeldt, Danish countess (b. 1621)
- April 11 – Charles Morton, Cornish nonconformist minister (b. 1627)
- April 29 – Charles Cornwallis, 3rd Baron Cornwallis, First Lord of the British Admiralty (b. 1655)
- May 15 – Marie Champmeslé, French actress (b. 1642)
- June 5 – Elizabeth Maitland, Duchess of Lauderdale, influential British noblewoman (b. 1626)
- June 11 – Balthasar Bekker, Dutch minister and author of philosophical and theological works (b. 1634)
- June 29 – Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni, Italian Catholic cardinal (b. 1623)
- June 30 – Charles Cheyne, 1st Viscount Newhaven, English Member of Parliament (b. 1625)
- July 13 – Charles Somerset, Marquess of Worcester, English politician (b. 1660)
- July 18 – Johann Heinrich Heidegger, Swiss theologian (b. 1633)
- August 14 – Francisco de Aguiar y Seijas, Spanish cleric and bishop (b. 1632)
- August 25 – Fleetwood Sheppard, English poet (b. 1634)
- August 31 – Miguel Jerónimo de Molina, Spanish prelate and bishop (b. 1638)
- September 13 (bur.) – John Huddleston, English Benedictine priest (b. 1608)
- October 11 – William Molyneux, Irish philosopher and writer (b. 1656)
- October 23 – David Klöcker Ehrenstrahl, German artist (b. 1628)
- November 4 – Rasmus Bartholin, Danish physician and scientist (b. 1625)
- November 13 – Johann, Count of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Falkenburg (b. 1662)
- November 23 – César-Pierre Richelet, French grammarian and lexicographer (b. 1626)
- November 28 – Louis de Buade de Frontenac, Governor of New France (b. 1622)
- December 1 – Ferdinand Joseph, Prince of Dietrichstein, German prince (b. 1636)
- December 16 – Simone Pignoni, Italian painter (b. 1611)
- December 26 – Wolfgang Julius, Count of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein, German field marshal (b. 1622)
- date unknown
- in fiction – Mircalla Karnstein, Countess of Karnstein (b. 1680)
- "Fires, Great", in The Insurance Cyclopeadia: Being an Historical Treasury of Events and Circumstances Connected with the Origin and Progress of Insurance, Cornelius Walford, ed. (C. and E. Layton, 1876) p48
- "Gingee I 1689—1698 Mughal—Maratha Wars", in Dictionary of Battles and Sieges, ed. by Tony Jacques (Greenwood Press, 2007) p. 395
- C. T. Atkinson, Marlborough and the Rise of the British Army (G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1921) p. 150
- Chris Cook and John Stevenson, A History of British Elections Since 1689 (Taylor & Francis, 2014) p. 24
- Members of Parliament Return to Two Orders of the Honourable the House of Commons. Parliaments of England, 1213-1702 (House of Commons, 1878) pp. 589-595
- Carlyle, E. I. (2004). "Savery, Thomas (1650?–1715)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (online ed.). Oxford University Press. doi:10.1093/ref:odnb/24733. Retrieved November 5, 2011. (Subscription or UK public library membership required.)
- "Charters Granted to the Second East India Company", in A Collection of Charters and Statutes Relating to the East India Company (Eyre and Strahan, 1817) p. vii
- Cates, William L. R. (1863). The Pocket Date Book. Chapman and Hall.
- O’Neill, C. E. (1974). "Le Moyne de Bienville, Jean-Baptiste". In Halpenny, Francess G (ed.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography. Vol. III (1741–1770) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
- Majdalany, Fred (1959). The Red Rocks of Eddystone. London: Longmans. p. 49.
- Arthur M. Harris, "Pirate Tales from the Law" (Little, Brown and Company, 1923) pp. 47-48
- R. A. Brock, Virginia and Virginians: Eminent Virginians (Clearfield Press, 1888) p.10
- Schiavone, Michael J. (2009). Dictionary of Maltese Biographies Vol. 1 A–F. Pietà: Pubblikazzjonijiet Indipendenza. pp. 339–340. ISBN 9789993291329.
- Lund, Emil Ferdinand Svitzer (1897). "Leonora Christina, Grevinde Ulfeld". Danske malede portraetter: en beskrivende katalog (in Danish). Vol. 2. Copenhagen: Gyldendal. pp. 193–203.