The United States Penitentiary, Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) is an American federal supermax prison for male inmates located in Fremont County, Colorado. It is unofficially known as ADX Florence, Florence ADMAX, or the "Alcatraz of the Rockies." It is part of the Florence Federal Correctional Complex, which is operated by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP), a division of the United States Department of Justice. It houses the male inmates in the federal prison system who are deemed the most dangerous and in need of the tightest control. ADX also includes an adjacent minimum-security camp that, as of March 2014[update], houses more prisoners than the supermax unit.
|Location||Fremont County, near Florence, Colorado|
|Security class||Supermax with adjacent minimum security camp|
|Population||927 (408 supermax, 519 camp)|
|Managed by||Federal Bureau of Prisons|
The BOP does not have a designated "supermax" facility for women. Women in the BOP system who are classified as "special management concerns" due to violence or escape attempts are confined in the administrative unit of Federal Medical Center, Carswell in Fort Worth, Texas.
In 1983, two federal correction officers were stabbed to death in separate incidents blamed on inadequate prison design. Following these killings and other similar incidents, Norman Carlson, then-director of the Federal Bureau of Prisons, argued that a more secure type of prison needed to be designed, where the most dangerous, uncontrollable inmates could be isolated from correction officers and other prisoners for the sake of security and safety. The control unit at USP Marion became a model for the subsequent construction of ADX, a facility designed from the ground up as a control unit prison. Years later, Carlson said he felt such a prison was needed to house inmates so desperate that they would commit murder (of another prisoner, or a guard) in the hopes of being sentenced to death.
ADX opened in November 1994. The residents of Fremont County welcomed the prison as a source of employment. At the time, the county was already home to nine existing prisons. However, the lure of between 750 and 900 permanent jobs, in addition to another 1,000 temporary jobs during the prison's construction, led residents in the area to raise $160,000 to purchase 600 acres (240 ha) for the new prison. Hundreds of people attended the groundbreaking for the facility, which was designed jointly by two leading architecture firms in Colorado Springs, DLR Group and LKA Partners, and cost $60 million to build.
The supermax unit at ADX Florence houses about 410 male inmates, each assigned to one of six security levels.
The facility is best known for housing inmates who have been deemed too dangerous, too high-profile, or too great a national security risk for even a maximum-security prison. These include the leaders of violent gangs who had continued to issue orders to their members from lower-security facilities: Larry Hoover of the Gangster Disciples, and Barry Mills and Tyler Bingham of the Aryan Brotherhood. ADX also houses foreign terrorists, including Zacarias Moussaoui, the only person convicted in civilian court of the September 11 attacks; Faisal Shahzad, the perpetrator of the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt; and Ramzi Yousef, mastermind of the 1993 World Trade Center bombing; as well as domestic terrorists, such as Ted Kaczynski and Eric Rudolph. Timothy McVeigh, who carried out the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing, was housed at ADX before he was sentenced to death in 1997 and transferred to the United States Penitentiary, Terre Haute, which houses most federal death row inmates and is where Federal death sentences are carried out. McVeigh's co-conspirator, Terry Nichols, is serving 161 life sentences at ADX. Robert Hanssen, the former FBI agent who betrayed several spies to the Soviet Union and Russia, is serving 15 life sentences at ADX for his crimes. Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the perpetrator of the Boston Marathon bombings, was transferred here from another prison in the Florence complex on July 17, 2015. The prison also houses inmates who are a high escape risk, including Richard McNair, who escaped from a county jail and two other prisons before being sent to ADX.
However, the majority of inmates have been sent there because they have an extensive history of committing violent crimes against corrections officers and fellow inmates in other prisons, up to and including murder. These inmates are kept in administrative segregation. They are confined in a specifically designed single-person cell for 23 hours a day. They are removed under restraint (handcuffed, shackled or both), on a 24-hour clock (i.e., their one-hour time out of their cell may occur at any time of the day or night). The hour outside of the cell is for showering; exercise, and with privileges, a phone call. Their diet is restricted as well; to ensure that the foods they are served (in their cell) can't be used to harm themselves, or to create unhygienic conditions in their cell.
After at least one year, depending on their conduct, inmates are then gradually allowed out for longer periods. The long-term goal is to keep them at ADX for three years, then transfer them to a less restrictive prison to serve out the remainder of their sentences. According to a 1998 report in the San Francisco Chronicle, ADX Florence's main purpose is to "try and extract reasonably peaceful behavior from extremely violent career prisoners".
ADX Florence is a 37-acre (15 ha), 490-bed complex at 5880 Highway 67, Florence, Colorado, about 100 miles (160 km) south of Denver and 40 miles (60 km) south of Colorado Springs. It is one part of the Florence Federal Correctional Complex (FFCC) which comprises three correctional facilities, each with a different security rating.
The majority of the facility is above ground. The only part that is underground is a subterranean corridor that links cellblocks to the lobby. Inmates spend 23 hours a day locked in their cells and are escorted by a minimum of three officers for their five hours of private recreation per week. Each cell has a desk, a stool, and a bed, which are almost entirely made out of poured concrete, as well as a toilet that shuts off if blocked, a shower that runs on a timer to prevent flooding, and a sink lacking a potentially dangerous tap. Rooms may also be fitted with polished steel mirrors bolted to the wall, an electric light that can be shut off only remotely, a radio, and on rare occasions, a black-and-white television that shows recreational, educational, and religious programming. In addition, all cells are soundproofed to prevent prisoners from communicating with each other via Morse code.
The 4 in (10 cm) by 4 ft (120 cm) windows are designed to prevent inmates from knowing their specific location within the complex because they can see only the sky and roof through them, making it virtually impossible to plan an escape. Inmates exercise in a concrete pit resembling an empty swimming pool, also designed to prevent them from knowing their location in the facility. The pit is only large enough for a prisoner to walk 10 steps in a straight line, or 31 steps in a circle. Telecommunication with the outside world is forbidden, and food is hand-delivered by correction officers. However, inmates sent here from other prisons can potentially be allowed to eat in a shared dining room. The prison as a whole contains a multitude of motion detectors and cameras, and 1,400 remote-controlled steel doors. Officers in the prison's control center monitor inmates 24 hours a day and can activate a "panic button" that instantly closes every door in the facility should an escape attempt be suspected. Pressure pads and 12-foot-tall (3.7 m) razor wire fences surround the perimeter, which is patrolled by heavily armed officers with attack dogs. In extreme cases of inmate misbehavior, the center of the prison houses an area known as "Z-Unit" or "The Black Hole," which can hold up to 148 prisoners in completely darkened and fully soundproofed cells. Each Z-Unit cell is equipped with a full set of body restraints that are built directly into the concrete bed.
Cheri Nolan, a Deputy Assistant Attorney General under President George W. Bush, toured ADX Florence in 2004 while a member of the advisory board for the National Institute of Corrections, a federal agency that supports correctional programs. Nolan stated, "I've never seen anything like it as far as the technology and physical set up. Once you're inside you really can't tell where you are - what's north, south, east or west. The way it's designed, it's an interesting kind of setup," Nolan said. "Because of the high value of targets they have there – on a world scale, whether it be a drug cartel or terrorists – they are as concerned with someone trying to get in to break someone out as much as they are about inmates trying to escape. The protection around the prison is pretty remarkable."
The Federal Bureau of Prisons allowed the media to take a guided tour of ADX on September 14, 2007. Attending reporters remarked on "an astonishing and eerie quiet" within the prison as well as a sense of safety due to the rigorous security measures in place within the facility. One journalist who took the tour, 60 Minutes producer Henry Schuster, said: "A few minutes inside that cell and two hours inside Supermax were enough to remind me why I left high school a year early. The walls close in very fast."
The prison has come under far less criticism than comparable facilities at the state level, which tend to suffer heavily from overpopulation, low staff-to-inmate ratios and security issues inherent to attempting to enforce a supermax system in a non-purpose-built facility. Jamie Fellner of Human Rights Watch said after a tour of the facility, "The Bureau of Prisons has taken a harsh punitive model and implemented it as well as anybody I know." Notorious escape artist Richard Lee McNair wrote to a journalist from his cell in 2009 to say "Thank God for prisons [...] There are some very sick people in here... Animals you would never want living near your family or the public in general. I don't know how corrections staff deal with it. They get spit on, shit on, abused and I have seen them risk their own lives and save a prisoner many times."
In 2012, 11 inmates filed a federal class-action suit against the Federal Bureau of Prisons and officials who run ADX Florence, Bacote v. Federal Bureau of Prisons now titled Cunningham v. Federal Bureau of Prisons. The suit alleged chronic abuse, as well as failure to properly diagnose – and neglect of – prisoners who are seriously mentally ill. Critics believe that the use of extended confinement in solitary cells adversely affects prisoners' mental health. As of March 2015, settlement negotiations were underway with the help of a federal magistrate and some improvements had been made by the Bureau of Prisons.
Notable current inmatesEdit
This list contains foreign citizens who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.
All sentences are without parole; since 1987 parole is not afforded to prisoners sentenced under federal law.
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|Moussaoui, ZacariasZacarias Moussaoui||51427-054||9999-99-99Serving 6 life sentences.||French citizen and Al-Qaeda operative, pleaded guilty to terrorism conspiracy charges in 2005 for playing a key role in planning the September 11 attacks by helping the hijackers obtain flight lessons, money and material used in the attacks.|
|Ramzi Yousef||03911-000||9999-99-99Serving life plus 240 years.||Convicted in 1994 of terrorism conspiracy and other charges in connection with the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, which killed 6 people and injured more than 1000. Yousef was also convicted in 1996 of planning Project Bojinka, a foiled plot conceived by senior Al-Qaeda member Khalid Sheikh Mohammed to bomb twelve planes in a 48-hour period.|
|9999-99-99Serving life sentences.||Al-Qaeda operatives from Lebanon/Kuwait, Tanzania and Saudi Arabia; convicted in connection with the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania, Africa, which were conceived by Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden; the bombings killed 224 people and injured more than 4000.|
|Abu Hamza al-Masri||67495-054||Serving a life sentence under the name Mustafa Kamel Mustafa.||Egyptian cleric and former associate of deceased Al-Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden; extradited from the UK in 2012; convicted in 2014 of masterminding the 1998 kidnapping of Westerners in Yemen and conspiring to establish a terrorist training camp in Oregon in 1999.|
|Reid, RichardRichard Reid||24079-038||9999-99-99Serving 3 life sentences plus 110 years.||British national who became an Al-Qaeda operative; pleaded guilty in 2002 to attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction in connection with his 2001 attempt to detonate explosive devices hidden in his shoes on a plane traveling from Paris to Miami; known as the "Shoe Bomber."|
|Abdulmutallab, UmarUmar Abdulmutallab||44107-039||9999-99-99Serving 4 life sentences plus 50 years.||A Nigerian national and Al-Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula operative, follower of the late militant cleric Anwar al-Awlaki; pleaded guilty in 2011 to attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction for trying to detonate an explosive sewn into his underwear on Northwest Airlines Flight 253 on Christmas Day 2009; known as the "Underwear Bomber."|
|Eljvir Duka||61282-066||9999-99-99Serving a life sentence.||Ethnic Albanian; convicted in 2008 of conspiracy to murder members of the U.S. military and for plotting to attack soldiers at Fort Dix in New Jersey using automatic weapons; 4 others were also convicted.|
|Ressam, AhmedAhmed Ressam||29638-086||2032-99-99Serving a 37-year sentence; scheduled for release on December 16, 2032.||Algerian national convicted in 2001 of terrorism conspiracy for planning to bomb Los Angeles International Airport on December 31, 1999, in what is known as one of the 2000 millennium attack plots.|
|Trinidad, SimónSimón Trinidad||27896-016||2056-99-99Serving a 60-year sentence under the name Juvenal Ovidio Palmera Pineda; scheduled for release in 2056.||Member of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC), a guerrilla group on the U.S. State Department list of Terrorist Organizations; convicted in 2007 of terrorism conspiracy for his involvement in the 2003 kidnapping of three American military contractors.|
|Adis Medunjanin||65114-053||Serving a life sentence.||Al-Qaeda operative; convicted in 2012 of plotting to conduct coordinated suicide bombings in the New York City subway system in September 2009; co-conspirators Najibullah Zazi and Zarein Ahmedzay pleaded guilty.|
|Sulaiman Abu Ghaith||91969-054||Serving a life sentence.||Al-Qaeda spokesman and son-in-law to Osama Bin Laden. Convicted in March 2014 for conspiring to kill Americans and providing material support to terrorists.|
|Mamdouh Mahmud Salim||42426-054||Serving a life sentence.||Al-Qaeda co-founder and advisor to Osama Bin Laden. Extradited in 1998 for participating in the U.S. Embassy bombings and sentenced to life in prison for attempted murder during an escape attempt in 2000.|
This list contains American citizens who committed or attempted to commit terrorist attacks against United States citizens and interests.
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|Dzhokhar Tsarnaev||95079-038||9999-99-99Sentenced to death on June 24th, 2015.||Participant in the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing; Dzhokhar planted a pressure cooker bomb at the direction of his brother Tamerlan Tsarnaev near the finish line, which killed 3 people and injured over 200. He will be transferred to USP Terre Haute when an execution date is set.|
|Ahmed Omar Abu Ali||70250-083||9999-99-99Serving a life sentence.||Al-Qaeda operative; convicted in 2005 of plotting to assassinate U.S. President George W. Bush. Federal prosecutors based their case on a confession Abu Ali provided to Saudi Arabian intelligence officials, which Abu Ali claimed was extracted by torture.|
|Kaczynski, TheodoreTheodore Kaczynski||04475-046||9999-99-99Serving 8 life sentences.||Known as the Unabomber; pleaded guilty in 1998 to building, transporting, and mailing explosives to carry out 16 bombings from 1978 to 1995 in a mail bombing campaign aimed at destroying modern technology, which killed 3 people and injured 23 others.|
|Nichols, TerryTerry Nichols||08157-031||9999-99-99Serving 161 consecutive life sentences.||Co-conspirator in the 1995 Oklahoma City bombing of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, which killed 168 people. Timothy McVeigh, who planned and carried out the bombing was executed in Indiana in 2001.|
|Padilla, JoséJosé Padilla||20796-424||Serving a 21-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2025.||Al-Qaeda operative and one of the first U.S. citizens to be designated as an enemy combatant after the September 11th attacks; convicted in 2007 of terrorism conspiracy for traveling overseas to attend an Al-Qaeda training camp in order to murder citizens of a foreign country.|
|Rudolph, EricEric Rudolph||18282-058||9999-99-99Serving 4 consecutive life sentences.||Member of the Christian extremist group Army of God; pleaded guilty in 2005 to carrying out four bombings between 1996 and 1998, including the Centennial Olympic Park bombing in Atlanta; 3 people were killed during the bombing spree.|
|Shahzad, FaisalFaisal Shahzad||63510-054||9999-99-99Serving a life sentence.||Tehrik-i-Taliban operative; pleaded guilty to attempting to use a weapon of mass destruction and other charges in connection with the 2010 Times Square car bombing attempt; received explosives training in 2009 from the terrorist organization Tehrik-i-Taliban in Pakistan.|
|Naser Jason Abdo||80882-280||9999-99-99Serving 2 life sentences plus 60 years.||U.S. Army private who refused to deploy to Afghanistan and went AWOL; convicted in 2012 of attempted use of a weapon of mass destruction for plotting to detonate a bomb at a restaurant near Fort Hood in Killeen, Texas, when it was filled with soldiers in 2011.|
|Joseph Konopka||20749-424||9999-99-99Serving a 13-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2019.||Pleaded guilty in 2002 to causing blackouts in Wisconsin by damaging power substations and utility facilities, as well as storing potassium cyanide and sodium cyanide in the Chicago subway system; also known as "Dr. Chaos."|
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|Gowadia, NoshirNoshir Gowadia||95518-022||2043-99-99Serving a 32-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2043.||Former engineer for the U.S. Department of Defense and principal designer of the B-2 stealth bomber; convicted in 2011 of using classified information to assist the People's Republic of China in producing cruise missiles with stealth technology.|
|Hanssen, RobertRobert Hanssen||48551-083||9999-99-99Serving 15 consecutive life sentences.||Former senior FBI agent assigned to counterintelligence; pleaded guilty in 2002 to espionage for passing classified information to the Soviet Union and later to Russia over a 20-year period, which was regarded as the worst intelligence disaster in U.S. history at the time; betraying dozens of U.S. intelligence agents, several of whom were executed directly due to Hanssen's betrayal.|
|Myers, WalterWalter Myers||29796-016||9999-99-99Serving a life sentence.||Former intelligence analyst for the U.S. State Department; pleaded guilty in 2009 to conspiracy to commit espionage for providing classified U.S. national defense information to Cuba. His wife, Gwendolyn Myers, was sentenced to 6 years.|
|Nicholson, HaroldHarold Nicholson||49535-083||2024-99-99Serving a 23-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2024.||Highest-ranking CIA officer to be convicted of espionage; pleaded guilty in 1997 to passing classified information to Russia from 1994 to 1996; pleaded guilty in 2010 to attempting to collect payments from Russian agents for his past espionage activities.|
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|Cárdenas Guillén, OsielOsiel Cárdenas Guillén||62604-079||2025-99-99Serving a 25-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2025.||Succeeded Juan García as leader of the Gulf Cartel; extradited to the U.S. from Mexico in 2007 and pleaded guilty to threatening to murder U.S. law enforcement agents, drug trafficking and money laundering.|
Organized crime figuresEdit
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|James Marcello||99076-012||Serving a life sentence.||Reputed "Front Boss" of the Chicago Outfit; convicted of racketeering conspiracy for participating in or ordering 18 murders and directing criminal activities including extortion, illegal gambling, loansharking, and bribery.|
|Luis Felipe||14067-074||9999-99-99Serving life plus 45 years.||Leader of the New York chapter of the Latin Kings gang; convicted in 1996 of murder conspiracy and racketeering for running a criminal enterprise whose members engage in murder, assault, armed robbery, and drug trafficking; Felipe is known as "King Blood."|
|9999-99-99Serving life sentences.||Leaders of the Mexican Mafia; convicted of racketeering and murder conspiracy for running violent drug trafficking operations.|
|9999-99-99Serving life sentences.||Aryan Brotherhood prison gang founders; transferred to ADX in 2006 after being connected to violent gang activities in prison; convicted of murder, murder conspiracy, and racketeering for ordering the killing of two African-American inmates at USP Lewisburg in Pennsylvania.|
|Silverstein, ThomasThomas Silverstein||14634-116||2095-99-99Serving a life sentence.||Aryan Brotherhood prison gang leader (considered one of the most dangerous inmates in the federal prison system); transferred to ADX after murdering Correction Officer Merle Clutts at USP Marion in 1983 while serving a sentence for bank robbery. Silverstein's crime was the reason for the construction of ADX.|
|Hoover, LarryLarry Hoover||86063-024||9999-99-99Serving 6 life sentences.||Leader of the Gangster Disciples in Chicago; sentenced to life in state prison in 1973 for murder; convicted in 1997 of drug conspiracy, extortion, money laundering, and running a continuing criminal enterprise for leading the gang from state prison.|
|Fort, JeffJeff Fort||92298-024||2038-99-99Serving an 80-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2039.||Founder of the El-Rukn (Black P. Stones) gang in Chicago; convicted of drug trafficking charges in 1983; convicted of terrorism conspiracy in 1987 for plotting to commit attacks inside the U.S. in exchange for weapons and $2.5 million from Libya.|
|Mack, O. G.O. G. Mack||30063-037||2045-99-99Serving a 50-year sentence under his actual name, Omar Portee; scheduled for release in 2045.||Founder of the United Blood Nation gang; convicted in 2002 of racketeering and murder conspiracy, as well as narcotics and weapons charges.|
|Kaboni Savage||58232-066||Sentenced to death on June 3, 2013.||Philadelphia drug kingpin; convicted in 2013 of 12 counts of murder in aid of racketeering for ordering six drug-related homicides, as well as the firebombing of the home of a federal witness which killed two adults and four children.|
|Kehoe, ChevieChevie Kehoe||21300-009||9999-99-99Serving 3 consecutive life sentences.||Murderer and white supremacist. Convicted in 1998 of the torture-murders of William, Nancy, and Sarah Mueller. Serving 3 life sentences.|
|Perry Roark||53975-037||Serving a life sentence.||Founder of Dead Man Incorporated, a prison gang active in four states; pleaded guilty in 2012 to leading a racketeering enterprise which engaged in murder and threats to commit murder, armed robbery, drug trafficking and extortion.|
|Inmate Name||Register Number||Photo||Status||Details|
|York, DwightDwight York||17911-054||9999-99-99Serving a 135-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2122.||Founder and leader of the Nuwaubian Nation, a black supremacist cult. Convicted in 2004 of child molestation, racketeering and conspiracy, and fraud.|
|Hale, MatthewMatthew Hale||15177-424||2037-99-99Serving a 40-year sentence; scheduled for release in 2037.||Founder of the neo-Nazi group World Church of the Creator; convicted in 2004 of soliciting the murder of federal judge Joan Lefkow for ruling against him in a copyright lawsuit brought by a bigger church with the same name.|
|McNair, RichardRichard McNair||13829-045||9999-99-99Serving 2 life sentences on a state murder charge from North Dakota in 1987.||Held at ADX due to multiple prison escapes; escaped from the Ward County Jail in Minot, North Dakota in 1987 by using lip balm to slip out of handcuffs, from the North Dakota State Penitentiary in Bismarck in 1992 by crawling through a ventilator duct, and from USP Pollock in Louisiana in 2006 by mailing himself out of prison in a crate.|
|Swango, MichaelMichael Swango||08352-424||Serving 3 life sentences.||Physician and serial killer; pleaded guilty in 2000 to fatally poisoning four patients; has been linked to scores of other deaths.|
- "BOP: Weekly Population Report". Bop.gov. Retrieved 2014-03-18.
- "USP Florence ADMAX Contact Information." Federal Bureau of Prisons. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
- "Zoning Map." (Archived 2013-04-15 at WebCite) City of Florence, Colorado. Retrieved on December 30, 2009.
- Fernandes, Edna (2006-05-04). "Supermax prison, the Alcatraz of the Rockies". London: The Times. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
- Bosworth, Mary. The U.S. Federal Prison System. SAGE, 2002. 108. Retrieved from Google Books on October 14, 2010. ISBN 0-7619-2304-7, ISBN 978-0-7619-2304-6.
- "ADX Visiting Guidelines" (PDF). Federal Bureau of Prisons. May 7, 2014. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- "America's 10 Worst Prisons: ADX". Mother Jones. Retrieved November 4, 2015.
- Taylor, Michael (1998-12-28). "The Last Worst Place / The isolation at Colorado's ADX prison is brutal beyond compare. So are the inmates". SF Gate. Archived from the original on 2017-02-24. Retrieved 2017-07-15.
- Perkinson, Robert (September 22, 1994). "Shackled justice: Florence federal penitentiary and the new politics of punishment". Social Justice. Crime and Social Justice Associates. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- Pilkington, Ed. "ADX Florence supermax prison: the Alcatraz of the Rockies". The Guardian. Retrieved 17 December 2013.
- "Fast Facts: Supermax Prison". Fox News Channel. May 4, 2006. Retrieved 2010-05-25.
- "DLR Group". Archived from the original on 5 December 2006. Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Life sentence for Faisal Shahzad, could join shoe bomber in Colorado". CSMonitor.com. 2010-10-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Taylor, Michael (28 December 1998). "The Last Worst Place". The San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Shane, Scott. "Beyond Guantánamo, a Web of Prisons for Terrorism Inmates." The New York Times. December 10, 2011. Retrieved on December 12, 2011.
- USP Florence ADMAX - Bureau of Prisons
- Kalinowski, Bob (May 1, 2013). "Accused guard killer moved to Colorado". The Citizens' Voice. Retrieved 6 June 2013.
- "Fast Facts: Supermax Prison" - Fox News - May 04, 2006
- "How to Survive a Supermax Prison". ABC News. August 2, 2007. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
- Frieden, Terry. " Reporters get first look inside mysterious Supermax prison" - CNN - September 14, 2009
- "My Trip to SuperMax". CBS News. October 14, 2007. Retrieved 2009-05-31.
- Bayens, Stuart P. Deadmonton: Richard Lee McNair Archived 2014-03-15 at the Wayback Machine. 'Last Link on the Left.' May 16, 2011. Retrieved August 14, 2013.
- Case 1:12-cv-01570 Complaints and Exhibits Archived 2012-07-04 at the Wayback Machine. The United States District Court for the District of Colorado, retrieved 20 June 2012
- Richard P. Matsch (November 26, 2012). "Harold Cunningham, John v. Federal Bureau of Prisons". Find a Case. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- Cohen, Andrew (18 June 2012). "An American Gulag: Descending into Madness at Supermax". The Atlantic. Retrieved 20 June 2012.
- Mark Binelli (March 26, 2015). "Inside America's Toughest Federal Prison". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved March 29, 2015.
- "America's 10 Worst Prisons: ADX". Mother Jones.
- "Indictment of ZACARIAS MOUSSAOUI". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Bernstein, Richard (1994-03-05). "EXPLOSION AT THE TWIN TOWERS; 4 ARE CONVICTED IN BOMBING AT THE WORLD TRADE CENTER THAT KILLED 6, STUNNED U.S." The New York Times.
- Warren Richey. "Ahmed Ghailani gets life sentence for Al Qaeda bombing of US embassies". CSMonitor.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Weiser, Benjamin (2010-11-17). "Acquittal on All but One Charge for Ghailani, Ex-Detainee". The New York Times.
- Weiser, Benjamin (2001-05-30). "THE TERROR VERDICT: THE OVERVIEW; 4 GUILTY IN TERROR BOMBINGS OF 2 U.S. EMBASSIES IN AFRICA; JURY TO WEIGH 2 EXECUTIONS". The New York Times.
- "Two Terrorists - A Portrait Of Wadih El Hage, Accused Terrorist | Hunting Bin Laden | FRONTLINE". PBS. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Wald, Jonathan; Andrew Carey (5 October 2012). "Radical Islamist Abu Hamza al-Masri extradited to U.S." CNN. Retrieved 21 January 2013.
- "Held in darkness for the rest of his natural life". The Telegraph. London. 2006-04-12. Retrieved 2007-12-07.
- Davey, Monica (2011-10-12). "Would-Be Detroit Plane Bomber Pleads Guilty, Ending Trial". The New York Times.
- "Five Radical Islamists Convicted of Conspiring to Kill Soldiers at Fort Dix". US Department of Justice. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- Reuters (April 28, 2009). "3 Brothers Sentenced to Life for Holy War Plot at Ft. Dix". The New York Times Company. Retrieved 30 March 2015.
- "Terrorist sentenced to 37 years in millennium plot". USA Today. Associated Press. October 24, 2012. Retrieved July 7, 2016.
- "22 Years For Millennium Bomb Plot". CBS News.
- Schwartz, John (2010-02-03). "Appeals Court Throws Out Sentence in Bombing Plot, Calling It Too Light". The New York Times.
- "#07-494: 07-11-07 Senior Member of FARC Narco-Terrorist Organization Found Guilty of Hostage-Taking Conspiracy". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- World War 4 Report. "FARC negotiator gets Colombia's max —in US prison | World War 4 Report". Ww4report.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) - Terrorist Groups". Nctc.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Secret, Mosi (2012-11-16). "Medunjanin, Convicted of Subway Bomb Plot, Gets Life Sentence". The New York Times.
- "FBI — Al Qaeda Operative Sentenced to Life Imprisonment in One of the Most Serious Terrorist Threats to the United States Since 9/11". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2013-02-12.
- "Abu Ghaith, a Bin Laden Adviser, Is Sentenced to Life in Prison". The New York Times. 2014-09-23.
- "Reputed bin Laden Adviser Gets Life Term in Stabbing". The New York Times. 2010-08-31.</
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on March 13, 2014. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
- CNN, Aaron Cooper. "Tsarnaev arrives at Colorado prison". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- All Things Considered (2005-11-22). "Jury Finds Abu Ali Guilty on Terrorism Charges". NPR. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- Pilkington, Ed (2009-07-10). "Supermax prison in Florence, Colorado blocked Barack Obama books requested by detainee". The Guardian. London.
- "Unabomber Guilty Plea". Undueinfluence.com. Archived from the original on 2012-07-17. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- MacFarquhar, Neil (1996-04-04). "ON THE UNABOMBER'S TRACK: THE VICTIMS;At the Places Where Bombs Killed, a Day for Memories and Nervous Optimism". The New York Times.
- "Nichols and McVeigh Partners in crime". CNN. 1997-11-03. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07.
- "Terror suspect Padilla charged". CNN. 2005-11-22. Archived from the original on 2011-12-22.
- "'Dirty bomb' plotter Jose Padilla resentenced to 21 years on terrorism charges - Chicago Tribune". Retrieved 20 January 2017.
- "Padilla sentenced on terror charges - US news - Security - NBCNews.com". MSNBC. 2008-01-22. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "#07-624: 08-16-07 Jose Padilla and Co-Defendants Convicted of Conspiracy to Murder Individuals Overseas, Providing Material Support to Terrorists". Justice.gov. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "NBC: Victims irate over Rudolph's lack of remorse - US news - Crime & courts - NBCNews.com". MSNBC. 2005-04-13. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Why did Rudolph do it?". CNN. 2005-04-11. Archived from the original on 2012-02-07.
- "USDOJ: Faisal Shahzad Pleads Guilty in Manhattan Federal Court to 10 Federal Crimes Arising from Attempted Car Bombing in Times Square". Justice.gov. 2010-06-21. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Goldman, Henry; Tannenbaum, Mark (2010-05-02). "New York Averts 'Deadly Event' as Police Disarm Car Bomb in Times Square". Bloomberg.
- "Army private gets 2 life sentences for plan to attack soldiers". CNN.com. 2012-08-10. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "USAO Press Release - | ATF". Atf.gov. 2012-05-24. Archived from the original on 2013-04-12. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "FBI — History". FBI. Archived from the original on 2016-07-01.
- "Man who hid cyanide in CTA tunnel sentenced". Chicago Tribune.
- "Hawaii Man Sentenced to 32 Years in Prison for Providing Defense Information and Services to People's Republic of China". United States Department of Justice. 2011-01-25. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
- "Accused spy Hanssen could face death penalty". CNN. 2001-05-16. Archived from the original on 2011-12-28.
- Shannon, Elaine (2002-05-04). "Robert Hanssen Gets Ready for His Closeup". Time.
- Hsu, Spencer S. (2010-07-17). "Walter Myers, State Dept. analyst who spied for Cuba, gets life; wife 6 years". The Washington Post.
- "Former State Department Official Sentenced to Life in Prison for Nearly 30-year Espionage Conspiracy". United States Department of Justice. 2010-07-16. Retrieved 2013-05-07.
- TIM WEINER (1997-06-06). "C.I.A. Traitor, Saying He Wanted Cash for Family, Gets 23 Years - New York Times". Nytimes.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "CNN - CIA turncoat sentenced to 23 years in prison - June 5, 1997". Articles.cnn.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.[permanent dead link]
- Nigel Duara (2011-01-18). "Harold Nicholson, Ex-CIA Spy, Gets 8 More Years". Huffingtonpost.com. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Extradition: Past cases highlight limits - Brownsville Herald: Valley". Brownsville Herald. 2011-03-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Associated Press (September 11, 2007). "5 Guilty in Chicago Mob Case". The New York Times. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Sweeney, Annie (February 10, 2012). "Judge orders reputed onetime head of Chicago mob back to Chicago from California prison". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 March 2013.
- Richardson, Lynda (1996-11-20). "Leader of Latin Kings Is Convicted in Slayings". The New York Times.
- "UNITED STATES v. FELIPE, Docket Nos. 97-1155, 97-1186 and 97-1484., June 19, 1998 - US 2nd Circuit | FindLaw". Caselaw.findlaw.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-10-29. Retrieved 2012-02-04.
- "USAO/CDCA Press Release". Justice.gov. 2006-09-12. Archived from the original on 2013-06-09. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- Mozingo, Joe; Winton, Richard (2006-09-13). "Drug Web Reportedly Spun in Cell". Los Angeles Times.
- "Feds Aim to Dismantle L.A.'s 18th Street Gang". NPR. 2008-06-03. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Aryan Brotherhood Leaders Convicted of Murder". NPR. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "SuperMax prison is super lax, court cases allege". CNN. 2009-11-14. Archived from the original on 2012-07-09. Retrieved 2011-07-13.
- "America's Most Isolated Federal Prisoner Describes 10,220 Days in Extreme Solitary Confinement". Solitarywatch.com. 2011-05-05. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "DEA Briefs & Background, Law Enforcement, Major Operations, Larry Hoover & The Gangster Disciples". Justice.gov. Archived from the original on 2012-08-17. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Larry Hoover Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". Biography.com. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "Jeff Fort Biography - Facts, Birthday, Life Story". Biography.com. 1947-02-20. Retrieved 2012-08-13.
- "GANG CHIEF GUILTY IN RIVAL'S SLAYING". The New York Times. 1988-10-20.
- Weiser, Benjamin (2003-04-15). "Founder of East Coast Bloods Is Given 50 Years". The New York Times.
- "Indictment in firebomb that killed 6 Overall, Kaboni Savage is accused of 12 murders linked to one of the city's most violent drug gangs". Philly.com.
- "Philadelphia Drug Kingpin Sentenced to Death, Co-defendant to Face Life in Prison - OPA - Department of Justice". justice.gov.
-  Archived January 9, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Justin Fenton (2013-01-07). "Leader of Dead Man Inc. prison gang renounces group at sentencing - tribunedigital-baltimoresun". Articles.baltimoresun.com. Retrieved 2015-10-12.
- Southern Poverty Law Center. "Nuwaubian Nation of Moors". Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "United States of America, Plaintiff-appellee, v. Dwight D. York, A.k.a. Malakai Z. York, Etc., Defendant-appellant, 428 F.3d 1325 (11th Cir. 2005)". Justia Law.
- "Matt Hale | Southern Poverty Law Center". Splcenter.org. 2003-01-08. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "FBI — Matthew Hale Convicted of Plotting Judge's Murder". Fbi.gov. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "America's Most Wanted with John Walsh". AMW. Archived from the original on 2012-10-25. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Escaped Murderer Richard Lee McNair". Crime.about.com. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2013-04-18.
- "Life In Jail For Poison Doctor". CBS News.
- ABC News. "Swango Pleads Guilty To Ohio Slaying". ABC News.