8th century

The 8th century is the period from 701 (DCCI) through 800 (DCCC) in accordance with the Julian Calendar. The coast of North Africa and the Iberian Peninsula quickly came under Islamic Arab domination. The westward expansion of the Umayyad Empire was famously halted at the siege of Constantinople by the Byzantine Empire and the Battle of Tours by the Franks. The tide of Arab conquest came to an end in the middle of the 8th century.[1]

Millennium: 1st millennium
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EstablishmentsDisestablishments
Eastern Hemisphere at the beginning of the 8th century

In Europe, late in the century, the Vikings, seafaring peoples from Scandinavia, begin raiding the coasts of Europe and the Mediterranean, and go on to found several important kingdoms.

In Asia, the Pala Empire is founded in Bengal. The Tang dynasty reaches its pinnacle under Chinese Emperor Xuanzong. The Nara period begins in Japan.

EventsEdit

700sEdit

  • 701: The Taihō Code is enacted in late Asuka period Japan.
  • 705: Overthrow of Empress Wu Zetian, the reign of China's first and only sole-ruling empress ends.
  • 705: Justinian II is forced to give the title Caesar of Byzantium to the Bulgarian Emperor Tervel. The Byzantine Empire begins to pay annual tributes to Bulgaria.
  • 708711: The Bulgarians defeat Justinian II at the battle of Anchiallus. Arab armies occupied Sindh.[2]
  • 710: Empress Genmei moves the capital to Heijō-kyū (present day Nara), initiating the Nara period of Japan.
  • 711: Palenque is conquered by Toniná.
 
A prisoner from Palenque in Toniná
 
An 8th-century Tang dynasty Chinese clay figurine of a Sogdian man (an Eastern Iranian person) wearing a distinctive cap and face veil, possibly a camel rider or even a Zoroastrian priest engaging in a ritual at a fire temple, since face veils were used to avoid contaminating the holy fire with breath or saliva; Museum of Oriental Art (Turin), Italy.[6]

Inventions, discoveries, introductionsEdit

 
8th century silk fragment, central Asia

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Roberts, J., History of the World, Penguin, 1994.
  2. ^ a b Roberts, J., History of the World, Penguin, 1994.
  3. ^ Azra, Azyumardi (2006). Islam in the Indonesian world: an account of institutional formation. Mizan Pustaka. ISBN 979-433-430-8.
  4. ^ Palmer, Alan; Veronica (1992). The Chronology of British History. London: Century Ltd. pp. 34–37. ISBN 0-7126-5616-2.
  5. ^ a b Miksic (1997)
  6. ^ Lee Lawrence. (3 September 2011). "A Mysterious Stranger in China". The Wall Street Journal. Accessed on 31 August 2016.
  7. ^ Miksic (2003)
  8. ^ Taylor (2003), p. 37.
  9. ^ Munoz, Paul Michel (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet. p. 171. ISBN 981-4155-67-5.