This article needs additional citations for verification. (February 2017) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)
IEEE 802.11g-2003 or 802.11g is an amendment to the IEEE 802.11 specification that extended throughput to up to 54 Mbit/s using the same 2.4 GHz band as 802.11b. This specification under the marketing name of Wi-Fi has been implemented all over the world. The 802.11g protocol is now Clause 19 of the published IEEE 802.11-2007 standard, and Clause 19 of the published IEEE 802.11-2012 standard.
802.11 is a set of IEEE standards that govern wireless networking transmission methods. They are commonly used today in their 802.11a, 802.11b, 802.11g, 802.11n and 802.11ac versions to provide wireless connectivity in the home, office and some commercial establishments. Wi-Fi 3 is an unofficial retronym for 802.11g.
802.11g is the third modulation standard for wireless LANs. It works in the 2.4 GHz band (like 802.11b) but operates at a maximum raw data rate of 54 Mbit/s. Using the CSMA/CA transmission scheme, 31.4 Mbit/s is the maximum net throughput possible for packets of 1500 bytes in size and a 54 Mbit/s wireless rate (identical to 802.11a core, except for some additional legacy overhead for backward compatibility). In practice, access points may not have an ideal implementation and may therefore not be able to achieve even 31.4 Mbit/s throughput with 1500 byte packets. 1500 bytes is the usual limit for packets on the Internet and therefore a relevant size to benchmark against. Smaller packets give even lower theoretical throughput, down to 3 Mbit/s using 54 Mbit/s rate and 64 byte packets. Also, the available throughput is shared between all stations transmitting, including the AP so both downstream and upstream traffic is limited to a shared total of 31.4 Mbit/s using 1500 byte packets and 54 Mbit/s rate.
802.11g hardware is fully backwards compatible with 802.11b hardware. Details of making b and g work well together occupied much of the lingering technical process. In an 802.11g network, however, the presence of a legacy 802.11b participant will significantly reduce the speed of the overall 802.11g network. Some 802.11g routers employ a back-compatible mode for 802.11b clients called 54g LRS (Limited Rate Support).
The modulation scheme used in 802.11g is orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) copied from 802.11a with data rates of 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, and 54 Mbit/s, and reverts to CCK (like the 802.11b standard) for 5.5 and 11 Mbit/s and DBPSK/DQPSK+DSSS for 1 and 2 Mbit/s. Even though 802.11g operates in the same frequency band as 802.11b, it can achieve higher data rates because of its heritage to 802.11a.
Of the 52 OFDM subcarriers, 48 are for data and 4 are pilot subcarriers with a carrier separation of 0.3125 MHz (20 MHz/64). Each of these subcarriers can be a BPSK, QPSK, 16-QAM or 64-QAM. The total bandwidth is 22 MHz with an occupied bandwidth of 16.6 MHz. Symbol duration is 4 microseconds, which includes a guard interval of 0.8 microseconds. The actual generation and decoding of orthogonal components is done in baseband using DSP which is then upconverted to 2.4 GHz at the transmitter. Each of the subcarriers could be represented as a complex number. The time domain signal is generated by taking an Inverse Fast Fourier transform (IFFT). Correspondingly the receiver downconverts, samples at 20 MHz and does an FFT to retrieve the original coefficients. The advantages of using OFDM include reduced multipath effects in reception and increased spectral efficiency.
|MCS index||RATE bits||Modulation
The then-proposed 802.11g standard was rapidly adopted by consumers starting in January 2003, well before ratification, due to the desire for higher speeds and reductions in manufacturing costs. By mid 2003, most dual-band 802.11a/b products became dual-band/tri-mode, supporting a and b/g in a single mobile adapter card or access point.
Despite its major acceptance, 802.11g suffers from the same interference as 802.11b in the already crowded 2.4 GHz range. Devices operating in this range include microwave ovens, Bluetooth devices, baby monitors and digital cordless telephones, which can lead to interference issues. Additionally, the success of the standard has caused usage/density problems related to crowding in urban areas. To prevent interference, there are only three non-overlapping usable channels in the U.S. and other countries with similar regulations (channels 1, 6, 11, with 25 MHz separation), and four in Europe (channels 1, 5, 9, 13, with only 20 MHz separation). Even with such separation, some interference due to side lobes exists, though it is considerably weaker.
Channels and frequenciesEdit
|Channel||Center frequency||Channel width||Overlapping channels|
|1||2.412 GHz||2.401 GHz - 2.423 GHz||2,3,4,5|
|2||2.417 GHz||2.406 GHz - 2.428 GHz||1,3,4,5,6|
|3||2.422 GHz||2.411 GHz - 2.433 GHz||1,2,4,5,6,7|
|4||2.427 GHz||2.416 GHz - 2.438 GHz||1,2,3,5,6,7,8|
|5||2.432 GHz||2.421 GHz - 2.443 GHz||1,2,3,4,6,7,8,9|
|6||2.437 GHz||2.426 GHz - 2.448 GHz||2,3,4,5,7,8,9,10|
|7||2.442 GHz||2.431 GHz - 2.453 GHz||3,4,5,6,8,9,10,11|
|8||2.447 GHz||2.436 GHz - 2.458 GHz||4,5,6,7,9,10,11,12|
|9||2.452 GHz||2.441 GHz - 2.463 GHz||5,6,7,8,10,11,12,13|
|10||2.457 GHz||2.446 GHz - 2.468 GHz||6,7,8,9,11,12,13|
|11||2.462 GHz||2.451 GHz - 2.473 GHz||7,8,9,10,12,13|
|12||2.467 GHz||2.456 GHz - 2.478 GHz||8,9,10,11,13,14|
|13||2.472 GHz||2.461 GHz - 2.483 GHz||9,10,11,12,14|
|14||2.484 GHz||2.473 GHz - 2.495 GHz||12,13|
- Note: Not all channels are legal to use in all countries.
- List of WLAN channels
- OFDM system comparison table
- Spectral efficiency comparison table
- Super G (wireless networking)
IEEE 802.11 network PHY standards
|Frequency||Bandwidth||Stream data rate||Allowable
|1-6GHz||DSSS/FHSS||802.11-1997||Jun 1997||2.4||22||1, 2||N/A||DSSS, FHSS||20 m (66 ft)||100 m (330 ft)|
|HR-DSSS||802.11b||Sep 1999||2.4||22||1, 2, 5.5, 11||N/A||DSSS||35 m (115 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|OFDM||802.11a||Sep 1999||5||5/10/20||6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54
(for 20MHz bandwidth,
divide by 2 and 4 for 10 and 5 MHz)
|N/A||OFDM||35 m (115 ft)||120 m (390 ft)|
|802.11j||Nov 2004||4.9/5.0[D][not in citation given]||?||?|
|802.11p||Jul 2010||5.9||?||1,000 m (3,300 ft)|
|802.11y||Nov 2008||3.7[A]||?||5,000 m (16,000 ft)[A]|
|ERP-OFDM(, etc.)||802.11g||Jun 2003||2.4||38 m (125 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|HT-OFDM||802.11n||Oct 2009||2.4/5||20||Up to 288.8[B]||4||MIMO-OFDM||70 m (230 ft)||250 m (820 ft)[not in citation given]|
|40||Up to 600[B]|
|VHT-OFDM||802.11ac||Dec 2013||5||20||Up to 346.8[B]||8||MIMO-OFDM||35 m (115 ft)||?|
|40||Up to 800[B]|
|80||Up to 1733.2[B]|
|160||Up to 3466.8[B]|
|HE-OFDM||802.11ax||Est. Dec 2019||2.4/5/6||?||Up to 10,530 (10.53 Gbit/s)||?||MIMO-OFDM||?||?|
|mmWave||DMG||802.11ad||Dec 2012||60||2,160||Up to 6,757
|N/A||OFDM, single carrier, low-power single carrier||3.3 m (11 ft)||?|
|802.11aj||Apr 2018||45/60[C]||540/1,080||Up to 15,000
|4||OFDM, single carrier||?||?|
|EDMG||802.11ay||Est. May 2020||60||8000||Up to 20,000 (20 Gbit/s)||4||OFDM, single carrier||10 m (33 ft)||100 m (328 ft)|
|sub-1GHz IoT||TVHT||802.11af||Feb 2014||0.054–0.79||6–8||Up to 568.9||4||MIMO-OFDM||?||?|
|S1G||802.11ah||Dec 2016||0.7/0.8/0.9||1–16||Up to 8.67 (@2 MHz)||4||?||?|
|2.4 GHz, 5 GHz||WUR||802.11ba[E]||Est. Sep 2020||2.4/5||4.06||0.0625, 0.25 (62.5kbps, 250kbps)||N/A||OOK (Multi-carrier OOK)||?||?|
|light||IR||802.11-1997||Jun 1997||?||?||1, 2||N/A||PPM||?||?|
|?||802.11bb||Est. Jul 2021||380-5000nm band||?||?||N/A||?||?||?|
|802.11 Standard rollups|
|802.11-2007||Mar 2007||2.4, 5||Up to 54||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2012||Mar 2012||2.4, 5||Up to 150[B]||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2016||Dec 2016||2.4, 5, 60||Up to 866.7 or 6,757[B]||DSSS, OFDM|
- "IEEE 802.11g-2003: Further Higher Data Rate Extension in the 2.4 GHz Band" (pdf). IEEE. 2003-10-20. Retrieved 2007-09-24.
- Kastrenakes, Jacob (2018-10-03). "Wi-Fi now has version numbers, and Wi-Fi 6 comes out next year". The Verge. Retrieved 2018-12-28.
- Jun, Jangeun; Peddabachagari, Pushkin; Sichitiu, Mihail (2003). "Theoretical Maximum Throughput of IEEE 802.11 and its Applications" (PDF). Proceedings of the Second IEEE International Symposium on Network Computing and Applications. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2014-03-20.
- http://download.wcvirtual.com/reference/802%20Channel%20Freq%20Mappings.pdf[dead link]
- "Official IEEE 802.11 working group project timelines". January 26, 2017. Retrieved 2017-02-12.
- "Wi-Fi CERTIFIED n: Longer-Range, Faster-Throughput, Multimedia-Grade Wi-Fi® Networks" (PDF). Wi-Fi Alliance. September 2009.[dead link]
- Banerji, Sourangsu; Chowdhury, Rahul Singha. "On IEEE 802.11: Wireless LAN Technology". arXiv:1307.2661.
- The complete family of wireless LAN standards: 802.11 a, b, g, j, n
- Abdelgader, Abdeldime M.S.; Wu, Lenan (2014). The Physical Layer of the IEEE 802.11p WAVE Communication Standard: The Specifications and Challenges (PDF). World Congress on Engineering and Computer Science.
- Wi-Fi Capacity Analysis for 802.11ac and 802.11n: Theory & Practice
- Belanger, Phil; Biba, Ken (2007-05-31). "802.11n Delivers Better Range". Wi-Fi Planet. Archived from the original on 2008-11-24.
- "IEEE 802.11ac: What Does it Mean for Test?" (PDF). LitePoint. October 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-08-16.
- "IEEE Standard for Information Technology--Telecommunications and information exchange between systems Local and metropolitan area networks--Specific requirements Part 11: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications Amendment 3: Enhancements for Very High Throughput to Support Chinese Millimeter Wave Frequency Bands (60 GHz and 45 GHz)". IEEE Std 802.11aj-2018. April 2018. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2018.8345727.
- "802.11ad - WLAN at 60 GHz: A Technology Introduction" (PDF). Rohde & Schwarz GmbH. November 21, 2013. p. 14.
- 802.11ad Antenna Differences: Beamsteering, Gain and Range
- "Understanding IEEE 802.11ad Physical Layer and Measurement Challenges" (PDF).
- 802.11aj Press Release
- Hong, Wei; He, Shiwen; Wang, Haiming; Yang, Guangqi; Huang, Yongming; Chen, Jixing; Zhou, Jianyi; Zhu, Xiaowei; Zhang, Nianzhu; Zhai, Jianfeng; Yang, Luxi; Jiang, Zhihao; Yu, Chao (2018). "An Overview of China Millimeter-Wave Multiple Gigabit Wireless Local Area Network System". IEICE Transactions on Communications. E101.B (2): 262–276. doi:10.1587/transcom.2017ISI0004.
- IEEE 802.11ay: 1st real standard for Broadband Wireless Access (BWA) via mmWave
- Sun, Rob; Xin, Yan; Aboul-Maged, Osama; Calcev, George; Wang, Lei; Au, Edward; Cariou, Laurent; Cordeiro, Carlos; Abu-Surra, Shadi; Chang, Sanghyun; Taori, Rakesh; Kim, TaeYoung; Oh, Jongho; Cho, JanGyu; Motozuka, Hiroyuki; Wee, Gaius. "P802.11 Wireless LANs". IEEE. pp. 2, 3. Archived from the original on 2017-12-06. Retrieved December 6, 2017.
- 802.11 Alternate PHYs A whitepaper by Ayman Mukaddam
- Lee, Wookbong; Kwak, Jin-Sam; Kafle, Padam; Tingleff, Jens; Yucek, Tevfik; Porat, Ron; Erceg, Vinko; Lan, Zhou; Harada, Hiroshi (2012-07-10). "TGaf PHY proposal". IEEE P802.11. Retrieved 2013-12-29.
- Sun, Weiping; Choi, Munhwan; Choi, Sunghyun (July 2013). "IEEE 802.11ah: A Long Range 802.11 WLAN at Sub 1 GHz" (PDF). Journal of ICT Standardization. 1 (1): 83–108. doi:10.13052/jicts2245-800X.125.