76 mm air defense gun M1931

The 76 mm air defense gun M1931 (Russian: 76-мм зенитная пушка обр. 1931 г.) was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Soviet Union during the Winter War and the first stages of World War II.

76 mm air defense gun M1931
76 mm anti-aircraft gun M31 in Kempele Jul2008 001.jpg
76 mm M1931 at Kempele, Finland.
TypeAnti-aircraft gun
Place of originSoviet Union
Service history
Used bySoviet Union
Nazi Germany
WarsWinter War
World War II
Production history
MassTravel: 4,820 kg (10,630 lb)
Combat: 3,650 kg (8,050 lb)
Barrel length4.1 m (13 ft 5 in) L/55

ShellFixed QF 76.2 × 558 mm. R[2]
Shell weight6.6 kg (14 lb 9 oz)
Caliber76.2 mm (3 in)
BreechSemi-automatic vertical sliding-wedge
CarriageTwo-wheeled carriage with collapsible cruciform outriggers
Elevation−2° to +82°
Rate of fire10–20 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity815 m/s (2,670 ft/s)
Maximum firing range9.3 km (31,000 ft) AA ceiling[1]


The configuration of the air defense gun M1931 owed much to the design of the contemporary Vickers 3-inch anti-aircraft guns. The Soviet M1931 like the Vickers gun had a two-wheeled carriage with collapsible cruciform outriggers.[1]

The M1931 was replaced in production in 1938 by the 76 mm air defense gun M1938 which had a four-wheeled dual-axle carriage with two collapsible outriggers. The M1931 and M1938 had nearly identical performance and were gradually replaced by the more powerful 85 mm air defense gun M1939.[1]

A number of M1931 guns were captured by Finland during the Winter War and were employed by them as the 76 ItK/31 ss during World War II.[3] Likewise, M1931 guns captured by the Germans were given the designation 7.62 cm Flak M.31(r) and used until they were either worn out or their ammunition supply ran out. A few were rebored to fire German 8.8 cm ammunition and redesignated the 7.62/8.8 cm Flak M.31(r). However, the majority were scrapped in 1944.[1]

After the war, a number of Finnish guns were converted into light coastal guns (76 ItK 31 Rt, where "Rt" stands for "rannikkotykistö" = coastal artillery) by the addition of a scope site with manual lead mechanism for direct fire against moving surface targets. These guns were still in use as training guns of the coastal artillery into the 1980s.[4]

Photo GalleryEdit


  1. ^ a b c d e f Chamberlain, Peter; Gander, Terry (1975). Anti-aircraft guns. New York: Arco Pub. Co. p. 62. ISBN 0668038187. OCLC 2000222.
  2. ^ "77-77 MM CALIBRE CARTRIDGES". www.quarryhs.co.uk. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
  3. ^ "FINNISH ARMY 1918 - 1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3". www.jaegerplatoon.net. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
  4. ^ Enqvist, Ove 1999, Itsenäisen Suomen rannikkotykit 1918-1998. Helsinki: Sotamuseo


  • Shunkov V. N. - The Weapons of the Red Army, Mn. Harvest, 1999 (Шунков В. Н. - Оружие Красной Армии. — Мн.: Харвест, 1999.) ISBN 985-433-469-4

External linksEdit