716 Berkeley (prov. designation: A911 OC or 1911 MD) is a background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt. It was discovered by Austrian astronomer Johann Palisa at the Vienna Observatory on 30 July 1911. The stony S-type asteroid has a rotation period of 15.6 hours and measures approximately 21 kilometers (13 miles) in diameter. It was named after the city of Berkeley, California, where the discoverer's colleague Armin Otto Leuschner (1868–1953) was the director of the local observatory.
|Discovered by||J. Palisa|
|Discovery site||Vienna Obs.|
|Discovery date||30 July 1911|
(U.S. City, California)
|A911 OC · 1947 CH|
1952 FA · A906 OB
|Orbital characteristics |
|Epoch 31 May 2020 (JD 2459000.5)|
|Uncertainty parameter 0|
|Observation arc||113.32 yr (41,390 d)|
|4.72 yr (1,722 d)|
|0° 12m 32.4s / day|
Orbit and classificationEdit
Berkeley is a non-family asteroid of the main belt's background population when applying the hierarchical clustering method to its proper orbital elements. It orbits the Sun in the central asteroid belt at a distance of 2.6–3.1 AU once every 4 years and 9 months (1,722 days; semi-major axis of 2.81 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.09 and an inclination of 8° with respect to the ecliptic. The body's observation arc begins with its first observation at Heidelberg on 16 July 1906, five years prior to its official discovery observation by Johann Palisa at Vienna.
According to Alexander Schnell, this minor planet was named by the discoverer after the U.S. city of Berkeley in California, where American astronomer and colleague Armin Otto Leuschner (1868–1953) was a long-time director at the Leuschner Observatory (then called Students' Observatory). Known for his books Celestial Mechanics and The Minor Planets of the Hecuba Group, Leuschner worked on the orbit determination of 719 Albert, which was originally discovered by Palisa in 1911 but remained a lost asteroid until 2000. The naming citation was not mentioned in The Names of the Minor Planets by Paul Herget in 1955. Palisa also named asteroid 718 Erida after Leuschner's daughter. The lunar crater Leuschner and asteroid 1361 Leuschneria, discovered by Eugène Delporte in 1935, were later named directly after the American astronomer.
In both the Tholen and SMASS classification, Berkeley is a common, stony S-type asteroid. It is also an S-type in the Bus–DeMeo classification, while in the Tholen- and SMASS-like taxonomic variants of the Small Solar System Objects Spectroscopic Survey (S3OS2), this asteroid is a K-type and Sq-subtype which transitions to the uncommon Q-type, respectively.
In May 2009, a rotational lightcurve of Berkeley was obtained from photometric observations by American amateur astronomer Joe Garlitz at his Elgin Observatory in Oregon. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 15.55±0.04 hours with a brightness variation of 0.25±0.03 magnitude (U=2+).[a] Lower rated lightcurves obtained by Claes-Ingvar Lagerkvist in 1977, and by David Romeuf in 2018, gave a divergent period of larger than 17 h and 34.3±0.6 h with an amplitude of larger than 0.2 and 0.25±0.02 magnitude, respectively (U=1/2).
Diameter and albedoEdit
According to the surveys carried out by the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, and the Japanese Akari satellite, Berkeley measures (19.768±0.167), (21.28±1.5) and (21.55±0.57) kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo of (0.220±0.045), (0.1801±0.028) and (0.182±0.011), respectively.
The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link derives an albedo of 0.2027 and a diameter of 21.38 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 10.7. Alternative mean-diameters published by the WISE team include (21.519±0.054 km) and (21.89±0.78 km) with a corresponding albedo of (0.1808±0.0518) and (0.170±0.017).
- "716 Berkeley (A911 OC)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(716) Berkeley". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 69. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_717. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
- "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 716 Berkeley (A911 OC)" (2019-11-10 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "Asteroid 716 Berkeley – Proper Elements". AstDyS-2, Asteroids – Dynamic Site. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- "Asteroid 716 Berkeley". Small Bodies Data Ferret. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
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- Noah Webster (1884) A Practical Dictionary of the English Language. (Of the two pronunciations, the first is used for UC Berkeley.)
- Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System: EAR-A-COMPIL-5-NEOWISEDIAM-V1.0. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121. S2CID 119293330.
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- Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 16 June 2020. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
- "LCDB Data for (716) Berkeley". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- DeMeo, Francesca E.; Binzel, Richard P.; Slivan, Stephen M.; Bus, Schelte J. (July 2009). "An extension of the Bus asteroid taxonomy into the near-infrared". Icarus. 202 (1): 160–180. Bibcode:2009Icar..202..160D. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2009.02.005. Archived 17 March 2014 at the Wayback Machine (Catalog at PDS)
- Lazzaro, D.; Angeli, C. A.; Carvano, J. M.; Mothé-Diniz, T.; Duffard, R.; Florczak, M. (November 2004). "S3OS2: the visible spectroscopic survey of 820 asteroids" (PDF). Icarus. 172 (1): 179–220. Bibcode:2004Icar..172..179L. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2004.06.006. Retrieved 16 June 2020.
- Lagerkvist, C.-I. (December 1977). "Photographic Photometry of the Asteroids 716 Berkeley and 1245 Calvinia". Astronomy and Astrophysics Supplement. 34: 203. Bibcode:1978A&AS...34..203L.
- Behrend, Raoul. "Asteroids and comets rotation curves – (716) Berkeley". Geneva Observatory. Retrieved 15 June 2020.
- Lightcurve Database Query (LCDB), at www.minorplanet.info
- Dictionary of Minor Planet Names, Google books
- Asteroids and comets rotation curves, CdR – Geneva Observatory, Raoul Behrend
- Discovery Circumstances: Numbered Minor Planets (1)-(5000) – Minor Planet Center
- 716 Berkeley at AstDyS-2, Asteroids—Dynamic Site
- 716 Berkeley at the JPL Small-Body Database