64th Fighter Aviation Corps
The 64th Fighter Aviation Corps (64th IAK) was an aviation corps of the Soviet Air Forces. The corps was the parent unit for Soviet interceptor units based in northeastern Manchuria during the Korean War.
|64th Fighter Aviation Corps|
|Branch||Soviet Air Forces|
|Role||Bomber and fighter interception|
|Garrison/HQ||HQ at Mukden|
The Korean War broke out in June 1950. On 11 October 1950, Stalin agreed to send Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 fighters of the Soviet Air Forces to provide air cover for the Chinese Communist People's Volunteer Army units then moving into North Korea. Tasked with providing air cover for bridges and for the hydroelectric power plants on the Yalu River, as well as for North Korean facilities and for the Chinese Communist rear area, 64th IAK pilots also trained Chinese Communist and North Korean pilots. On 1 November, Soviet MiG-15s began defensive patrols over the Yalu River. The 64th Fighter Aviation Corps, established on 14 November, comprised the 28th, 50th and 151st Guards Fighter Aviation Divisions. It was first commanded by Major General Ivan Belov. The Mig-15s of the 64th IAK began to clash with United Nations jet fighters, such as the North American F-86 Sabre.
On 1 November 1951, the 64th IAK became part of the People's Liberation Army Air Force's 1st United Air Army. In March 1952, the corps received new MiG-15bis aircraft. On 21 April 1952, pilots of the corps shot down two F-86s while losing six MiGs. On 4 July, the corps suffered its heaviest losses of the war when it lost 11 MiGs. During the Korean War, the corps flew 64,000 sorties and conducted 1,872 air battles. According to the inflated official totals of the corps, 1,250 UN Forces aircraft were shot down, 1,100 by MiGs and 150 by antiaircraft artillery. The corps lost 335 aircraft, killing 120 pilots and 68 antiaircraft gunners.
After the cease-fire of 27 July 1953, the corps withdrew from Korea. It moved to Petrozavodsk and became part of the 22nd Air Army. In Karelia, the corps included the 26th, 216th and 336th Fighter Aviation Divisions. The corps disbanded in 1956.
The composition of the corps constantly varied. During the war, the corps went through 12 fighter aviation divisions, two separate night fighter regiments, 2 Naval Aviation fighter wings, four antiaircraft artillery divisions and different rear units. The corps was composed of 26,000 personnel in 1952. On 1 November of the same year, 321 aircraft were in the combat units.
The participation of the Soviet Union in the Korean War was kept secret, and pilots were forbidden to approach the front line or fly over the sea. The aircraft used PLAAF markings and pilots were given Chinese Communist documents and uniforms. During the early actions, they were required to not speak Russian during missions and had to learn Korean phrases. After the first battles, the requirement was removed because it was practically impossible. The details of the Soviet participation in the Korean War were published in the Soviet Union only during the 1970s and 1980s. Despite all the secrecy, United Nations pilots were aware of the Soviet presence.
Corps Aviation unitsEdit
The 64th Fighter Aviation Corps included three divisions from 27 November 1950 to March 1951.
- 28th Fighter Aviation Division
- 50th Fighter Aviation Division
- 151st Guards Fighter Aviation Division
The 50th Fighter Aviation Division was formed and the 151st Guards Fighter Aviation Division's transfer made from the resources of the Air Forces of the Moscow Military District and the 67th Fighter Aviation Corps. Combat support was provided by elements of the 149th Fighter Aviation Division of the 55th Separate Fighter Air Defence Corps, commanded by Major General P.F. Batitsky.
The original divisions were replaced by the following units in February 1951.
- 303rd Smolensk Red Banner Fighter Aviation Division
- 324th Svir Red Banner Fighter Aviation Division
- 351st Fighter Aviation Regiment from the 106th Fighter Aviation Division of the Shanghai Air Defence Group of Forces – took part from 23 June 1951 to 18 February 1953 as a separate night fighter aviation regiment equipped with La-11 and MiG-15s from February 1952
- 97th Fighter Aviation Division Air Defence
- 190th Polotsk Red Banner Fighter Aviation Division
In July 1952, new aviation units replaced the previous divisions.
- 32nd Red Banner Fighter Aviation Division
- 133rd Fighter Aviation Division
- 216th Gomel Fighter Aviation Division PVO
In February 1953, the 351st Fighter Aviation Regiment was replaced by the 298th Fighter Aviation Regiment. Both were night fighter units.
In July 1953, the previous units were withdrawn and replaced by the following units.
- 37th Fighter Aviation Division
- 100th Fighter Aviation Division PVO
Corps air defence and security unitsEdit
- 28th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (January 1953 – until the end)
- 503rd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 505th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 507th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 35th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (January 1953 – until the end)
- 508th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 513th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 87th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (March 1951 – January 1953).
- 151st Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 1777th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 92nd Anti-Aircraft Artillery Division (March 1951 – January 1953).
- 666th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 667th Anti-Aircraft Artillery Regiment
- 16th Aviation Maintenance Division (July 1953 – December 1954)
- 180th Separate Airfield Logistics Battalion
- 277th Separate Airfield Logistics Battalion
- 838th Separate Airfield Logistics Battalion
- 854th Separate Airfield Logistics Battalion
- 859th Separate Airfield Logistics Battalion
- 18th Aviation Maintenance Division (June 1951 – July 1953)
- 10th Separate Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Regiment (March 1951 – February 1953)
- 20th Separate Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Regiment (January 1953 – December 1954)
- 65th FIES Detachment Artillery Instrumental Reconnaissance
- 61st Anti-Aircraft Searchlight Company
- 1406th Hospital of Infectious Diseases
- 8th Military Mobile Field Hospital
- 534th Radiography Detachment
- 70th Separate Disinfection Platoon
- 99th Separate Disinfection Platoon
- 18th Plague Prevention Detachment
- 357th Anti-Epidemic Sanitary Laboratory
- 81st Separate Communication Company (November 1950 – April 1953)
- 727th Separate Communications Battalion (April 1953 – December 1954)
- 133rd Separate Radio Engineering Battalion (April 1953 – December 1954)
- 61st Separate Radar Company (radio navigation; April 1953 – December 1954)
- 114th Special Purpose Radio Regiment
Antiaircraft artillery divisions were equipped with various types of equipment. The 87th Antiaircraft Artillery Division had 59 85mm guns and 56 37mm antiaircraft guns. The 92nd Antiaircraft Artillery Division had 96 85mm and 84 37mm antiaircraft guns. Units at the time at batteries composed of four guns and battalions composed of 12 guns.
Each antiaircraft searchlight regiment had to equip 36 Radio RAP-150 stations. The regiment consisted of three searchlight battalion (4 searchlight companies to 12 stations). The searchlight platoon was equipped with RAP-2 150 and 2 3-15-3 Antiaircraft Searchlight Stations. At the same time searchlight platoon stands out for night fighting maneuvering MSA batteries originally had a total of one station RAP-150 and three stations 3-15-4. The practice of combat work stations showed the unreasonableness of using RAP-150 when shooting at low-flying targets, as in mountainous terrain interference observed in the entire range of the station. In addition, the inability to adjust radar stations RAP-150 elevation with frequent change of position, lack of agility stations and the difficulty masking her forced to abandon the use of RAP-150 in mobile platoons. Radioprozhektornaya station RAP-150: mirror diameter of 150 cm, arc lamp, radiolocator, automatic tracking of the illuminated target. The brightness of the searchlight beam at a height of 5–7 km – 1,200 units or 1.5 million candles (for comparison – the brightness of the sun – 900 units).
- Seidov, Igor; Britton, Stuart (2014-03-19). Red Devils over the Yalu: A Chronicle of Soviet Aerial Operations in the Korean War 1950–53. Helion and Company. ISBN 9781909384415.
- Zhang, Xiaoming (2002-01-01). Red wings over the Yalu: China, the Soviet Union, and the air war in Korea. Texas A&M University Press.
- Popov, Lavrenyov and Bogdanov, p. 263
- Dorr, Robert F.; Davey, Chris (2013-02-20). Korean War Aces. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781472800565.
- "Краткий анализ боевых действий 64-го ИАК на Корейском ТВД – Советские асы Корейской войны 1950 – 1953 гг" [A brief analysis of the fighting of the 64th IAK in the Korean theater – Soviet Aces of the Korean War in 1950 – 1953.]. soviet-aces-1936-53.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2016-01-18.
- Polak, Tomas (1999-01-01). Stalin's Falcons. Grub Street. ISBN 9781902304014.
- Dildy, Doug; Laurier, Jim (2013-05-20). F-86 Sabre vs MiG-15: Korea 1950–53. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 9781780963211.
- Seidov and Britton p. 356
- Seidov and Brittain p. 364
- Krylov, Leonid; Tepsurkaev, Yuriy (2012-12-20). Soviet MiG-15 Aces of the Korean War. Osprey Publishing. ISBN 978-1-78200-850-7.
- Popov, Lavrenyov and Bogdanov, pp, 272–274
- Holm, Michael. "22nd Air Army". ww2.dk. Retrieved 18 Jan 2016.
- Popov, I.M.; Lavrenyov, S.Y.; Bogdanov, V.N. (2005). Корея в огне войны [Korea in the flames of war] (in Russian). Moscow: Kuchkovo Field. pp. 268–269.
- Seidov and Brittain p. 35
- Anokhin, V.A.; Bykhov, Mikhail (2014). Все истребительные авиаполки Сталина. Первая полная энциклопедия [All fighter aviation regiments of Stalin 1936–1953] (in Russian). Moscow: Yauza. ISBN 978-5-9955-0707-9.