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55 Cancri e (abbreviated 55 Cnc e, also named Janssen), is an exoplanet in the orbit of its Sun-like host star 55 Cancri A. The mass of the exoplanet is about 8.63 Earth masses and its diameter is about twice that of the Earth,[4] thus classifying it as the first super-Earth discovered around a main sequence star, predating Gliese 876 d by a year. It takes less than 18 hours to complete an orbit and is the innermost known planet in its planetary system. 55 Cancri e was discovered on 30 August 2004. However, until the 2010 observations and recalculations, this planet had been thought to take about 2.8 days to orbit the star.[2] In October 2012, it was announced that 55 Cancri e could be a carbon planet.[5][6]

55 Cancri e
Exoplanet List of exoplanets
Artist’s impression of 55 Cancri e.jpg
Artist's impression of 55 Cancri e near its host star.
Parent star
Star 55 Cancri A
Constellation Cancer
Right ascension (α) 08h 52m 35.8s
Declination (δ) +28° 19′ 51″
Apparent magnitude (mV) 5.95
Distance 40.3 ± 0.4 ly
(12.3 ± 0.1 pc)
Spectral type G8V
Mass (m) 0.95 ± 0.10 M
Radius (r) 1.152 ± 0.035 R
Temperature (T) 5373 ± 9.7 K
Metallicity [Fe/H] 0.29
Age 7.4–8.7 Gyr
Orbital elements
Semi-major axis (a) 0.01560 ± 0.00011[1] AU
(2.333 Gm)
    1.27 mas
Periastron (q) 0.0129 AU
(1.94 Gm)
Apastron (Q) 0.0183 AU
(2.73 Gm)
Eccentricity (e) 0.17 ± 0.04[1]
Orbital period (P) 0.7365449 (± 0.000005)[1] d
    (17.677 h)
Inclination (i) 83.4 ± 1.7°
Argument of
periastron
(ω) 181 ± 2[1]°
Time of periastron (T0) 2,449,999.83643 ± 0.0001[2] JD
Semi-amplitude (K) 6.2 ± 0.2[1] m/s
Physical characteristics
Mass (m) 8.63 ± 0.35[3] M
Radius (r) 2.00 ± 0.14[3] R
Stellar flux (F) 2590
Bond Albedo (Ab) 0.43 (±0.3)
Density (ρ) 5.9+1.5
−1.1
[3] g cm−3
Surface gravity (g) 2.14+0.356
−0.277
g
Temperature (T) 2,709 K (2,436 °C; 4,417 °F) (average maximum)
1,613 K (1,340 °C; 2,444 °F) (average minimum)
2,573 K (2,300 °C; 4,172 °F) (avg day side)
~1,644 K (1,371 °C; 2,500 °F) (avg night side)
Discovery information
Discovery date August 30, 2004
Discoverer(s) McArthur et al.
Discovery method Radial velocity
Other detection methods Transit,
Orbital phase light variations
Discovery site Texas, United States
Discovery status Published
Other designations
Janssen, Copernicus e, 55 Cancri Ae, Rho1 Cancri e, HD 75732 e
Database references
Extrasolar Planets
Encyclopaedia
data
SIMBAD data
Exoplanet Archive data
Open Exoplanet Catalogue data

In July 2014 the International Astronomical Union launched a process for giving proper names to certain exoplanets and their host stars.[7] The process involved public nomination and voting for the new names.[8] In December 2015, the IAU announced the winning name was Janssen for this planet.[9] The winning name was submitted by the Royal Netherlands Association for Meteorology and Astronomy of the Netherlands. It honors the spectacle maker and telescope pioneer Zacharias Janssen.[10]

In February 2016, it was announced that NASA's Hubble Space Telescope had detected hydrogen and helium (and suggestions of hydrogen cyanide), but no water vapor, in the atmosphere of 55 Cancri e, the first time the atmosphere of a super-Earth exoplanet was analyzed successfully.[11]

Contents

DiscoveryEdit

Like the majority of extrasolar planets found prior to the Kepler mission, 55 Cancri e was discovered by detecting variations in its star's radial velocity. This was achieved by making sensitive measurements of the Doppler shift of the spectrum of 55 Cancri A. At the time of its discovery, three other planets were known orbiting the star. After accounting for these planets, a signal at around 2.8 days remained, which could be explained by a planet of at least 14.2 Earth masses in a very close orbit.[12] The same measurements were used to confirm the existence of the uncertain planet 55 Cancri c.

55 Cancri e was one of the first extrasolar planets with a mass comparable to that of Neptune to be discovered. It was announced at the same time as another "hot Neptune" orbiting the red dwarf star Gliese 436 named Gliese 436 b.

Planet challengedEdit

In 2005 the existence of planet e was questioned by Jack Wisdom in a reanalysis of the data: according to him, instead of the 2.8-day orbit planet, there is a planet with a mass similar to that of Neptune in a 261-day orbit around 55 Cancri A.[13] In 2007, Debra Fischer and colleagues at San Francisco State University published a new analysis[14] indicating that both planets existed; the planet in the 260-day orbit was accordingly designated 55 Cancri f.

TransitEdit

The planet's transit of its host star was announced on 27 April 2011, based on two weeks of nearly continuous photometric monitoring with the MOST space telescope.[3] The transits occur with the period (0.74 days) and phase that had been predicted by Dawson & Fabrycky. This is one of the few planetary transits to be confirmed around a well-known star, and allowed investigations into the planet's composition.

Orbit and massEdit

The radial velocity method used to detect 55 Cancri e obtains the minimum mass of 7.8 times that of Earth,[4] or 48% of the mass of Neptune. The transit shows that its inclination is about 83.4 ± 1.7, so the real mass is close to the minimum. 55 Cancri e is also coplanar with b.

CharacteristicsEdit

55 Cancri e receives more radiation than Gliese 436 b.[15] The side of the planet facing its star has temperatures more than 2,000 kelvin (approximately 1,700 degrees Celsius or 3,100 Fahrenheit), hot enough to melt iron.[16] Infrared mapping with the Spitzer Space Telescope indicated an average front side temperature of 2,573 K (2,300 °C; 4,172 °F) and an average back side temperature of around 1,644 K (1,371 °C; 2,500 °F).

 
Exoplanet 55 Cancuri e orbiting it's host star (artist concept).

It was initially unknown whether 55 Cancri e was a small gas giant like Neptune or a large rocky terrestrial planet. In 2011, a transit of the planet was confirmed, allowing scientists to calculate its density. At first it was suspected to be a water planet.[3][4] As initial observations showed no hydrogen in its Lyman-alpha signature during transit, Ehrenreich speculated that its volatile materials might be carbon dioxide instead of water or hydrogen.[17]

An alternative possibility is that 55 Cancri e is a solid planet made of carbon-rich material rather than the oxygen-rich material that makes up the terrestrial planets in our solar system.[18] In this case, roughly a third of the planet's mass would be carbon, much of which may be in the form of diamond as a result of the temperatures and pressures in the planet's interior. Further observations are necessary to confirm the nature of the planet.[5][6]

In February 2016, it was announced that NASA's Hubble Space Telescope had detected hydrogen and helium (and suggestions of hydrogen cyanide), but no water vapor, in the atmosphere of 55 Cancri e, the first time the atmosphere of a super-Earth exoplanet was analyzed successfully.[11][19] In November 2017, it was announced that infrared observations with the Spitzer Space Telescope indicated the presence of a global lava ocean obscured by an atmosphere with a pressure of about 1.4 bar, slightly thicker than that of Earth. The atmosphere may contain similar chemicals in Earth's atmosphere, such as nitrogen and possibly oxygen, in order to cause the infrared data observed by Spitzer.[20][21]

VolcanismEdit

Large surface temperature variations on 55 Cancri e have been attributed to possible volcanic activity releasing large clouds of dust which blanket the planet and block thermal emissions.[22][23]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c d e Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel C. (10 October 2010) [21 May 2010 (v1)]. "Radial velocity planets de-aliased. A new, short period for Super-Earth 55 Cnc e". The Astrophysical Journal. 722 (1): 937–953. arXiv:1005.4050 . Bibcode:2010ApJ...722..937D. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/722/1/937. 
  2. ^ a b Fischer, Debra A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Vogt, Steven S.; Laughlin, Greg; Henry, Gregory W.; Abouav, David; Peek, Kathryn M. G.; Wright, Jason T.; Johnson, John A.; McCarthy, Chris; Isaacson, Howard (1 March 2008) [23 December 2007 (v1)]. "Five Planets Orbiting 55 Cancri". The Astrophysical Journal. 675 (1): 790–801. arXiv:0712.3917 . Bibcode:2008ApJ...675..790F. doi:10.1086/525512. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Winn, Joshua N.; Matthews, Jaymie M.; Dawson, Rebekah I.; Fabrycky, Daniel; Holman, Matthew J.; Kallinger, Thomas; Kuschnig, Rainer; Sasselov, Dimitar; Dragomir, Diana; Guenther, David B.; Moffat, Anthony F.J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Rucinski, Slavek; Weiss, Werner W. (10 August 2011) [27 Apr 2011 (v1)]. "A Super Earth Transiting a Naked-Eye Star". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 737 (1): L18. arXiv:1104.5230 . Bibcode:2011ApJ...737L..18W. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/737/1/L18. 
  4. ^ a b c "Oozing Super-Earth: Images of Alien Planet 55 Cancri e". Space.com. 20 January 2012. Retrieved 21 January 2012. 
  5. ^ a b Wickham, Chris (21 October 2012). "A diamond bigger than Earth?". Reuters. Retrieved 26 October 2012. 
  6. ^ a b Madhusudhan, Nikku; Lee, Kanani K. M.; Mousis, Olivier (10 November 2012) [9 October 2012 (v1)]. "A Possible Carbon-rich Interior in Super-Earth 55 Cancri e". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (2): L40. arXiv:1210.2720 . Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L..40M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/2/L40. 
  7. ^ NameExoWorlds: An IAU Worldwide Contest to Name Exoplanets and their Host Stars. IAU.org. 9 July 2014
  8. ^ NameExoWorlds The Process
  9. ^ Final Results of NameExoWorlds Public Vote Released, International Astronomical Union, 15 December 2015.
  10. ^ NameExoWorlds The Approved Names
  11. ^ a b Staff (16 February 2016). "First detection of super-earth atmosphere". Phys.org. Retrieved 17 February 2016. 
  12. ^ McArthur, Barbara E.; Endl, Michael; Cochran, William D.; Benedict, G. Fritz; Fischer, Debra A.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Butler, R. Paul; Naef, Dominique; Mayor, Michel; Queloz, Diedre; Udry, Stephane; Harrison, Thomas E. (10 October 2004) [31 August 2004 (v1)]. "Detection of a NEPTUNE-mass planet in the ρ1 Cancri system using the Hobby-Eberly Telescope". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 614 (1): L81. arXiv:astro-ph/0408585 . Bibcode:2004ApJ...614L..81M. doi:10.1086/425561. 
  13. ^ Wisdom, Jack (May 2005). "A Neptune-Sized Planet in the ρ1 Cancri System". Bulletin of the American Astronomical Society. 37: 525. Bibcode:2005DDA....36.0508W. Reanalyzing published data, I find evidence of a Neptune-sized planet in the ρ1 Cancri system with a period near 261 days and a mass approximately 1.8 times the mass of Neptune 
  14. ^ Minkel, J.R. (6 November 2007). "Record Fifth Planet Discovered Around Distant Star". Scientific American. 
  15. ^ Lucas, P. W.; Hough, J. H.; Bailey, J. A.; Tamura, M.; Hirst, E.; Harrison, D. (2007) [16 July 2008 (v1)]. "Planetpol polarimetry of the exoplanet systems 55 Cnc and τ Boo". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 393 (1): 229–244. arXiv:0807.2568 . Bibcode:2009MNRAS.393..229L. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2966.2008.14182.x. 
  16. ^ Science@NASA. "NASA Space Telescope Sees the Light from an Alien Super-Earth". NASA. Retrieved 10 May 2012. 
  17. ^ Ehrenreich, David; Bourrier, Vincent; Bonfils, Xavier; Lecavelier des Etangs, Alain; Hébrard, Guillaume; Sing, David K.; Wheatley, Peter J.; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Delfosse, Xavier; Udry, Stéphane; Forveille, Thierry; Moutou, Claire (2 October 2012). "Hint of a transiting extended atmosphere on 55 Cancri b". Astronomy & Astrophysics. 547. arXiv:1210.0531 . Bibcode:2012A&A...547A..18E. doi:10.1051/0004-6361/201219981. 
  18. ^ "Nearby Super-Earth Likely a Diamond Planet". Science Daily. 11 October 2012. Retrieved 11 October 2012. 
  19. ^ "A primeira detecção da composição atmosférica de uma super-Terra". GOASA. February 2016. Retrieved 17 August 2015. 
  20. ^ http://www.astrobiology.com/2017/10/a-case-for-an-atmosphere-on-super-earth-55-cancri-e.html
  21. ^ https://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2017-296
  22. ^ Astronomers May Have Found Volcanoes 40 Light-Years From Earth
  23. ^ Demory, Brice-Olivier; Gillon, Michael; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Queloz, Didier (2016). "Variability in the super-Earth 55 Cnc e". Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. 455 (2): 2018–2027. arXiv:1505.00269 . Bibcode:2016MNRAS.455.2018D. doi:10.1093/mnras/stv2239. 

External linksEdit

Coordinates:   08h 52m 35.8s, +28° 19′ 51″