5'-3' exoribonuclease 2

5'-3' Exoribonuclease 2 (XRN2) also known as Dhm1-like protein is an exoribonuclease enzyme that in humans is encoded by the XRN2 gene.[5]

XRN2
Identifiers
AliasesXRN2, entrez:22803, 5'-3' exoribonuclease 2
External IDsOMIM: 608851 MGI: 894687 HomoloGene: 6927 GeneCards: XRN2
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_012255
NM_001317960

NM_011917
NM_001356402
NM_001356403

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001304889
NP_036387

NP_036047
NP_001343331
NP_001343332

Location (UCSC)Chr 20: 21.3 – 21.39 MbChr 2: 147.01 – 147.08 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

The human gene encoding XRN2 shares similarity with the mouse Dhm1 and the yeast's Dhp1 (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) or RAT1 (Saccharomyces) genes. The yeast gene is involved in homologous recombination and RNA metabolism, such as RNA synthesis and RNA trafficking and termination.[6] Complementation studies show that Dhm1 has a similar function in mouse as Dhp1.

FunctionEdit

Human XRN2 is involved in the torpedo model of transcription termination.[7]

The C. elegans homologue, XRN-2, is involved in the degradation of certain mature miRNAs and their dislodging from miRISC miRNAs.[8]

In yeast, the Rat1 protein has been shown to also be involved in the torpedo transcription termination model. When a polyadenylation site has been detected on the nascent RNA and cleaved by the RNA polymerase II, the Rtt103 factor recruits Rat1 and attaches it to free end. The exonuclease activity of Rat1 degrades the RNA strand and halts transcriptions upon catching up to the polymerase.[6]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000088930 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000027433 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Zhang M, Yu L, Xin Y, Hu P, Fu Q, Yu C, Zhao S (July 1999). "Cloning and mapping of the XRN2 gene to human chromosome 20p11.1-p11.2". Genomics. 59 (2): 252–4. doi:10.1006/geno.1999.5866. PMID 10409438.
  6. ^ a b David Tollervey (November 2004). "Termination by torpedo". Nature. 432 (7016): 456–457. doi:10.1038/432456a. PMID 15565140. S2CID 6823163.
  7. ^ West S, Gromak N, Proudfoot NJ (November 2004). "Human 5' --> 3' exonuclease Xrn2 promotes transcription termination at co-transcriptional cleavage sites". Nature. 432 (7016): 522–5. Bibcode:2004Natur.432..522W. doi:10.1038/nature03035. PMID 15565158. S2CID 4365304.
  8. ^ Chatterjee S, Grosshans H (September 2009). "Active turnover modulates mature microRNA activity in Caenorhabditis elegans". Nature. 461 (7263): 546–9. Bibcode:2009Natur.461..546C. doi:10.1038/nature08349. PMID 19734881. S2CID 4414841.

External linksEdit

Further readingEdit

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