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4D film is a presentation system combining motion pictures with synchronized physical effects that occur in the theater. Effects simulated in 4D films include, but are not limited to, motion, vibration, scent, rain, mist, bubbles, fog, smoke, wind, temperature changes, and strobe lights. Seats in 4D venues vibrate and move during these multisensory presentations.
Other common effects include air jets and water sprays. Auditorium effects may include smoke, rain, lightning, bubbles, and scent. 4D films are exhibited in every major global market in stadium seating multiplexes, and are exhibited via worldwide theatrical releases.
Multinational mobile 4D theatres include Cinetransformer venues. As of 2022, 4D films are exhibited in more than 65 countries globally. 4D motion pictures are also exhibited in theme parks.
The precursors of the modern 4D film presentation include Sensurround, which debuted in 1974 with the film Earthquake. Only a few films were presented in Sensurround, and it was supplanted by Dolby Stereo in 1977, which featured extended low frequencies and made subwoofers a common addition to cinema. Other notable efforts at pushing the boundaries of the film viewing experience include Fantasound, the first use of stereo sound; Cinemiracle and Cinerama, both widescreen formats utilizing multiple projectors; and Smell-O-Vision.
The Sensorium is regarded as the world's first commercial 4D film and was first screened in 1984 at Six Flags Power Plant in Baltimore. It was produced in partnership with Landmark Entertainment.
4DX, D-Box Technologies, and Mediamation all currently integrate 4D technology in global stadium seating multiplexes.
List of 4D presentation systems for film theatresEdit
The following is a list of 4D presentation systems developed for traditional film theatres.
|Format||Date||Developer||3D Format||Motion Seat||Effects||Remarks||Notes||Source|
|4DX||CJ 4D Plex||Stereoscopic 3D||yes||motion, vibration, scent/olfactory, water sprays, wind/air, snow, fog, strobes, lightning, bubbles||Cineworld, Cinépolis|
|D-Box||D-Box Technologies||Stereoscopic 3D||yes||motion, vibration||Cinemark|
|MX4D||MediaMation||Stereoscopic 3D||yes||motion, vibration, scent/olfactory, water sprays, wind/air, snow, fog, strobes, lightning, bubbles||Paramount, Showcase|||
|4D E-Motion||Lumma||Stereoscopic 3D||yes||motion, vibration, scent/olfactory, water sprays, air shots, wind, strobes, colour lights, fog, bubbles, snow|
|(Not named by developer)||Red Rover||Stereoscopic 3D||yes||motion, water sprays, wind/air, scent/olfactory, fog, strobes, bubbles,||Branded as Super 4D in Lotte Cinema installations.|
|The Scent of Mystery||1960||Specially outfitted general-release theaters||Scent/olfactory|
|The Sensorium||1984||Six Flags Power Plant, Baltimore, MD||The first 4D film|
|Captain EO||1986||Epcot, Disneyland, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland||Closed in the mid-late 1990s and reopened in 2010 as a tribute to the late Michael Jackson.|
|Muppet*Vision 3D||1991||Disney's Hollywood Studios||Directed by Jim Henson|
|Honey, I Shrunk the Audience||1994||Epcot, Disneyland, Disneyland Paris and Tokyo Disneyland||Sponsored by Kodak, closed in all locations in May 2010 and was replaced with Captain EO.|
|Terminator 2 3D: Battle Across Time||1996||Universal Studios Japan||Directed by James Cameron|
|Pirates 4D||1997||SeaWorld Ohio, Busch Gardens Williamsburg, Thorpe Park in the UK, Busch Gardens Tampa Bay||Produced by Busch Entertainment, Directed by Keith Melton.|
|The Amazing Adventures of Spider-Man||1999||Islands of Adventure, Universal Studios Japan||Water, smoke, strobe, and vibration.|
|PandaDroom||2002||The Efteling, Netherlands||Same film released in other parks without 4D effects|
|SpongeBob SquarePants 4-D||2002, 2006||Six Flags over Texas, Moody Gardens, Shedd Aquarium, Adventure Dome, Six Flags Great Adventure, Movie Park Germany, Adventure Aquarium, Kings Dominion, (formerly at Paramount Parks), Indianapolis Zoo, Carowinds, Camden Aquarium (Camden, NJ), Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo and other locations|
|Mickey's PhilharMagic||2003||Magic Kingdom, Hong Kong Disneyland, Tokyo Disneyland, and Disney California Adventure.||In collaboration with Walt Disney Feature Animation|
|Haunted Lighthouse[a]||2003||Flamingo Land Theme Park and Zoo|
|Shrek 4-D||2003||Universal Studios Florida, Universal Studios Japan, and Universal Studios Singapore||Released in an anaglyph version as Shrek 3-D on DVD|
|Borg Invasion||2004||Star Trek: The Experience, at Las Vegas Hilton, US||Closed in 2008, to be reopened in Neonopolis, Las Vegas|
|Fly Me to the Moon||2008||Six Flags over Texas|
|Journey to the Center of the Earth 4-D Adventure||2008||Vibrant 5D, Raipur, India||Stone Mountain Park, Dollywood, Warner Bros. Movie World|
|Fly High: The Legend of Black Man||2017||India||First Indian 4D film; directed by Rahul Rathish Kumar|
|Avatar in 4D||2009||South Korea, Hong Kong||In 4DX. James Cameron, Director|
|London Eye 4D Experience||2009||London Eye||Produced by Centre Screen Productions and Principal Large Format|
|Beyond All Boundaries||2009||WWII Museum, New Orleans||Produced by Tom Hanks|
|ENERGIA The Spirit of the Earth||2009||Cité de l'énergie, Shawinigan (Quebec)||Spectators are seated on a revolving platform. Features wind, snow, smoke, rain, vibration and lighting effects.|
|"The Garden"||2010||USA pavilion at Expo 2010||The eight-minute film was projected upon five 10-meter-high screens.|
|Marvel Super Heroes 4D||2010||Madame Tussauds London, Trans Studio Bandung|
|Rabid Rider||2010||Cincinnati Zoo|
|Star Tours—The Adventures Continue||2011||Disneyland, Disney's Hollywood Studios, Tokyo Disneyland, & Disneyland Paris||Replaced/Replacing Star Tours in all locations. Was updated in late 2015 to add an adventure themed to Star Wars: The Force Awakens|
|Shalem||2011?||Jerusalem Time Elevator, Jerusalem||A 3000-year-old guide to Jerusalem's history at the Jerusalem Time Elevator, Jerusalem.|
|Spy Kids: All the Time in the World||2011||United States, India, Canada and UK||Smell was achieved by using scratch and sniff cards|
|Transformers: The Ride||2011||Universal Studios Singapore, Universal Studios Hollywood, Universal Studios Florida|
|The Bourne Legacy||2012||Multinational||In 4DX|
|Despicable Me: Minion Mayhem||2012||Universal Studios Florida, Universal Studios Japan, and Universal Studios Hollywood||14-minute simulator ride, starring Gru, Margo, Edith, Agnes and the Minions; setting is 1 year after the events of the original film in 2010.|
|Tallgrass Prairie: Tides of Time||2012||Flint Hills Discovery Center, Manhattan, Kansas||Features wind, snow, smoke, and lightning effects|
|Prometheus||2012||Cinepolis Galerias Guadalajara, Mexico||In 4DX. Ridley Scott, Director|
|Titanic||2012||Multinational||4DX re-release, James Cameron, Director|
|The Adventures of Tintin||2011||Nickelodeon Resorts, Paramount Parks, North Carolina Zoo, and Alton Towers||14-minute condensed version of the film.|
|Iron Man 3||2013||Korona World Theatre Nagoya, Japan, Seoul, South Korea||Labeled as 4DX featuring strobe lights, tilting seats, blowing wind and fog, and odor effects.|
|47 Ronin||2014||Multinational||In 4DX|
|Interstellar||2014||Multinational||In 4DX. Christopher Nolan, Director|
|Rio||2014||San Diego Zoo, Kentucky Kingdom, North Carolina Zoo, Indianapolis Zoo, Cincinnati Zoo||12-minute condensed version of the film.|
|Temple Run 7D||2014||India||9-minute ride to various Indian temples including Kedarnath, Badrinath, Gangotri, Rameshwaram, and Dwarka produced by Modern Techno Projects Private Ltd.|
|Star Wars: The Force Awakens||2015||Multinational||In 4DX. J.J. Abrams, Director|
|Ice Age: No Time for Nuts 4D||2015||United States||4D-remastered version of the 2006 short film of the same name.|
|Rogue One||2016||Multinational||In 4DX|
|Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice||2016||Seoul, Korea and New York City, New York||Labeled as 4DX including fog, wind, motion, rain, lightning, vibrations and scents.|
|Pixels||2016||Taguig, Philippines||4DX re-release including models, sprites, explosives, and bullets.|
|Mass Effect: New Earth 4D||2016||California's Great America||4+1⁄2-minute film, 60-foot screen with 4K resolution, live performers, wind, water, leg pokers, neck ticklers, 80-channel surround sound|
|LEGO Nexo Knights 4D: The Book of Creativity||2016||Legoland parks and Legoland Discovery Centre parks worldwide||12+1⁄2-minute 4D film of LEGO Nexo Knights shown at Legoland, along with The LEGO Movie 4D Produced by Alexander Lentjes for M2Film and Merlin Entertainments|
|Gravity||2018||Multinational||4DX re-release, Alfonso Cuarón, Director|
|Life of Pi||2018||Multinational||4DX re-release, Ang Lee, Director|
|1917||2019||Multinational||In 4DX, Sam Mendes, Director, Produced by Amblin Partners|
|Star Wars: The Rise of Skywalker||2019||Multinational||In 4DX. J.J. Abrams, Director|
|Gemini Man||2019||Multinational||In 4DX. Ang Lee, Director|
|The Lion King||2019||Multinational||In 4DX. Jon Favreau, Director|
|Inception||2020||Multinational||4DX re-release, Christopher Nolan, Director|
|The Matrix Resurrections||2021||Multinational||In 4DX. Lana Wachowski, Director|
|Top Gun: Maverick||2022||Multinational||In 4DX. Tom Cruise, David Ellison, Producers|
|The Super Mario Bros. Movie||2023||Multinational||In 4DX. Aaron Horvath, Michael Jelenic Directors|
|Oppenheimer||2023||Multinational||In 4DX. Christopher Nolan, Director|
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