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The 45th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1996 election, and it sat until the 1999 election.

45th Parliament of New Zealand
44th Parliament 46th Parliament
Parliament House, Wellington, New Zealand (50).JPG
Overview
Term12 December 1996 – 5 October 1999
Election1996 New Zealand general election
GovernmentFourth National Government
House of Representatives
New Zealand 45th Parliament.png
Members120
Speaker of the HouseDoug Kidd
Leader of the HouseRoger Sowry
––Wyatt Creech until 31 August 1998
Prime MinisterJenny Shipley
––Jim Bolger until 8 December 1997
Leader of the OppositionHelen Clark
Sovereign
MonarchHM Elizabeth II
Governor-GeneralHE Rt. Hon Sir Michael Hardie Boys

The 45th Parliament was notable in that it was the first to be elected under the new MMP electoral system, a form of proportional representation. It was also notable for the fact that it was the first New Zealand Parliament to have an Asian person, Pansy Wong, elected to it. The difference between the 45th Parliament and its predecessor were considerable — the 44th Parliament had opened with only four seats being held by minor parties, but at the opening of the 45th Parliament, minor parties held thirty-nine seats. Because of the considerably altered balance of power in Parliament, neither of the two major parties could govern alone, and New Zealand First, the largest of the four other parties in Parliament, was put in the position of "kingmaker". In the end, New Zealand First opted for a coalition with the National Party which had governed in the previous Parliament, marking the first coalition government in New Zealand for over half a century.[1] The Labour Party continued in Opposition.

The 45th Parliament consisted of one hundred and twenty representatives. Sixty-five of these representatives were chosen by geographical electorates, including five special Maori electorates. The remainder were elected by means of party-list proportional representation under the MMP electoral system.

Electoral boundaries for the 45th ParliamentEdit

 

Overview of seats[2]Edit

The table below shows the number of MPs in each party following the 1996 election and at dissolution:

Affiliation Members
At 1996 election At dissolution
National 44 44
NZ First 1 17 In opposition
Mauri Pacific 2 5
Te Tawharau 2 1
Mana Wahine 2 1
Independent 2 1
ACT 3 In opposition 8
United NZ 3 In opposition 1
Government total 61 61
Labour 37 37
Alliance 4 13 11
NZ First In government 9
ACT 8 With government
United NZ 1 With government
Christian Heritage 1
Independent 1
Opposition total 59 59
Total
120 120
Working Government majority 2 2

Notes

  • ^1 New Zealand First initially entered into a coalition with the National Party, which broke down in 1998. Half the party resigned and became independents, while the other half remained with the party and joined the opposition.
  • ^2 A collection of small parties were founded and received representation by independent MPs who were formerly with New Zealand First and Alliance. They supported the National Party in government.
  • ^3 ACT and United Future extended support to the National Party, giving the government a slim majority in parliament.
  • ^4 The Green Party sat in Parliament under the banner of the Alliance Party.
  • The Working Government majority is calculated as all Government MPs less all other parties.

Initial composition of the 45th ParliamentEdit

The table below shows the results of the 1996 general election:

Key

 National    Labour    Alliance    NZ First    ACT    United NZ    Mana Māori    Independent  

Electorate results of the 1996 New Zealand general election[3]
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up Third place
General electorates
Albany Don McKinnon Murray McCully 11,647 Terry Heffernan Heather Ann McConachy
Aoraki New electorate Jim Sutton 2,932 Stuart Boag Jenny Bloxham
Auckland Central Sandra Lee Judith Tizard 3,353 Sandra Lee Shane Frith
Banks Peninsula New electorate David Carter 4,378 Ruth Dyson Rod Donald
Bay of Plenty New electorate Tony Ryall 5,153 Peter Brown Julie Tucker
Christchurch Central Lianne Dalziel Tim Barnett 653 Kerry Sutherland Liz Gordon
Christchurch East New electorate Larry Sutherland 2,953 Sue McKenzie Marie Venning
Clutha-Southland New electorate Bill English 9,053 Lesley Soper Alan Wise
Coromandel New electorate Murray McLean 2,450 Jeanette Fitzsimons Robyn McDonald
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson 10,207 Margie Stevens Jim Flynn
Dunedin South New electorate Michael Cullen 4,276 Leah McBay Malcolm MacPherson
Epsom New electorate Christine Fletcher 20,642 Helen Duncan Mary Tierney
Hamilton East Dianne Yates Tony Steel 2,347 Dianne Yates Doug Woolerton
Hamilton West Martin Gallagher Bob Simcock 597 Martin Gallaghar Neil Kirton
Hunua New electorate Warren Kyd 5,098 John Robertson Paul Schofield
Hutt South New electorate Trevor Mallard 2,456 Joy McLauchlan Peter Love
Ilam New electorate Gerry Brownlee 10,090 Eamon Daly Margaret Austin
Invercargill Mark Peck 4,235 Eric Roy Owen Horton
Kaikoura New electorate Doug Kidd 5,912 Marian Hobbs Tom Harrison
Karapiro New electorate John Luxton 9,367 Sue Moroney Clive Mortensen
Mahia New electorate Janet Mackey 978 Wayne Kimber Gordon Preston
Mana New electorate Graham Kelly 3,622 Allan Wells Graham Harding
Mangere David Lange Taito Phillip Field 9,317 David Broome Len Richards
Manukau East New electorate Ross Robertson 4,583 Ken Yee Ngaire Clark
Manurewa George Hawkins 8,573 Les Marinkovich Roger Mail
Maungakiekie New electorate Belinda Vernon 228 Richard Northey Matt Robson
Napier Geoff Braybrooke 10,146 Kathryn Ward Robin Gwynn
Nelson John Blincoe Nick Smith 12,424 John Blincoe Mike Ward
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt Phil Goff 7,138 Richard Gardner Cliff Robinson
New Plymouth Harry Duynhoven 11,533 Roger Maxwell Harry Slaats
North Shore Bruce Cliffe Wayne Mapp 10,348 Derek Quigley Joel Cayford
Northcote New electorate Ian Revell 4,563 Ann Hartley Grant Gillon
Northland New electorate John Carter 5,961 Ron Peters Frank Grover
Ohariu-Belmont New electorate Peter Dunne 8,513 Verna Smith Phillida Bunkle
Otago Warren Cooper Gavan Herlihy 7,005 Janet Yiakmis Bruce Albiston
Otaki New electorate Judy Keall 988 Roger Sowry Mike Smith
Owairaka New electorate Helen Clark 5,980 Phil Raffills Jason Keiller
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 14,504 James Clarke Robert Whooley
Palmerston North Steve Maharey 11,030 George Mathew Gerard Hehir
Port Waikato New electorate Bill Birch 7,002 John Forbes Terry Hughes
Rakaia Jenny Shipley 5,030 Geoff Stone Colleen Page
Rangitikei Denis Marshall 2,763 Jill White Hamish MacIntyre
Rimutaka New electorate Paul Swain 2,878 Karyn Bisdee Peter McCardle
Rodney New electorate Lockwood Smith 7,431 Mike Lee David Gregory Gill
Rongotai New electorate Annette King 7,700 David Major Bill Hamilton
Rotorua Paul East Max Bradford 5,896 Keith Ridings Charles William Sturt
Tamaki Clem Simich 8,010 Jonathan Hunt Patricia Schnauer
Taranaki-King Country New electorate Jim Bolger 10,233 Robin Ord Peter Calvert
Taupo New electorate Mark Burton 1,574 John McCarthy Ian Peters
Tauranga Winston Peters 8,028 Katherine O'Regan Stephanie Hammond
Tukituki New electorate Rick Barker 7,226 Graeme Reeves John Ormond
Waimakariri New electorate Mike Moore 10,606 Jim Gerard John Wright
Waipareira New electorate Brian Neeson 107 Chris Carter Jack Elder
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech 7,867 Dave MacPherson Lynette Stutz
Waitakere Brian Neeson Marie Hasler 1,981 Suzanne Sinclair Liz Thomas
Wellington Central New electorate Richard Prebble 1,860 Alick Shaw Mark Thomas
West Coast-Tasman New electorate Damien O'Connor 8,491 Margaret Moir Richard Davies
Whanganui Jill Pettis 2,214 Peter Gresham Caroline Lampp
Whangarei John Banks 383 Brian Donnelly Kevin Grose
Wigram New electorate Jim Anderton 10,039 Angus McKay Mick Ozimek
Māori electorates
Te Puku O Te Whenua New electorate Rana Waitai 2,386 Rino Tirikatene David Rewi James
Te Tai Hauauru New electorate Tuku Morgan 4,961 Nanaia Mahuta Te Pare Joseph
Te Tai Rawhiti New electorate Tuariki Delamere 4,215 Peter Tapsell Tame Iti
Te Tai Tokerau New electorate Tau Henare 8,418 Joe Hawke Peter Campbell
Te Tai Tonga New electorate Tu Wyllie 285 Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan Hone Kaiwai

By-elections during 45th ParliamentEdit

There was one by-election held during the term of the 45th Parliament.[4]

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Taranaki-King Country 1998 2 May Jim Bolger Resignation; appointed ambassador to Washington Shane Ardern

Summary of changes during termEdit

  • Jim Gerard, a National Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in April 1997 to take up a post as High Commissioner in Ottawa. He was replaced by Annabel Young, the next candidate on National's list.
  • Alamein Kopu, an Alliance list MP, resigned from her party in July 1997. She eventually formed her own party, Mana Wahine Te Ira Tangata.
  • Jim Bolger, having been replaced as Prime Minister by Jenny Shipley in 1997, left Parliament in 1998. This caused a by-election in his Taranaki-King Country seat, won by Shane Ardern of the National Party.
  • Neil Kirton, a New Zealand First list MP, resigned from his party in July 1998 after ongoing conflict with its leadership. Kirton opposed his party's coalition with the National Party, and believed that the National Party was too dominant in the agreement. Kirton became an independent.
  • After the collapse of the coalition between the National Party and New Zealand First, the junior partner, New Zealand First, splintered. Eight MPs (Jenny Bloxham, Peter Brown, Brian Donnelly, Ron Mark, Robyn McDonald, Winston Peters, Doug Woolerton, and Tu Wyllie) remained with the party, and eight MPs (Ann Batten, Tuariki Delamere, Jack Elder, Tau Henare, Peter McCardle, Tuku Morgan, Deborah Morris, and Rana Waitai) resigned and become independents. The MPs who resigned did not remain united, and eventually split four ways.
    • Batten, Elder, Henare, Morgan, and Waitai established the Mauri Pacific party.
    • Delamere joined the Te Tawharau party.
    • Morris resigned from Parliament. She was replaced by Gilbert Myles, the next candidate on her former party's list. Myles remained attached to New Zealand First.
    • McCardle remained an independent.
  • Jill White, a Labour Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in 1998 to become Mayor of Palmerston North. She was replaced by Helen Duncan, the next candidate on Labour's list.
  • Paul East, a National Party list MP, resigned from Parliament in 1999 to take up a post as High Commissioner in London. He was replaced by Alec Neill, the next candidate on National's list.
  • Frank Grover, an Alliance list MP, resigned from his party on 11 June 1999. He joined the Christian Heritage Party.

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "1996 and beyond - the road to MMP - The road to MMP | NZHistory, New Zealand history online". nzhistory.govt.nz. Retrieved 9 May 2018.
  2. ^ "1996 GENERAL ELECTION - OFFICIAL RESULTS AND STATISTICS". www.electionresults.govt.nz. Retrieved 11 May 2018.
  3. ^ "Part VI - Elected Candidates Votes" (PDF). New Zealand Chief Electoral Office. 1996. Retrieved 3 September 2017.
  4. ^ "1998 Taranaki-King Country By-election - 2 May 1998". www.electionresults.govt.nz. Retrieved 11 May 2018.