45 mm anti-tank gun M1942 (M-42)
The M-42 was a 45-mm Soviet light semi-automatic anti-tank gun. Its full official name is 45-mm anti-tank gun model 1942 (M-42) (Russian: 45-мм противотанковая пушка образца 1942 года (М-42)). These guns were used from 1942 until the end of World War II.
|45-mm anti-tank gun model 1942 года (М-42)|
M-42 in Museum on Sapun Mountain, Sevastopol.
|Place of origin||USSR|
|Wars||World War II|
|Designer||No. 172 Plant|
|Manufacturer||Artillery Plant #172, at Perm|
|Mass||combat: 625 kg (1,378 lbs)|
travel: 1,250 kg (2,756 lbs)
|Barrel length||2.985 m (9 ft 9.5 in) 66.3 calibers |
overall: 3.087 m (10 ft 1.5 in) 68.6 calibers
|Width||1.6 m (5 ft 3 in)|
|Height||1.2 m (3 ft 11 in)|
|Shell||Fixed QF 45x310 mmR|
|Caliber||45 mm/ 68 (1.77 in)|
|Breech||Semi-automatic vertical sliding wedge|
|Elevation||-8° to 25°|
|Rate of fire||15-20 rounds per minute|
|Muzzle velocity||870 m/s (2,854 ft/s)|
|Maximum firing range||4.55 km (2.84 mi)|
The M-42 was developed by the No. 172 Plant in Motovilikha as an upgrade of the 45 mm anti-tank gun M1937 (53-K). The gun received a longer barrel (L66, 20 calibers more than the previous one, so it was a 45 mm/L66), shells with more powerful cartridges, and a thicker shield (7 mm instead of 4.5 mm), but of hinged construction as a need for reduced profile, requiring crews to kneel while serving the weapon. Some minor changes were also introduced in order to speed up production.
These guns were used from 1942 until the end of World War II. In 1943, due to its insufficient anti-armor capabilities against new German tanks such as the Tiger, Panther and Panzer IV Ausf H, the M-42 was partially replaced in mass production by the more powerful 57 mm ZiS-2 anti-tank gun. The M-42 remained in production however, as it was quite effective against lighter vehicles and could pierce the side armour of the Panther and Panzer IV Ausf H. Fragmentation shells and canister shot gave the gun some anti-personnel capability.
Mass production of the M-42 ceased in mid-1945. The total number of guns produced is 10,843.
During the second half of World War II, some Romanian anti-tank platoons were each armed with four captured 45 mm M1942 pieces and three 75 mm guns, either Pak 40 or Reșița Model 1943. A total of 709 guns had been captured by the Romanian Army by 1943, with 486 of them being repaired for Romanian use during the year.
- Ammunition types:
- Projectile weight:
- AP: 1.43 kg (3.15 lbs)
- APCR: 0.85 kg (1.87 lbs)
- Fragmentation: 2.14 kg (4.71 lbs)
|Type||100 m (110 yd)||500 m (550 yd)||1,000 m (1,100 yd)||1,500 m (1,600 yd)||2,000 m (2,200 yd)|
|APBC-HE||71 mm (2.8 in)||54 mm (2.1 in)||40 mm (1.6 in)||32 mm (1.3 in)||28 mm (1.1 in)|
|APCR||108 mm (4.3 in)||74 mm (2.9 in)||46 mm (1.8 in)||-||-|
- Foss, Christopher (1977). Jane's pocket book of towed artillery. New York: Collier. p. 13. ISBN 0020806000. OCLC 911907988.
- Ronald L. Tarnstrom, Trogen Books, 1998, Balkan Battles, p. 407
- Mark Axworthy, London: Arms and Armour, 1995, Third Axis, Fourth Ally: Romanian Armed Forces in the European War, 1941–1945, p. 148
- Bird, Lorrin; Lingston, Robert (2001). World War II Ballistics: Armor and Gunnery. Albany, NY USA: Overmatch Press. OCLC 71143143.
- Shunkov V. N. - The Weapons of the Red Army, Mn. Harvest, 1999 (Шунков В. Н. - Оружие Красной Армии. — Мн.: Харвест, 1999.) ISBN 985-433-469-4
- Koll, Christian (2009). Soviet Cannon - A Comprehensive Study of Soviet Arms and Ammunition in Calibres 12.7mm to 57mm. Austria: Koll. p. 423. ISBN 978-3-200-01445-9.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to M-42 45 mm anti-tank gun.|
- 45 mm anti-tank gun model 1942 ar rustrana.ru (in Russian)