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44th New Zealand Parliament

The 44th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the Parliament of New Zealand. Its composition was determined by the 1993 elections, and it sat until the 1996 elections.

44th Parliament of New Zealand
43rd Parliament 45th Parliament
Parliament House, Wellington, New Zealand (50).JPG
Term21 December 1993 – 27 August 1996
Election1993 New Zealand general election
GovernmentFourth National Government
House of Representatives
New Zealand 44th Parliament.png
Speaker of the HousePeter Tapsell
Leader of the HouseDon McKinnon
Prime MinisterJim Bolger
Leader of the OppositionHelen Clark
MonarchHM Elizabeth II
Governor-GeneralHE Rt. Hon Sir Michael Hardie Boys
––HE The Hon. Dame Catherine Tizard until 21 March 1996

The 44th Parliament was the last to be elected under the old FPP electoral system, with voters approving a change to MMP at the same time as they voted in the 1993 elections. As such, the 44th Parliament saw a considerable amount of positioning for the change — at the beginning of the term, there were four parties in Parliament, but at the end, there were seven parties and one independent. The National Party, which had begun the term with a majority, was forced by the end of the term to form a coalition to remain in power. Despite the various maneuverings, however, the National Party remained in government for the duration of the 44th Parliament, which comprised National's second term in office. The other three parties present at the start of the 44th Parliament, being the Labour Party, the Alliance, and New Zealand First, all remained in opposition.

The 44th Parliament consisted of ninety-nine representatives, two more than the previous Parliament. All of these representatives were chosen by single-member geographical electorates, including four special Māori electorates.

Electoral boundaries for the 44th ParliamentEdit


Overview of seatsEdit

The table below shows the number of MPs in each party following the 1993 election and at dissolution:

Affiliation Members
At 1993 election At dissolution
National 50 41
United NZ 7
Conservative 1
Christian Democrats 1
Independent 1
Government total 50 51
Labour 45 41
NZ First 2 5
Alliance 2 2
Opposition total 49 48
99 99
Working Government majority 1 3


  • The Working Government majority is calculated as all Government MPs less all other parties.
  • ^CS The Green Party entered a confidence and supply agreement with the Labour-Alliance coalition

Initial composition of the 44th ParliamentEdit

The table below shows the results of the 1993 general election by electorate:[1]


 National    Labour    Alliance    NZ First    Independent  

Electorate results for the 1993 New Zealand general election
Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Albany Don McKinnon 3,651 Jill Jeffs
Auckland Central Richard Prebble Sandra Lee 1,291 Richard Prebble
Avon Larry Sutherland 5,643 Marie Venning
Awarua Jeff Grant Eric Roy 2,236 Olivia Scaletti-Longley
Birkenhead Ian Revell 104 Ann Hartley
Christchurch Central Lianne Dalziel 6,189 Andrew Rowe
Christchurch North Mike Moore 6,024 Lee Morgan
Clutha Robin Gray 4,117 Jeff Buchanan
Dunedin North Pete Hodgson 3,794 Hugh Perkins
Dunedin West Clive Matthewson 4,477 Ollie Turner
East Coast Bays Murray McCully 4,516 Heather-Anne McConachy
Eastern Bay of Plenty New electorate Tony Ryall 806 Diane Collins
Eastern Hutt Paul Swain 4,718 Peter MacMillan
Eden Christine Fletcher 3,394 Verna Smith
Far North New electorate John Carter 3,425 Maryanne Baker
Fendalton Philip Burdon 4,982 Tony Day
Franklin New electorate Bill Birch 3,543 Judy Bischoff
Gisborne Wayne Kimber Janet Mackey 1,068 Wayne Kimber
Glenfield Peter Hilt 1,983 Ann Batten
Hamilton East Tony Steel Dianne Yates 80 Tony Steel
Hamilton West Grant Thomas Martin Gallagher 449 Grant Thomas
Hastings Jeff Whittaker Rick Barker 2,571 Cynthia Bowers
Hauraki New electorate Warren Kyd 1,870 Jeanette Fitzsimons
Hawkes Bay Michael Laws 3,143 Peter Reynolds
Henderson New electorate Jack Elder 2,130 David Jorgensen
Heretaunga Peter McCardle 832 Heather Simpson
Hobson Ross Meurant 2,697 Frank Grover
Horowhenua Hamish Hancock Judy Keall 2,347 Hamish Hancock
Howick New electorate Trevor Rogers 5,754 James Clarke
Invercargill Rob Munro Mark Peck 1,174 Rob Munro
Island Bay Elizabeth Tennet 5,422 Chris Shields
Kaimai Robert Anderson 372 Peter Brown
Kaipara Lockwood Smith 2,958 Rosalie Steward
Kapiti Roger Sowry 1,038 Rob Calder
King Country Jim Bolger 4,506 Murray Simpson
Lyttelton Gail McIntosh Ruth Dyson 677 David Carter
Manawatu Hamish MacIntyre[nb 1] Jill White 164 Gray Baldwin
Māngere David Lange 5,958 Len Richards
Manurewa George Hawkins 4,014 Mark Chalmers
Marlborough Doug Kidd 2,548 Ron Howard
Matakana New electorate Graeme Lee 893 John Neill
Matamata John Luxton 5,977 John Pemberton
Miramar Graeme Reeves Annette King 2,595 Graeme Reeves
Mount Albert Helen Clark 4,656 Vanessa Brown
Napier Geoff Braybrooke 4,926 Colleen Pritchard
Nelson John Blincoe 2,007 Margaret Emerre
New Lynn Jonathan Hunt 1,598 Cliff Robinson
New Plymouth John Armstrong Harry Duynhoven 3,126 John Armstrong
North Shore Bruce Cliffe 4,723 Joel Cayford
Onehunga Grahame Thorne Richard Northey 407 Grahame Thorne
Onslow New electorate Peter Dunne 1,065 George Mathew
Otago Warren Cooper 3,220 Janet Yiakmis
Otara Trevor Rogers Taito Phillip Field 5,981 Shane Frith
Pahiatua John Falloon 5,178 Margo Martindale
Pakuranga Maurice Williamson 5,460 Heather MacKay
Palmerston North Steve Maharey 3,764 Barbara Stones
Panmure Judith Tizard 3,277 Bruce Jesson
Papakura John Robertson 484 Nancy Hawks
Papatoetoe Ross Robertson 5,977 Jim Wild
Pencarrow Sonja Davies Trevor Mallard 2,641 Rosemarie Thomas
Porirua Graham Kelly 6,713 Lagi Sipeli
Raglan Simon Upton 4,540 Bill Harris
Rakaia New electorate Jenny Shipley 4,540 John Howie
Rangiora Jim Gerard 4,469 Maureen Little
Rangitīkei Denis Marshall 3,422 Bob Peck
Remuera Doug Graham 8,619 Mary Tierney
Roskill Gilbert Myles[nb 2] Phil Goff 2,205 Allan Spence
Rotorua Paul East 429 Keith Ridings
Selwyn Ruth Richardson 888 Ron Mark
St Albans David Caygill 3,425 Raewyn Dawson
St Kilda Michael Cullen 5,071 Leah McBey
Sydenham Jim Anderton 7,476 Greg Coyle
Tāmaki Clem Simich 7,951 Richard Green
Taranaki Roger Maxwell 4,871 Stephen Wood
Tarawera Max Bradford 4,155 Gordon Dickson
Tasman Nick Smith 4,059 Geoff Rowling
Tauranga Winston Peters[nb 3] Winston Peters 7,924 John Cronin
Te Atatū Brian Neeson Chris Carter 1,388 Laila Harré
Timaru Maurice McTigue Jim Sutton 2,940 Maurice McTigue
Titirangi Marie Hasler Suzanne Sinclair 340 Marie Hasler
Tongariro Ian Peters Mark Burton 1,951 Ian Peters
Waikaremoana Roger McClay 4,021 Gregg Sheehan
Waikato Rob Storey 2,286 Susan Moore
Waipa Katherine O'Regan 3,730 John Kilbride
Wairarapa Wyatt Creech 2,229 Peter Teahan
Waitakere New electorate Brian Neeson 3,180 Barbara Hutchinson
Waitaki Alec Neill 53 Bruce Albiston[nb 4]
Waitotara Peter Gresham 4,545 K F Lehmstedt
Wallace Bill English 5,578 Lesley Soper
Wanganui Cam Campion[nb 5] Jill Pettis 3,371 Gael Donoghue
Wellington-Karori New electorate Pauline Gardiner 480 Chris Laidlaw
West Coast Margaret Moir Damien O'Connor 2,920 Margaret Moir
Western Hutt Joy Quigley 1,542 Vern Walsh
Whangarei John Banks 1,587 Mark Furey
Yaldhurst Margaret Austin 2,997 David Watson
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Peter Tapsell 6,666 Alamein Kopu
Northern Maori Bruce Gregory Tau Henare 416 Bruce Gregory
Southern Maori Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan 6,340 Jules Parkinson
Western Maori Koro Wētere 3,777 Ricky Taiaroa

Table footnotes:

  1. ^ Hamish MacIntyre left National in 1992, joining the Liberal Party which became part of the Alliance
  2. ^ Gilbert Myles left National in 1991, becoming Independent, then joining the Liberal Party, which became part of the Alliance, finally New Zealand First in 1992–93
  3. ^ Winston Peters had been an Independent since the 1993 by-election.
  4. ^ Albiston was first on election night for Waitaki, but lost when special votes were included
  5. ^ Campion became an Independent on 3 March 1993

By-elections during 44th ParliamentEdit

There was one by-election held during the term of the 44th Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Selwyn 1994 13 August Ruth Richardson Resignation David Carter

Summary of changes during termEdit

  • Ruth Richardson, the National Party MP for Selwyn, quit Parliament in August 1994, having been replaced as Minister of Finance the previous year. Her departure prompted a by-election in Selwyn, which was won by David Carter of the National Party.
  • Peter Dunne, the Labour Party MP for Onslow, left his party in October 1994, believing that Labour was becoming increasingly left-wing. He was an independent for a time before founding the small Future New Zealand party. He would later join with United (see below).
  • Ross Meurant, the National Party MP for Hobson, left his party in September 1994, having clashed on a number of issues with the party's leadership. He eventually established the Right of Centre party.
  • Graeme Lee, the National Party MP for Matakana, left his party in 1994, partly due to policy disputes with its leadership and partly due to having lost his Cabinet post in a reshuffle. He founded a new party which eventually became the Christian Democrat Party.
  • Trevor Rogers, the National Party MP for Howick, left his party in June 1995, after disputes regarding policy issues with the party's leadership. He joined Ross Meurant's new party.
  • A group of centrist MPs from both the National Party and the Labour Party, along with Peter Dunne and his Future New Zealand party, established a centrist party named United New Zealand in June 1995. The MPs who founded United were Margaret Austin, Bruce Cliffe, Peter Dunne, Clive Matthewson, Pauline Gardiner, Peter Hilt, and John Robertson.
  • Ross Meurant, founder of Right of Centre, came into conflict with his own party (now renamed the Conservatives) in February 1996, and left the party to become an independent again. Trevor Rogers, the sole remaining MP, became leader.
  • Jack Elder, the Labour Party MP for Henderson, Peter McCardle, the National Party MP for Heretaunga, and Michael Laws, the National Party MP for Hawke's Bay, all left their parties to join New Zealand First in April 1996.
  • Michael Laws, the New Zealand First (originally National) MP for Hawkes Bay, resigned from Parliament after the so-called "Antoinette Beck" controversy. Rather than hold a by-election, the Prime Minister simply brought the 1996 general election forward slightly, as the rules allow that if a general election is approaching, a vacant seat need not be filled immediately.


  1. ^ "New Zealand Elections 1972-1993". New Zealand Election Study. Retrieved 17 December 2011.


  • Temple, Philip. Temple’s Guide to the 44th New Zealand Parliament. Dunedin: McIndoe Publishers. ISBN 0 86868 159 8.
  • Part 1: Votes recorded at each polling place (Technical report). Chief Electoral Office. 1993.