400 metres hurdles

The 400 metres hurdles is a track and field hurdling event. The event has been on the Olympic athletics programme since 1900 for men and since 1984 for women.

Athletics
400 metres hurdles
Naisten 400 m aidat.jpg
Women's 400m hurdles
World records
MenNorway Karsten Warholm 45.94 (2021)
WomenUnited States Sydney McLaughlin 50.68 (2022)
Olympic records
MenNorway Karsten Warholm 45.94 (202
WomenUnited States Sydney McLaughlin 51.46 (2021)
World Championship records
MenBrazil Alison dos Santos 46.29 (2022)
WomenUnited States Sydney McLaughlin 50.68 (2022)

On a standard outdoor track, 400 metres is the length of the inside lane, once around the stadium. Runners stay in their lanes the entire way after starting out of the blocks and must clear ten hurdles that are evenly spaced around the track. The hurdles are positioned and weighted so that they fall forward if bumped into with sufficient force, to prevent injury to the runners. Although there is no longer any penalty for knocking hurdles over, runners prefer to clear them cleanly, as touching them during the race slows runners down.

The best male athletes can run the 400 m hurdles in a time of around 46 seconds, while the very best female athletes achieve a time of around 51 seconds. The current men's and women's world record holders are Karsten Warholm with 45.94 seconds and Sydney McLaughlin with 50.68 seconds. Compared to the 400 metres run, the hurdles race takes the men about three seconds longer and the women four seconds longer (except for Sydney McLaughlin). Men clear hurdles that are 36 inches (91.4 cm) high, while women negotiate 30 inches (76.2 cm) barriers.

The 400 m hurdles was held for both sexes at the inaugural IAAF World Championships in Athletics. The first championship for women came at the 1980 World Championships in Athletics – being held as a one-off due to the lack of a race at the 1980 Summer Olympics.

HistoryEdit

The first awards in a 400 m hurdles race were given in 1860 when a race was held in Oxford, England, over a course of 440 yards (402.336 m). While running the course, participants had to clear twelve wooden hurdles, over 100 centimetres tall, that had been spaced in even intervals.

To reduce the risk of injury, somewhat more lightweight constructions were introduced in 1895 that runners could push over. However, until 1935 runners were disqualified if they pushed over more than three hurdles in a race and records were only officially accepted if the runner in question had cleared all hurdles clean and left them all standing.

The 400 m hurdles became an Olympic event at the 1900 Summer Olympics in Paris, France. At the same time, the race was standardized; thus, virtually identical races could be held and the finish times compared to one other. As a result, the official distance was fixed to 400 metres, or one lap of the stadium, and the number of hurdles was reduced to ten. The official height of the hurdles was set to 36 inches (91.4 cm). The hurdles are now placed on the course with a run-up to the first hurdle of 45 metres, distance between the hurdles of 35 metres each, and home stretch from the last hurdle to finish line of 40 metres.

The first documented 400 m hurdles race for women took place in 1971. In 1974, the International Amateur Athletics Federation (IAAF), now known as World Athletics, introduced the event officially as a discipline, with hurdles at the lower height of 30 inches (76.2 cm). The women's race was not run at the Olympics until the 1984 Summer Games in Los Angeles where it was first staged with the first Men's World Champion having been crowned the year before at the inaugural World Athletics Championships. A special edition of the Women's 400m Hurdles took place in the 1980 IAAF World Championships in Athletics in response to the Women's 400m Hurdles not being included at the boycotted 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and Liberty Bell Classic.

Many athletic commentators and officials have often brought up the idea of lifting the height of the women's 400 m hurdles to incorporate a greater requirement of hurdling skill. This is a view held by German athletic coach Norbert Stein, "All this means that the women's hurdles for specialists, who are the target group to be dealt with in this discussion, is considerably depreciated in skill demands when compared to the men's hurdles. It should not be possible in the women's hurdles that the winner is an athlete whose performance in the flat sprint is demonstrably excellent but whose technique of hurdling is only moderate and whose anthropometric characteristics are not optimal. This was the case at the World Championships in Seville and the same problem can often be seen at international and national meetings."[citation needed]

Hurdling techniqueEdit

In terms of technique and endurance, the 400-metre hurdles is arguably the most demanding event in the sprints and hurdles group.[1]: 4169 [2]: 9  Athletes must be able to run a fast 400-metre flat time, maintain a good hurdling technique, and have a unique awareness of stride pattern between hurdles.[2]: 9  Furthermore, athletes must possess anaerobic endurance over the final 150 to 100 metres of the race as, at this point, lactate (the conjugate base of lactic acid) will accumulate in the body from anaerobic glycolysis.[3]: 43 

Block startEdit

When preparing to hurdle, the blocks should be set so that the athlete arrives at the first hurdle leading on the desired leg without inserting a stutter step. A stutter step is when the runner has to chop his or her stride down to arrive on the "correct" leg for take off. Throughout the race, any adjustments to stride length stride speed should be made several strides out from the hurdle because a stutter or being too far from the hurdle at takeoff will result in loss of momentum and speed.

HurdlingEdit

At the beginning of the take-off, the knee must be driven toward the hurdle and the foot then extended. The leg position when extended must be stretched out, in a position of a split. The knee should be slightly bent when crossing the hurdle. Unless an athlete's body has great flexibility, the knee must be slightly bent to allow a forward body lean. Unlike the 110m hurdles, a significant forward body lean is not that necessary due to the hurdles being lower. However, the trail leg must be kept bent and short to provide a quick lever action allowing a fast hurdle clearance. The knee should pull through under the armpit and should not be flat across the top of the hurdle.

It is also important that the hurdler does not reach out on the last stride before the hurdle as this will result in a longer bound being made to clear the hurdle. This will also result in a loss of momentum if the foot lands well in front of the center of gravity.

Stride lengthEdit

Using a left lead leg on the bends allows the hurdler to run closer to the inside of the lane and cover a shorter distance. Additionally, if the left leg is used for the lead, then the athlete's upper body can be leaned to the left, making it easier to bring the trail leg through. Additionally, an athlete hurdling with a right leg lead around the bends must take care that they do not inadvertently trail their foot or toe around the hurdle rather than passing over the top, which would lead to a disqualification from the race. Depending on the height and strength of the athlete, men work toward a stride pattern of 13 to 15 steps between each hurdle, and women work toward a stride pattern of 15 to 17. This does not include the landing step from the previous hurdle. Ed Moses was the first man to keep 13 strides throughout an entire race. Weaker athletes will typically hold a longer step pattern throughout the race so that they do not bound or reach with each step, which also results in a loss of speed. These patterns are ideal because it allows the hurdler to take off from their predominant leg throughout the race without switching legs. However, fatigue from the race will knock athletes off their stride pattern and force runners to switch legs. At an early age, many coaches train their athletes to hurdle with both legs. This is a useful skill to learn since as a runner tires, their stride length may decrease, resulting in the need either to add a stutter stride, or to take a hurdle on the other leg.

Continental RecordsEdit

Area Men Women
Time (s) Athlete Nation Time (s) Athlete Nation
Africa (records) 47.10 Samuel Matete   Zambia 52.90 Nezha Bidouane   Morocco
Asia (records) 46.98 Abderrahman Samba   Qatar 53.96 Han Qing   China
Song Yinglan   China
Europe (records) 45.94 WR Karsten Warholm   Norway 52.03 Femke Bol   Netherlands
North, Central America
and Caribbean
(records)
46.17 Rai Benjamin   United States 50.68 WR Sydney McLaughlin   United States
Oceania (records) 48.28 Rohan Robinson   Australia 53.17 Debbie Flintoff-King   Australia
South America (records) 46.29 Alison dos Santos   Brazil 53.69 Gianna Woodruff   Panama

All-time top 25Edit

MenEdit

  • Correct as of September 2022.[6][7]
Ath.# Perf.# Time (s) Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 45.94 Karsten Warholm   Norway 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [8]
2 2 46.17 Rai Benjamin   United States 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [8]
3 3 46.29 Alison dos Santos   Brazil 19 JUL 2022 Eugene [9]
4 46.70 Warholm #2 01 JUL 2021 Oslo
5 46.72 dos Santos #2 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [8]
4 6 46.78 Kevin Young   United States 06 AUG 1992 Barcelona
7 46.80 dos Santos #3 30 JUN 2022 Stockholm [10]
8 46.83 Benjamin #2 27 JUN 2021 Eugene
9 46.87 Warholm #3 23 AUG 2020 Stockholm
10 46.89 Benjamin #3 19 JUL 2022 Eugene [11]
11 46.92 Warholm #4 29 AUG 2019 Zürich
5 12 46.98 Abderrahman Samba   Qatar 30 JUN 2018 Paris [12]
13 46.98 Benjamin #4 29 AUG 2019 Zürich
dos Santos #4 08 SEP 2022 Zürich [13]
6 15 47.02 Edwin Moses   United States 31 AUG 1983 Koblenz
15 47.02 Benjamin #5 08 JUN 2018 Eugene
7 17 47.03 Bryan Bronson   United States 21 JUN 1998 New Orleans
18 47.04 Benjamin #6 26 JUN 2022 Eugene
19 47.07 Warholm #5 17 SEP 2020 Rome
20 47.08 Warholm #6 13 SEP 2020 Berlin
Warholm #7 09 JUL 2021 Monaco [14]
8 22 47.08 Kyron McMaster   British Virgin Islands 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [8]
9 23 47.10 Samuel Matete   Zambia 07 AUG 1991 Zürich
23 47.10 Warholm #8 14 AUG 2020 Monaco
25 47.12 Warholm #9 20 JUL 2019 London
Samba #2 03 AUG 2021 Tokyo [8]
Warholm #10 19 AUG 2022 Munich [15]
10 47.19 Andre Phillips   United States 25 SEP 1988 Seoul
11 47.23 Amadou Dia Ba   Senegal 25 SEP 1988 Seoul
12 47.24 Kerron Clement   United States 26 JUN 2005 Carson
13 47.25 Félix Sánchez   Dominican Republic 29 AUG 2003 Paris
Angelo Taylor   United States 18 AUG 2008 Beijing
15 47.30 Bershawn Jackson   United States 09 AUG 2005 Helsinki
16 47.37 Stéphane Diagana   France 05 JUL 1995 Lausanne
17 47.38 Danny Harris   United States 10 JUL 1991 Lausanne
18 47.39 Trevor Bassitt   United States 19 JUL 2022 Eugene [16]
19 47.41 Wilfred Happio   France 19 JUL 2022 Eugene [17]
20 47.43 James Carter   United States 09 AUG 2005 Helsinki
21 47.48 Harald Schmid   West Germany 08 SEP 1982 Athens
22 47.53 Hadi Soua'an Al-Somaily   Saudi Arabia 27 SEP 2000 Sydney
23 47.54 Derrick Adkins   United States 05 JUL 1995 Lausanne
Fabrizio Mori   Italy 10 AUG 2001 Edmonton
25 47.60 Winthrop Graham   Jamaica 04 AUG 1993 Zürich

WomenEdit

  • Correct as of August 2022.[18]
Ath.# Perf.# Time (s) Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
1 1 50.68 Sydney McLaughlin   United States 22 JUL 2022 Eugene [19]
2 51.41 McLaughlin #2 25 JUN 2022 Eugene [20]
3 51.46 McLaughlin #3 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [21]
2 4 51.58 Dalilah Muhammad   United States 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [21]
5 51.61 McLaughlin #4 05 JUN 2022 Nashville [22]
6 51.68 McLaughlin #5 08 AUG 2022 Székesfehérvár [23]
7 51.90 McLaughlin #6 27 JUN 2021 Eugene [24]
3 8 52.03 Femke Bol   Netherlands 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [21]
9 52.16 Muhammad #2 04 OCT 2019 Doha [25]
10 52.17 McLaughlin #7 20 JUL 2022 Eugene [26]
11 52.20 Muhammad #3 28 JUL 2019 Des Moines
12 52.23 McLaughlin #8 04 OCT 2019 Doha [25]
13 52.27 Bol #2 30 JUN 2022 Stockholm [27]
Bol #3 22 JUL 2022 Eugene [28]
4 15 52.34 Yuliya Pechonkina   Russia 08 AUG 2003 Tula
16 52.37 Bol #4 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [29]
5 17 52.39 Shamier Little   United States 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [29]
6 18 52.42 Melaine Walker   Jamaica 20 AUG 2009 Berlin
19 52.42 Muhammad #4 27 JUN 2021 Eugene [30]
7 20 52.47 Lashinda Demus   United States 01 SEP 2011 Daegu
8 21 52.61 Kim Batten   United States 11 AUG 1995 Gothenburg
22 52.61 Bol #5 16 JUN 2022 Oslo [31]
9 23 52.62 Tonja Buford-Bailey   United States 11 AUG 1995 Gothenburg
24 52.63 Demus #2 28 JUL 2009 Monaco
25 52.64 Walker #2 20 AUG 2008 Beijing
Muhammad #5 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento
10 52.74 Sally Gunnell   Great Britain 19 AUG 1993 Stuttgart
11 52.77 Fani Halkia   Greece 22 AUG 2004 Athens
12 52.79 Sandra Farmer-Patrick   United States 19 AUG 1993 Stuttgart
Kaliese Spencer   Jamaica 05 AUG 2011 London
14 52.82 Deon Hemmings   Jamaica 31 JUL 1996 Atlanta
15 52.83 Zuzana Hejnová   Czech Republic 15 AUG 2013 Moscow
16 52.89 Daimí Pernía   Cuba 25 AUG 1999 Seville
17 52.90 Nezha Bidouane   Morocco 25 AUG 1999 Seville
18 52.92 Natalya Antyukh   Russia 30 JUL 2010 Barcelona
19 52.94 Marina Stepanova   Soviet Union 17 SEP 1986 Tashkent
20 52.95 Sheena Johnson   United States 11 JUL 2004 Sacramento
Kori Carter   United States 25 JUN 2017 Sacramento
22 52.96 Anna Ryzhykova   Ukraine 04 JUL 2021 Stockholm [29]
23 53.02 Irina Privalova   Russia 27 SEP 2000 Sydney
24 53.08 Janieve Russell   Jamaica 04 AUG 2021 Tokyo [21]
Britton Wilson   United States 25 JUN 2022 Eugene [32]

Note: The following athletes have had their associated 400 m hurdles performances annulled due to doping offences:

Time Athlete Nation Date Place Ref
52.70 Natalya Antyukh   Russia 08 AUG 2012 London [33]

MilestonesEdit

Most successful athletesEdit

American athlete Glenn Davis had a prodigious start to his hurdling career, running his first race in April 1956 in 54.4 s. Two months later, he ran a new world record with 49.5 s and later that year he won the 400 m hurdles at the Olympics, and was also the first to repeat that feat in 1960.

In terms of success and longevity in competition, Edwin Moses' record is significant: he won 122 races in a row between 1977 and 1987 plus two gold medals, at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montréal and the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He was undefeated for exactly nine years nine months and nine days, from 26 August 1977 until 4 June 1987. He finished third in the 1988 Olympic final, the last race of his career. He also held the world record for sixteen years from when he first broke it at the Olympics on 25 July 1976 until it was finally broken by Kevin Young at the 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona.

 
Edwin Moses


* Note: Edwin Moses, Kevin Young and Karsten Warholm are the only male 400 m hurdlers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion, and broken the World Record.
* Note: Sally Gunnell, Dalilah Muhammad and Sydney McLaughlin are the only female 400 m hurdlers to have been Olympic Champion, World Champion, and broken the World Record.

Olympic medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1900 Paris
details
Walter Tewksbury
  United States
Henri Tauzin
  France
George Orton
  Canada
1904 St. Louis
details
Harry Hillman
  United States
Frank Waller
  United States
George Poage
  United States
1908 London
details
Charles Bacon
  United States
Harry Hillman
  United States
Jimmy Tremeer
  Great Britain
1912 Stockholm not included in the Olympic program
1920 Antwerp
details
Frank Loomis
  United States
John Norton
  United States
August Desch
  United States
1924 Paris
details
Morgan Taylor
  United States
Erik Wilén
  Finland
Ivan Riley
  United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
David Burghley
  Great Britain
Frank Cuhel
  United States
Morgan Taylor
  United States
1932 Los Angeles
details
Bob Tisdall
  Ireland
Glenn Hardin
  United States
Morgan Taylor
  United States
1936 Berlin
details
Glenn Hardin
  United States
John Loaring
  Canada
Miguel White
  Philippines
1948 London
details
Roy Cochran
  United States
Duncan White
  Ceylon
Rune Larsson
  Sweden
1952 Helsinki
details
Charles Moore
  United States
Yuriy Lituyev
  Soviet Union
John Holland
  New Zealand
1956 Melbourne
details
Glenn Davis
  United States
Eddie Southern
  United States
Josh Culbreath
  United States
1960 Rome
details
Glenn Davis
  United States
Clifton Cushman
  United States
Dick Howard
  United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Rex Cawley
  United States
John Cooper
  Great Britain
Salvatore Morale
  Italy
1968 Mexico City
details
David Hemery
  Great Britain
Gerhard Hennige
  West Germany
John Sherwood
  Great Britain
1972 Munich
details
John Akii-Bua
  Uganda
Ralph Mann
  United States
David Hemery
  Great Britain
1976 Montreal
details
Edwin Moses
  United States
Michael Shine
  United States
Yevgeniy Gavrilenko
  Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Volker Beck
  East Germany
Vasyl Arkhypenko
  Soviet Union
Gary Oakes
  Great Britain
1984 Los Angeles
details
Edwin Moses
  United States
Danny Harris
  United States
Harald Schmid
  West Germany
1988 Seoul
details
André Phillips
  United States
Amadou Dia Ba
  Senegal
Edwin Moses
  United States
1992 Barcelona
details
Kevin Young
  United States
Winthrop Graham
  Jamaica
Kriss Akabusi
  Great Britain
1996 Atlanta
details
Derrick Adkins
  United States
Samuel Matete
  Zambia
Calvin Davis
  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Angelo Taylor
  United States
Hadi Al-Somaily
  Saudi Arabia
Llewellyn Herbert
  South Africa
2004 Athens
details
Félix Sánchez
  Dominican Republic
Danny McFarlane
  Jamaica
Naman Keïta
  France
2008 Beijing
details
Angelo Taylor
  United States
Kerron Clement
  United States
Bershawn Jackson
  United States
2012 London
details
Félix Sánchez
  Dominican Republic
Michael Tinsley
  United States
Javier Culson
  Puerto Rico
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Kerron Clement
  United States
Boniface Mucheru Tumuti
  Kenya
Yasmani Copello
  Turkey
2020 Tokyo
details
Karsten Warholm
  Norway
Rai Benjamin
  United States
Alison dos Santos
  Brazil

WomenEdit

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1984 Los Angeles
details
Nawal El Moutawakel
  Morocco
Judi Brown
  United States
Cristieana Cojocaru
  Romania
1988 Seoul
details
Debbie Flintoff-King
  Australia
Tatyana Ledovskaya
  Soviet Union
Ellen Fiedler
  East Germany
1992 Barcelona
details
Sally Gunnell
  Great Britain
Sandra Farmer-Patrick
  United States
Janeene Vickers
  United States
1996 Atlanta
details
Deon Hemmings
  Jamaica
Kim Batten
  United States
Tonja Buford-Bailey
  United States
2000 Sydney
details
Irina Privalova
  Russia
Deon Hemmings
  Jamaica
Nezha Bidouane
  Morocco
2004 Athens
details
Fani Halkia
  Greece
Ionela Târlea-Manolache
  Romania
Tetyana Tereshchuk-Antipova
  Ukraine
2008 Beijing
details
Melaine Walker
  Jamaica
Sheena Tosta
  United States
Tasha Danvers
  Great Britain
2012 London
details
Vac­ant Lashinda Demus
  United States
Zuzana Hejnová
  Czech Republic
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Dalilah Muhammad
  United States
Sara Petersen
  Denmark
Ashley Spencer
  United States
2020 Tokyo
details
Sydney McLaughlin
  United States
Dalilah Muhammad
  United States
Femke Bol
  Netherlands

World Championships medalistsEdit

MenEdit

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
  Edwin Moses (USA)   Harald Schmid (FRG)   Aleksandr Kharlov (URS)
1987 Rome
details
  Edwin Moses (USA)   Danny Harris (USA)   Harald Schmid (FRG)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Winthrop Graham (JAM)   Kriss Akabusi (GBR)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Kevin Young (USA)   Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Winthrop Graham (JAM)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Derrick Adkins (USA)   Samuel Matete (ZAM)   Stéphane Diagana (FRA)
1997 Athens
details
  Stéphane Diagana (FRA)   Llewellyn Herbert (RSA)   Bryan Bronson (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Fabrizio Mori (ITA)   Stéphane Diagana (FRA)   Marcel Schelbert (SUI)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Fabrizio Mori (ITA)   Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Joey Woody (USA)   Periklis Iakovakis (GRE)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Bershawn Jackson (USA)   James Carter (USA)   Dai Tamesue (JPN)
2007 Osaka
details
  Kerron Clement (USA)   Félix Sánchez (DOM)   Marek Plawgo (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Kerron Clement (USA)   Javier Culson (PUR)   Bershawn Jackson (USA)
2011 Daegu
details
  Dai Greene (GBR)   Javier Culson (PUR)   L. J. van Zyl (RSA)
2013 Moscow
details
  Jehue Gordon (TRI)   Michael Tinsley (USA)   Emir Bekrić (SRB)
2015 Beijing
details
  Nicholas Bett (KEN)   Denis Kudryavtsev (RUS)   Jeffery Gibson (BAH)
2017 London
details
  Karsten Warholm (NOR)   Yasmani Copello (TUR)   Kerron Clement (USA)
2019 Doha
details
  Karsten Warholm (NOR)   Rai Benjamin (USA)   Abderrahman Samba (QAT)
2022 Eugene
details
  Alison dos Santos (BRA)   Rai Benjamin (USA)   Trevor Bassitt (USA)

Medal tableEdit

RankNationGoldSilverBronzeTotal
1  United States (USA)76417
2  Dominican Republic (DOM)2103
3  Norway (NOR)2002
4  Zambia (ZAM)1203
5  France (FRA)1113
6  Italy (ITA)1102
7  Great Britain (GBR)1012
8  Brazil (BRA)1001
  Kenya (KEN)1001
  Trinidad and Tobago (TTO)1001
11  Puerto Rico (PUR)0202
12  Germany (GER)0112
  Jamaica (JAM)0112
  South Africa (RSA)0112
15  Russia (RUS)0101
  Turkey (TUR)0101
17  Japan (JPN)0022
18  Bahamas (BAH)0011
  Greece (GRE)0011
  Poland (POL)0011
  Qatar (QAT)0011
  Serbia (SRB)0011
  Soviet Union (URS)0011
  Switzerland (SUI)0011
Totals (24 entries)18181854

WomenEdit

  • The official World Athletics Championships began in 1983 as the IAAF World Championships in Athletics, but in 1980, the women's 3000 metres and 400 metres hurdles events had a World Championship competition in Sittard, Netherlands. This was due to these events not yet being on the Olympic program (the same had happened in 1976 for the men's 50 km walk).[35]
Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1980 Sittard
details
  Bärbel Broschat (GDR)   Ellen Neumann (GDR)   Petra Pfaff (GDR)
1983 Helsinki
details
  Yekaterina Fesenko (URS)   Ana Ambrazienė (URS)   Ellen Neumann-Fiedler (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
  Sabine Busch (GDR)   Debbie Flintoff (AUS)   Cornelia Feuerbach (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
  Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS)   Sally Gunnell (GBR)   Janeene Vickers (USA)
1993 Stuttgart
details
  Sally Gunnell (GBR)   Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA)   Margarita Ponomaryova (RUS)
1995 Gothenburg
details
  Kim Batten (USA)   Tonja Buford (USA)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)
1997 Athens
details
  Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)   Kim Batten (USA)
1999 Seville
details
  Daimí Pernía (CUB)   Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Deon Hemmings (JAM)
2001 Edmonton
details
  Nezha Bidouane (MAR)   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)   Daimí Pernía (CUB)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
  Jana Pittman (AUS)   Sandra Glover (USA)   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)
2005 Helsinki
details
  Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS)   Lashinda Demus (USA)   Sandra Glover (USA)
2007 Osaka
details
  Jana Rawlinson (AUS)   Yuliya Pechenkina (RUS)   Anna Jesień (POL)
2009 Berlin
details
  Melaine Walker (JAM)   Lashinda Demus (USA)   Josanne Lucas (TRI)
2011 Daegu
details
  Lashinda Demus (USA)   Melaine Walker (JAM)   Natalya Antyukh (RUS)
2013 Moscow
details
  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)   Dalilah Muhammad (USA)   Lashinda Demus (USA)
2015 Beijing
details
  Zuzana Hejnová (CZE)   Shamier Little (USA)   Cassandra Tate (USA)
2017 London
details
  Kori Carter (USA)   Dalilah Muhammad (USA)   Ristananna Tracey (JAM)
2019 Doha
details
  Dalilah Muhammad (USA)   Sydney McLaughlin (USA)   Rushell Clayton (JAM)
2022 Eugene
details
  Sydney McLaughlin (USA)   Femke Bol (NED)   Dalilah Muhammad (USA)

Season's bestsEdit

Men's
Year Time Athlete Place
1971 48.9   Ralph Mann (USA) Helsinki
1972 47.82   John Akii-Bua (UGA) Munich
1973 48.54   John Akii-Bua (UGA) Lagos
1974 48.1   Jim Bolding (USA) Milan
1975 48.4   Jim Bolding (USA) Milan
1976 47.63   Edwin Moses (USA) Montreal
1977 47.45   Edwin Moses (USA) Westwood
1978 47.94   Edwin Moses (USA) Zürich
1979 47.53   Edwin Moses (USA) Montreal
1980 47.13   Edwin Moses (USA) Milan
1981 47.14   Edwin Moses (USA) Lausanne
1982 47.48   Harald Schmid (FRG) Athens
1983 47.02   Edwin Moses (USA) Koblenz
1984 47.32   Edwin Moses (USA) Koblenz
1985 47.63   Danny Harris (USA) Zürich
1986 47.38   Edwin Moses (USA) Lausanne
1987 47.46   Edwin Moses (USA) Rome
1988 47.19   Andre Phillips (USA) Seoul
1989 47.86   Kevin Young (USA) Berlin
1990 47.49   Danny Harris (USA) Lausanne
1991 47.10   Samuel Matete (ZAM) Zürich
1992 46.78   Kevin Young (USA) Barcelona
1993 47.18   Kevin Young (USA) Stuttgart
1994 47.70   Derrick Adkins (USA) Linz
1995 47.37   Stéphane Diagana (FRA) Lausanne
1996 47.54   Derrick Adkins (USA) Atlanta
1997 47.64   Bryan Bronson (USA) Monaco
1998 47.03   Bryan Bronson (USA) New Orleans
1999 47.72   Fabrizio Mori (ITA) Seville
2000 47.50   Angelo Taylor (USA) Sydney
2001 47.38   Félix Sánchez (DOM) Zürich
2002 47.35   Félix Sánchez (DOM) Zürich
2003 47.25   Félix Sánchez (DOM) Saint-Denis
2004 47.63   Félix Sánchez (DOM) Athens
2005 47.24   Kerron Clement (USA) Carson
2006 47.39   Kerron Clement (USA) Indianapolis
2007 47.61   Kerron Clement (USA) Osaka
2008 47.25   Angelo Taylor (USA) Beijing
2009 47.91   Kerron Clement (USA) Berlin
2010 47.32   Bershawn Jackson (USA) Des Moines
2011 47.66   L. J. van Zyl (RSA) Pretoria; Ostrava
2012 47.63   Félix Sánchez (DOM) London
2013 47.69   Jehue Gordon (TRI) Moscow
2014 48.03   Javier Culson (PUR) New York City
2015 47.79   Nicholas Bett (KEN) Beijing
2016 47.73   Kerron Clement (USA) Rio de Janeiro
2017 47.80   Kyron McMaster (IVB) Kingston
2018 46.98   Abderrahman Samba (QAT) Paris
2019 46.92   Karsten Warholm (NOR) Zürich
2020 46.87   Karsten Warholm (NOR) Stockholm
2021 45.94   Karsten Warholm (NOR) Tokyo
2022 46.29   Alison dos Santos (BRA) Eugene
Women's
Year Time Athlete Place
1971
1972
1973 56.7   Danuta Piecyk (POL) Warsaw
1974 56.51   Krystyna Kacperczyk (POL) Augsburg
1975
1976
1977 55.63   Karin Roßley (GDR) Helsinki
1978 54.89   Tatyana Zelentsova (URS) Prague
1979 54.78   Marina Stepanova (URS) Moscow
1980 54.28   Karin Roßley (GDR) Jena
1981 54.79   Ellen Fiedler (GDR) Jena
1982 54.57   Ann-Louise Skoglund (SWE) Athens
1983 54.02   Anna Ambrazienė (URS) Moscow
1984 53.58   Margarita Ponomaryova (URS) Kyiv
1985 53.55   Sabine Busch (GDR) Berlin
1986 52.94   Marina Stepanova (URS) Tashkent
1987 53.24   Sabine Busch (GDR) Potsdam
1988 53.17   Debbie Flintoff-King (AUS) Seoul
1989 53.37   Sandra Farmer-Patrick (USA) New York City
1990 53.62   Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS) Split
1991 53.11   Tatyana Ledovskaya (URS) Tokyo
1992 53.23   Sally Gunnell (GBR) Barcelona
1993 52.74   Sally Gunnell (GBR) Stuttgart
1994 53.33   Sally Gunnell (GBR) Helsinki
1995 52.61   Kim Batten (USA) Gothenburg
1996 52.82   Deon Hemmings (JAM) Atlanta
1997 52.97   Kim Batten (USA) Indianapolis
  Nezha Bidouane (MAR) Athens
1998 52.74   Kim Batten (USA) Monaco
1999 52.89   Daimí Pernía (CUB) Seville
2000 53.02   Irina Privalova (RUS) Sydney
2001 53.34   Nezha Bidouane (MAR) Edmonton
2002 53.10   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Tula
2003 52.34   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Tula
2004 52.77   Faní Halkiá (GRE) Athens
2005 52.90   Yuliya Pechonkina (RUS) Helsinki
2006 53.02   Lashinda Demus (USA) Athens
2007 53.28   Tiffany Williams (USA) Indianapolis
2008 52.64   Melaine Walker (JAM) Beijing
2009 52.42   Melaine Walker (JAM) Berlin
2010 52.82   Lashinda Demus (USA) Rome
2011 52.47   Lashinda Demus (USA) Daegu
2012 52.77   Lashinda Demus (USA) London
2013 52.83   Zuzana Hejnová (CZE) Moscow
2014 53.41   Kaliese Spencer (JAM) Kingston
2015 53.50   Zuzana Hejnová (CZE) Beijing
2016 52.88   Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Eugene
2017 52.64   Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Sacramento
2018 52.75   Sydney McLaughlin (USA) Knoxville
2019 52.16   Dalilah Muhammad (USA) Doha
2020 53.79   Femke Bol (NED) Arnhem
2021 51.46   Sydney McLaughlin (USA) Tokyo
2022 50.68   Sydney McLaughlin (USA) Eugene

External linksEdit

Notes and referencesEdit

  1. ^ Lindeman, Ralph (1995). McGill, Kevin (ed.). "400 Meter Hurdle Theory". Track Coach. El Camino Real: Track & Field News (131): 4169–4171, 4196. ISSN 0041-0314. OCLC 477310277. Retrieved 3 August 2021. Formerly Track Technique. Spring 1995 edition. Reprinted from the October 1994 edition of the Hurdle Times newsletter published by the USATF Men's Development Committee.
  2. ^ a b Schiffer, Jürgen (2012). International Amateur Athletic Federation. "The 400m Hurdles". New Studies in Athletics. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Sport. 27 (1–2): 9–25. ISSN 0961-933X. OCLC 751170802. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 3 August 2021.
  3. ^ Iskra, Janus (1991). International Amateur Athletic Federation. "Endurance in the 400 metres Hurdles". New Studies in Athletics. Aachen: Meyer & Meyer Sport. 6 (2): 43–50. ISSN 0961-933X. OCLC 751170802. Archived from the original on 4 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  4. ^ "Men's outdoor 400 Metres Hurdles| Records". worldathletics.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  5. ^ "Women's outdoor 400 Metres Hurdles | Records". worldathletcs.org. World Athletics. Retrieved 20 July 2022.
  6. ^ Larsson, Peter (10 August 2019). "All-time men's best 400m hurdles". Track and Field all-time Performances. Archived from the original on 15 September 2020. Retrieved 12 August 2019.
  7. ^ "All time Top Lists: Senior Outdoor, 400 Metres Hurdles, Men". World Athletics. Retrieved 21 November 2021. (select the "All" option when filtering by athlete)
  8. ^ a b c d e "Men's 400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). olympics.com. 3 August 2021. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 18 August 2021.
  9. ^ "Men's 400m Hurdles Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 19 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  10. ^ Simon Turnbull (30 June 2022). "Duplantis scales 6.16m in Stockholm for highest ever outdoor vault". World Athletics. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  11. ^ "Men's 400m Hurdles Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 19 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  12. ^ "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 30 June 2018. Retrieved 1 July 2018.
  13. ^ Jess Whittington; Jon Mulkeen (8 September 2022). "Amusan and Lyles break meeting records en route to Diamond League wins in Zurich". World Athletics. Retrieved 16 September 2022.
  14. ^ "400m Hurdles Result" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 July 2021. Retrieved 19 July 2021.
  15. ^ "Men's 400m Hurdles Final Results" (PDF). European Athletics. 19 August 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022.
  16. ^ "Men's 400m Hurdles Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 19 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  17. ^ "Men's 400m Hurdles Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 19 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  18. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Women All Time". IAAF. Retrieved 27 September 2019.
  19. ^ "400m Hurldes Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  20. ^ Karen Rosen (26 June 2022). "McLaughlin breaks world 400m hurdles record with 51.41 at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  21. ^ a b c d "Athletics - Final Results". olympics.com. Archived from the original on 31 July 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.[dead link]
  22. ^ "Sydney McLaughlin runs 51.61 seconds in her first 400m hurdles race this year in Nashville". watchathletics.com. 5 June 2022. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  23. ^ Chris Broadbent (8 August 2022). "McLaughlin sets European all-comers' record of 51.68 in Szekesfehervar". World Athletics. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  24. ^ Ron Dicker (28 June 2021). "Sydney McLaughlin Shatters World Record in 400-Meter Hurdles at U.S. Olympic Trials". HuffPost. Retrieved 28 June 2021.
  25. ^ a b "400m Hurdles Results" (PDF). IAAF. 4 October 2019. Retrieved 6 October 2019.
  26. ^ "Women's 400m Hurdles Semi-Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 20 July 2022. Retrieved 22 July 2022.
  27. ^ Simon Turnbull (30 June 2022). "Duplantis scales 6.16m in Stockholm for highest ever outdoor vault". World Athletics. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
  28. ^ "400m Hurldes Final Results" (PDF). World Athletics. 22 July 2022. Retrieved 23 July 2022.
  29. ^ a b c Jess Whittington (4 July 2021). "Duplantis soars over meeting record in Stockholm". World Athletics. Retrieved 16 July 2021.
  30. ^ Roy Jordan (28 June 2021). "McLaughlin smashes world 400m hurdles record in Eugene with 51.90". World Athletics. Retrieved 15 July 2021.
  31. ^ Jon Mulkeen (16 June 2022). "Ingebrigtsen, Bol and Duplantis in record-breaking form in Oslo". World Athletics. Retrieved 24 June 2022.
  32. ^ Karen Rosen (26 June 2022). "McLaughlin breaks world 400m hurdles record with 51.41 at US Championships". World Athletics. Retrieved 28 June 2022.
  33. ^ "400 Metres Hurdles Results". IAAF. 8 August 2012. Retrieved 9 August 2012.
  34. ^ Abrahamson, Alan (3 August 2021). "Abrahamson: Warholm, Benjamin deliver greatest 400m hurdle race in human history | NBC Olympics". nbcolympics.com. Archived from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 4 August 2021.
  35. ^ IAAF World Championships in Athletics. GBR Athletics.