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4000 Hipparchus (/hɪˈpɑːrkəs/), provisional designation 1989 AV, is a dark background asteroid from the central regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 17 kilometers (11 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 4 January 1989, by Japanese astronomers Seiji Ueda and Hiroshi Kaneda at the Kushiro Observatory on Hokkaido, Japan.[1] The likely carbonaceous asteroid has a short rotation period of 3.4 hours.[11] It was named for the ancient Greek astronomer Hipparchus.[2]

4000 Hipparchus
Discovery [1]
Discovered byS. Ueda
H. Kaneda
Discovery siteKushiro Obs.
Discovery date4 January 1989
MPC designation(4000) Hipparchus
Named after
(ancient Greek astronomer)
1989 AV · 1963 XA
1975 TW4 · 1977 FZ2
1978 NG8 · 1979 WU4
1984 YX5 · 1987 SD18
main-belt[1][3] · (middle)
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 27 April 2019 (JD 2458600.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc63.50 yr (23,192 d)
Aphelion2.8835 AU
Perihelion2.2968 AU
2.5901 AU
4.17 yr (1,523 d)
0° 14m 11.04s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
15.13±4.81 km[5]
17.485±0.032 km[6][7]
18.217±0.094 km[8]
18.87±0.59 km[9]
3.418±0.001 h[10]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Hipparchus is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[4] It orbits the Sun in the central asteroid belt at a distance of 2.3–2.9 AU once every 4 years and 2 months (1,523 days; semi-major axis of 2.59 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.11 and an inclination of 3° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins with a precovery taken at the Palomar Observatory in November 1954, or more than 34 years prior to its official discovery observation at Kushiro (399).[1]


This minor planet was named by IAU's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature after the Greek astronomer Hipparchus (c. 190 – c. 120 BC), considered to be the greatest astronomer of ancient times. Hipparchus introduced a systematic and critical approach to both theoretical and observational astronomy. He is also honored by a lunar and a Martian crater (Hipparchus and Hipparchus, respectively).[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 21 November 1991 (M.P.C. 19335).[12] The asteroid is one of several early "kilo-numbered" minor planets that were dedicated to renowned scientists or institutions including:[13]

4000 Hipparchus is follow by the asteroids 5000 IAU (for the International Astronomical Union), 6000 United Nations (for the United Nations), 7000 Curie (for the pioneers on radioactivity, Marie and Pierre Curie), and 8000 Isaac Newton (for Isaac Newton),[13] while 9000 Hal (after HAL 9000 from the movie 2001: A Space Odyssey) and 10000 Myriostos (after the Greek word for ten-thousandth, and to honor all astronomers) were named based on their direct numeric accordance.

Physical characteristicsEdit

Based on its low albedo of around 0.04–0.05 (see below), Hipparchus is likely of a carbonaceous rather than siliceous composition, among which the C-type asteroid are the most common ones in the asteroid belt.

Rotation periodEdit

In February 2014, a rotational lightcurve of Hipparchus was obtained from photometric observations by astronomers at the Phillips Academy (I12) and HUT (H16) observatories. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 3.418±0.001 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.11 magnitude (U=2).[10] A previous observation at the Palomar Transient Factory from August 2012, only gave a fragmentary lightcurve with a longer period of 7.935 hours (U=1).[14]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Hipparchus measures between 15.13 and 18.87 kilometers in diameter and its surface has a low albedo between 0.039 and 0.052.[5][6][7][8][9] The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes a standard albedo for a stony asteroid (rather than for a carbonaceous one) and consequently and calculates a smaller diameter of 8.18 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 12.8.[11]


  1. ^ a b c d e "4000 Hipparchus (1989 AV)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(4000) Hipparchus". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (4000) Hipparchus. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 341. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_3985. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 4000 Hipparchus (1989 AV)" (2018-05-23 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  4. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  5. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63.
  6. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A. K.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; Kramer, E. A.; Masiero, J. R.; et al. (June 2016). "NEOWISE Diameters and Albedos V1.0". NASA Planetary Data System: EAR-A-COMPIL-5-NEOWISEDIAM-V1.0. Bibcode:2016PDSS..247.....M. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  7. ^ a b c Masiero, Joseph R.; Grav, T.; Mainzer, A. K.; Nugent, C. R.; Bauer, J. M.; Stevenson, R.; et al. (August 2014). "Main-belt Asteroids with WISE/NEOWISE: Near-infrared Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 791 (2): 11. arXiv:1406.6645. Bibcode:2014ApJ...791..121M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/791/2/121.
  8. ^ a b c d Mainzer, A.; Grav, T.; Masiero, J.; Hand, E.; Bauer, J.; Tholen, D.; et al. (November 2011). "NEOWISE Studies of Spectrophotometrically Classified Asteroids: Preliminary Results". The Astrophysical Journal. 741 (2): 25. arXiv:1109.6407. Bibcode:2011ApJ...741...90M. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/741/2/90. (catalog)
  9. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 31 October 2018. (online, AcuA catalog p. 153)
  10. ^ a b Odden, Caroline E.; Bond, J. Brooke; Aggarwal, Ashok K.; Seokjun, Yoon; Chapman, Kathryn J.; Fortin, Liam G.; et al. (October 2014). "Lightcurve Analysis for Three Asteroids: 4000 Hipparchus, 5256 Farquhar and 5931 Zhvanetskij". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 41 (4): 274–275. Bibcode:2014MPBu...41..274O. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  11. ^ a b c "LCDB Data for (4000) Hipparchus". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  12. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  13. ^ a b Elkins-Tanton, Linda T. (2010). Asteroids, Meteorites, and Comets. p. 96. ISBN 9781438131863. Retrieved 31 October 2018.
  14. ^ Waszczak, Adam; Chang, Chan-Kao; Ofek, Eran O.; Laher, Russ; Masci, Frank; Levitan, David; et al. (September 2015). "Asteroid Light Curves from the Palomar Transient Factory Survey: Rotation Periods and Phase Functions from Sparse Photometry". The Astronomical Journal. 150 (3): 35. arXiv:1504.04041. Bibcode:2015AJ....150...75W. doi:10.1088/0004-6256/150/3/75.

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