37th Bomb Squadron
|37th Bomb Squadron
A B-1 bomber launches from Ellsworth Air Force Base, S.D., Dec. 2, 2015. The B-1 is one of many aircraft participating in the first Large Force Exercise in the newly expanded Powder River Training Complex. (U.S. Air Force photo by Airman 1st Class James L. Miller/Released.)
|Active||1917–1919; 1933–1938; 1940–1945; 1947–1948; 1952–1958; 1977–1982; 1987-present|
|Branch||United States Air Force|
|Role||Strategic Bombing |
Close Air Support
Offensive counter air
|Part of||Global Strike Command |
8th Air Force
28th Bomb Wing
28th Operations Group
|Garrison/HQ||Ellsworth Air Force Base|
|Mascot(s)||Billy the tiger|
|Engagements||American Theater (World War II)|
Mediterranean Theater of Operations
European theatre of World War II
Operation Desert Fox
Operation Allied Force
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom
Operation Odyssey Dawn
Operation Freedom's Sentinel
Operation Inherent Resolve
|Decorations||Distinguished Unit Citation |
Air Force Meritorious Unit Award
Air Force Outstanding Unit Award with "V" Device
French Croix de Guerre with Palm
Republic of Korea Presidential Unit Citation
|Lt. Col Mark "Moses" Kimball|
|37th Bombardment Squadron emblem (approved 27 December 1956)[note 1]|
|37th Bomb Squadron emblem (modified and restored c. February 1994)[note 2]|
|37th Pursuit Squadron emblem (approved 25 July 1934)|
The squadron is one of the oldest in the United States Air Force, its origins dating to 13 June 1917, when the 37th Aero Squadron was organized at Kelly Field, Texas. The squadron deployed to France as part of the American Expeditionary Force during World War I and served as a training unit until returning to the US for demobilization. It was active in the interwar years at Langley Field, Virginia as a pursuit and attack squadron.
The squadron saw combat as the 37th Bombardment Squadron, a Martin B-26 Marauder unit in the Mediterranean Theater of Operations during World War II, earning two Distinguished Unit Citations (DUC) for its performance. It was inactivated after the war's end, although it was briefly active as a paper unit in 1947-1948.
The squadron was again activated during the Korean War, when it replaced a reserve unit that was being returned to reserve duty. Flying night intruder missions with Douglas B-26 Invaders, the squadron earned another DUC before the truce in July 1953. In 1955 it returned to the United States and became one of the first jet tactical bomber units, flying Martin B-57 Canberras and Douglas B-66 Destroyers. After a brief deployment to England, the squadron once again inactivated.
The squadron is an honorary member of the NATO Tiger Association
World War IEdit
Established on 13 June 1917 at Kelly Field in Texas, the 37th Aero Squadron moved to France in early September. After a short spell at Étampes (18-23 September), it settled at the Issoudun Aerodrome, participating at the installation of the Third Aviation Instruction Center. Once declared operational, it started flight training for newly arrived American pilots and crew members.
Reactivated at Langley Field, Virginia in September 1933 at as the 37th Pursuit Squadron, the squadron was attached to the 8th Pursuit Group and equipped with Curtiss P-6 Hawks, in March 1935 it became the 37th Attack Squadron with Curtiss A-8 Shrike and Northrop A-17 Nomad attack aircraft. In January 1938, the squadron was inactivated.
World War IIEdit
Early operations and trainingEdit
The squadron was redesignated the 37th Bombardment Squadron and activated at Barksdale Field, Louisiana on 1 February 1940 with Douglas B-18 Bolo bombers as one of the original squadrons of the 28th Composite Group, which was training for deployment to Alaska. However, when the 28th Group moved to Alaska in February 1941, the squadron remained in the United States, at Lowry Field, Colorado. In its place, the 73d Bombardment Squadron of the 17th Bombardment Group moved to Alaska in March. The exchange of squadrons was completed in April and May 1941, as the 37th was reassigned to the 17th Group and the 73d to the 28th Group. In June, the squadron moved to Pendleton Field, Oregon and was colocated with its parent group for the first time since the squadron's 1940 activation.
At Pendleton, the squadron transitioned into the North American B-25 Mitchell medium bomber. Following the attack on Pearl Harbor, the 37th flew antisubmarine patrols off the Pacific coast until about March 1942. Because the 17th Group was the first Army Air Forces unit to equip with the Mitchell, the squadron, along with the other squadrons of the 17th Group contributed aircrews for the Doolittle Raid on Tokyo, Japan on 6 April 1942. After the Japanese Attack on Pearl Harbor, the squadron flew antisubmarine patrols over the Northwest Pacific coast until May 1942.
Photographs of Recent OperationsEdit
Combat operations in the MediterraneanEdit
In June 1942, the squadron returned to Barksdale Field, where it began transitioning into the Martin B-26 Marauder. Following Operation Torch, the invasion of North Africa in November 1942, the squadron moved to Algeria, where it began combat operations on 30 December. The squadron flew interdiction and close air support missions, contributing to the defeat of Axis forces in Africa by May 1943. In June 1943, the squadron conducted bombing attacks leading to the surrender of enemy forces in Pantelleria and Lampedusa. The squadron participated in Operations Husky and Avalanche as the Allies moved into Sicily and Italy.
During the Allied drive toward Rome, the squadron was awarded a Distinguished Unit Citation (DUC) for an attack on airfields near Rome on 13 January 1944. Its operations in Italy between April and June 1944 earned it the French Croix de Guerre with Palm. In August 1944, the squadron bombed targets to support Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern France. The squadron continued operations through the remainder of the year.
Shortly before the end of the war, on 10 April 1945, the squadron participated in an attack on Schweinfurt, Germany, for which it received a second DUC. Following V-E Day, the squadron participated in disarming German forces. In November 1945, it returned to the United States and was inactivated at the Port of Embarkation.
The squadron was activated at Pusan East Air Base, Korea on 10 May 1952, when it assumed the mission, personnel and Douglas B-26 Invaders of the 729th Bombardment Squadron. The 729th was a reserve unit that had been called to active duty for the Korean War and was being returned to reserve status. The squadron continued the night bombing operations of the 729th, concentrating on attacks on enemy lines of communication and troop concentrations. In 1953, the squadron focused on attacking rail rolling stock, facilities and supplies. Using Invaders with glass noses,[note 3] the squadron developed techniques for conducting armed reconnaissance missions against locomotives and freight cars and began flying missions employing these tactics in February 1953. It participated in Operation Spring Thaw and starting in March, attacked southbound routes along the East Coast of North Korea. It continued operations until the July 1953 truce, and was awarded its third DUC for its operations.
The 37th remained in Korea as a precaution against the resumption of hostilities. In September 1954, it relocated to Miho Air Base, Japan, It remained in Japan until the spring of 1955, when it returned to the United States for conversion to jet bombers.
Tactical jet bomber operationsEdit
Re-equipped with Martin B-57 Canberra jet bombers and conducted evaluation testing of the aircraft at Eglin Air Force Auxiliary Field No. 9; transitioned to Douglas B-66B Destroyers in 1956, the first squadron to receive the new tactical bomber. Deployed to RAF Sculthorpe, England briefly in 1958 before returning to Eglin and performing more testing on B-66s with Jet Assisted Take Off (JATO) and until being inactivated later in the year.
Strategic bombardment operationsEdit
The squadron joined the 28th Bombardment Wing at Ellsworth Air Force Base, becoming the wing's second Boeing B-52H Stratofortress squadron on 1 January 1977. The squadron continued to fly the "Buff" until October 1982, when it was inactivated.
On 1 January 1987, the squadron activated and transitioned to its current aircraft, the Rockwell B-1B Lancer. Along with all other active bomber units in the air force it changed its name and became the 37th Bomb Squadron on 1 September 1991. In December 1998, it became the first unit to employ the B-1 in combat in support of Operation Desert Fox in Iraq. One year later, crews from the squadron supported Operation Allied Force and flew combat operations in Kosovo and Serbia.
Since the 9/11 attacks, the 37th and its sister squadron at Ellsworth, the 34th Bomb Squadron have joined to provide aircraft and crews to form expeditionary units. These expeditionary units have flown missions contributing to the effort to drive the Taliban from Afghanistan. During this time, the combined squadrons flew 5 percent of the strike missions but released nearly 40 percent of the total bomb tonnage—more than 1,730 tons. Its personnel have also employed the B-1 during Operation Iraqi Freedom, including a strike against high priority leadership targets in Baghdad.
In 2007, the 37th began regular deployments to the Middle East, rotating with other B-1 units, with one year at home station followed by six months deployed. On average squadron members fly over 6,000 combat hours and more than 500 combat sorties per deployment. Squadron personnel supported Libya strike missions during Operation Odyssey Dawn, the first B-1 combat mission launched from the United States to strike overseas targets.
Operation Odyssey DawnEdit
- Organized as the 37th Aero Squadron on 13 June 1917
- Demobilized on 15 April 1919
- Reconstituted and redesignated 37th Pursuit Squadron on 24 March 1923
- Activated on 1 September 1933
- Redesignated 37th Attack Squadron on 1 March 1935
- Inactivated on 31 January 1938
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron (Medium) on 6 December 1939
- Activated on 1 February 1940
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron, Medium on 9 October 1944
- Inactivated on 26 November 1945
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron, Light on 29 April 1947
- Activated on 19 May 1947
- Inactivated on 10 September 1948
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron, Light, Night Intruder on 8 May 1952
- Activated on 10 May 1952
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron, Tactical on 1 October 1955
- Inactivated on 25 June 1958
- Redesignated 37th Bombardment Squadron, Heavy on 16 June 1977
- Activated on 1 July 1977
- Inactivated on 1 October 1982
- Activated on 1 January 1987
- Redesignated 37th Bomb Squadron on 1 September 1991
- Unknown, 13 June 1917
- Third Aviation Instruction Center, Sep 1917
- Commanding General, Services of Supply, Jan-15 Apr 1919
- 18th Pursuit Group (attached to 8th Pursuit Group), 1 September 1933
- 2d Wing (remained attached to 8th Pursuit Group), 1 March 1935 – 31 January 1938
- 28th Composite Group, 1 February 1940
- 17th Bombardment Group, 23 April 1941 – 26 November 1945
- 17th Bombardment Group, 19 May 1947 – 10 September 1948
- 17th Bombardment Group, 10 May 1952 – 25 Jun 1958 (attached to 17th Bombardment Wing after 8 Jun 1957)
- 28th Bombardment Wing, 1 July 1977 – 1 October 1982
- 28th Bombardment Wing, 1 January 1987
- 28th Operations Group, 1 September 1991
- List of American Aero Squadrons
- List of United States Air Force squadrons
- List of A-26 Invader operators
- List of B-57 units of the United States Air Force
- List of B-52 Units of the United States Air Force
- List of B-1 units of the United States Air Force
- War on Terror
- International military intervention against ISIL
- Explanatory notes
- When approved in 1956, the emblem was on a shield, not a disc. Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. 175. Robertson does not give a date for the change to a disc.
- Endicott says the 1934 emblem was restored (on a disc) during the CSAF emblem review. Robertson indicates the 1956 emblem is current, but does not give a date for its reinstatement.
- Some of the unit's B-26s had solid noses with machine guns mounted in them.
- Newberry, Col Stuart W. (10 August 2015). "How Do You Clean The Rug?". U.S. Air Forces Central Command Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Robertson, Patsy (11 March 2008). "Factsheet 37 Bomb Squadron (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Endicott, Active Air Force Wings, p. 540
- Hubbard, p. 719
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, p. p. 175-176
- Maurer, Combat Squadrons, pp. 175-176, 268; Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 61-63, 80
- Maurer, Combat Units, pp. 61-63
- Endicott, USAF in Korea, p. 70
- Endicott, USAF in Korea, pp. 68-69
- Robertson, Patsy (20 November 2009). "Factsheet 28 Bomb Wing (ACC)". Air Force Historical Research Agency. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 June 2014.
- No byline. "Ellsworth AFB Units: 28th Operations Group". 28th Bomb Wing Public Affairs. Retrieved 20 February 2018.
- Station information in Robertson, except as noted.
- Assignment information in Robertson, except as noted.
- Station number in Johnson.
- Station number in Endicott, USAF in Korea, pp. 177-178.
- Endicott, Judy G. (1998). Active Air Force Wings as of 1 October 1995 and USAF Active Flying, Space, and Missile Squadrons as of 1 October 1995 (PDF). Air Force History and Museums Program. Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ASIN B000113MB2. Retrieved 2 July 2014.
- Endicott, Judy G., ed. (2001). The USAF in Korea, Campaigns, Units and Stations 1950-1953 (PDF). Maxwell AFB, AL: Air Force Historical Research Agency. ISBN 0-16-050901-7. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Hubbard, Gerard (1943). "Aircraft Insignia, Spirit of Youth". The National Geographic Magazine. National Geographic Society. LXXXIII (6): 718–722. Retrieved 1 September 2017. (subscription required for web access)
- Johnson, 1st Lt. David C. (1988). U.S. Army Air Forces Continental Airfields (ETO) D-Day to V-E Day (PDF). Maxwell AFB, AL: Research Division, USAF Historical Research Center. Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 September 2015. Retrieved 26 June 2017.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1983) . Air Force Combat Units of World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-02-1. LCCN 61060979. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Maurer, Maurer, ed. (1982) . Combat Squadrons of the Air Force, World War II (PDF) (reprint ed.). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-405-12194-6. LCCN 70605402. OCLC 72556. Retrieved 17 December 2016.
- Ravenstein, Charles A. (1984). Air Force Combat Wings, Lineage & Honors Histories 1947-1977 (PDF). Washington, DC: Office of Air Force History. ISBN 0-912799-12-9. Retrieved 17 December 2016.