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The 35th century BC in the Near East sees the gradual transition from the Chalcolithic to the Early Bronze Age. Proto-writing enters transitional stage, developing towards writing proper. Wheeled vehicles are now known beyond Mesopotamia, having spread north of the Caucasus and to Europe.

Millennium: 4th millennium BC
State leaders:
  • 36th century BC
  • 35th century BC
  • 34th century BC
  • 3490s BC
  • 3480s BC
  • 3470s BC
  • 3460s BC
  • 3450s BC
  • 3440s BC
  • 3430s BC
  • 3420s BC
  • 3410s BC
  • 3400s BC
Categories: BirthsDeaths



Only approximate dating is usually possible for mid-4th millennium artifacts.


  • The Sahara desert starts to form from semi-arid savannah, through desertification.
  • c. 3500 BC: First known zoo at Hierakonpolis.
  • c. 3400 BC: Sumerian temple record keepers redesign the stamp seal in the form of a cylinder.
  • c. 3500 BC: Pictographic proto-writing starts developing towards writing proper in Sumer, thus starting what is technically considered history.
  • c. 3500 BC: The first monument of which there is still a trace (Duma na nGiall) is built on the Hill of Tara, the ancient seat of the High King of Ireland.[1]
  • c. 3500 BC: Tin is discovered.

Sovereign StatesEdit


  1. ^ Memory and Monuments at the Hill of Tara by Erin McDonald, Chronika Journal