35th Canadian Parliament

The 35th Canadian Parliament was in session from January 17, 1994, until April 27, 1997. The membership was set by the 1993 federal election on October 25, 1993, and it changed only somewhat due to resignations and by-elections until it was dissolved prior to the 1997 election.

35th Parliament of Canada
Majority parliament
January 17, 1994 (1994-01-17) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
Coat of arms of Canada rendition.svg
Parliament leaders

Rt. Hon. Jean Chrétien
(26th Canadian Ministry)
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – December 12, 2003 (2003-12-12)
Leader of the
Hon. Lucien Bouchard
October 25, 1993 (1993-10-25) – January 14, 1996 (1996-01-14)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe (1st time)
January 15, 1996 (1996-01-15) – February 16, 1996 (1996-02-16)
Hon. Michel Gauthier
February 17, 1996 (1996-02-17) – March 14, 1997 (1997-03-14)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe (2nd time)
March 15, 1997 (1997-03-15) – June 23, 1997 (1997-06-23)
Party caucuses
GovernmentLiberal Party
OppositionBloc Québécois
RecognizedReform Party
UnrecognizedNew Democratic Party
Progressive Conservative Party*
* Party only held official party status in the Senate.
House of Commons
Canada 1993 Federal Election seats.svg
Seating arrangements of the House of Commons
Speaker of the
Hon. Gilbert Parent
January 17, 1994 (1994-01-17) – January 28, 2001 (2001-01-28)
House Leader
Hon. Herb Gray
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
House Leader
Hon. Michel Gauthier
November 10, 1993 (1993-11-10) – February 17, 1996 (1996-02-17)
Hon. Gilles Duceppe
February 18, 1996 (1996-02-18) – March 16, 1997 (1997-03-16)
Hon. Suzanne Tremblay
March 17, 1997 (1997-03-17) – April 25, 1997 (1997-04-25)
Members295 MP seats
List of members
Speaker of the
Hon. Roméo LeBlanc
December 7, 1993 (1993-12-07) – November 21, 1994 (1994-11-21)
Hon. Gildas Molgat
November 22, 1994 (1994-11-22) – January 25, 2001 (2001-01-25)
Senate Leader
Hon. Joyce Fairbairn
November 4, 1993 (1993-11-04) – June 10, 1997 (1997-06-10)
Senate Leader
Hon. John Lynch-Staunton
December 15, 1993 (1993-12-15) – September 30, 2004 (2004-09-30)
Senators104 senator seats
List of senators
1st Session
January 14, 1994 (1994-01-14) – February 2, 1996 (1996-02-02)
2nd Session
February 27, 1996 (1996-02-27) – April 27, 1997 (1997-04-27)
<34th 36th>
Jean Chrétien was Prime Minister during the 35th Canadian Parliament.

It was controlled by a Liberal Party majority under Prime Minister Jean Chrétien and the 26th Canadian Ministry. The Official Opposition was the Bloc Québécois, led first by Lucien Bouchard, then by Michel Gauthier, and finally by Gilles Duceppe.

The Speaker was Gilbert Parent. See also list of Canadian electoral districts 1987–96 for a list of the ridings in this parliament.

There were two sessions of the 35th Parliament:

Session Start End
1st January 17, 1994 February 2, 1996
2nd February 27, 1996 April 27, 1997

Party standingsEdit

The party standings as of the election and as of dissolution were as follows:

Affiliation House Members Senate Members[1]
1993 election
At dissolution On election
day 1993[2]
At dissolution
  Liberal Party of Canada 177 174 41 51
  Bloc Québécois 54 50 0 0
Reform 52 50 0 0
  New Democratic Party 9 9 0 0
  Progressive Conservative Party of Canada 2 2 58 50
  Independent 1 6 5 3
Total members 295 291 104 104
Vacant 0 4 0 0
Total seats 295 104

Members of the House of CommonsEdit

Members of the House of Commons in the 35th parliament arranged by province.


Riding Member Political party
  Bonavista—Trinity—Conception Fred Mifflin Liberal
  Burin—St. George's Roger Simmons Liberal
  Gander—Grand-Falls George S. Baker Liberal
  Humber—St. Barbe—Baie Verte Brian Tobin Liberal
  Gerry Byrne* Liberal
  Labrador Bill Rompkey Liberal
  Lawrence D. O'Brien** Liberal
  St. John's East Bonnie Hickey Liberal
  St. John's West Jean Payne Liberal
* Brian Tobin left parliament in 1996 to become premier of Newfoundland; Gerry Byrne was elected to replace him in a by-election.
** Bill Rompkey was appointed to the Senate in September 1995; Lawrence D. O'Brien was elected to replace him in a by-election in 1996.

Prince Edward IslandEdit

Riding Member Political party
  Cardigan Lawrence MacAulay Liberal
  Egmont Joe McGuire Liberal
  Hillsborough George Proud Liberal
  Malpeque Wayne Easter Liberal

Nova ScotiaEdit

Riding Member Political party
  Annapolis Valley—Hants John Murphy Liberal
  Cape Breton Highlands—Canso Francis LeBlanc Liberal
  Cape Breton—East Richmond David Dingwall Liberal
  Cape Breton—The Sydneys Russell MacLellan Liberal
  Central Nova Roseanne Skoke Liberal
  Cumberland—Colchester Dianne Brushett Liberal
  Dartmouth Ron MacDonald Liberal
  Halifax Mary Clancy Liberal
  Halifax West Geoff Regan Liberal
  South Shore Derek Wells Liberal
  South West Nova Harry Verran Liberal

New BrunswickEdit

Riding Member Political party
  Acadie—Bathurst Doug Young Liberal
  Beauséjour Fernand Robichaud Liberal
  Carleton—Charlotte Harold Culbert Liberal
  Fredericton—York—Sunbury Andy Scott Liberal
  Fundy—Royal Paul Zed Liberal
  Madawaska—Victoria Pierrette Ringuette Liberal
  Miramichi Charles Hubbard Liberal
  Moncton George Rideout Liberal
  Restigouche—Chaleur Guy Arseneault Liberal
  Saint John Elsie Wayne Progressive Conservative


Riding Member Political party
  Abitibi Bernard Deshaies Bloc Québécois
  Ahuntsic Michel Daviault Bloc Québécois
  Anjou—Rivière-des-Prairies Roger Pomerleau Bloc Québécois
  Argenteuil—Papineau Maurice Dumas Bloc Québécois
  Beauce Gilles Bernier Independent
  Beauharnois—Salaberry Laurent Lavigne Bloc Québécois
  Beauport—Montmorency—Orléans Michel Guimond Bloc Québécois
  Bellechasse François Langlois Bloc Québécois
  Berthier—Montcalm Michel Bellehumeur Bloc Québécois
  Blainville—Deux-Montagnes Paul Mercier Bloc Québécois
  Bonaventure—Îles-de-la-Madeleine Patrick Gagnon Liberal
  Bourassa Osvaldo Nunez Bloc Québécois
  Brome—Missisquoi Gaston Péloquin Bloc Québécois
  Denis Paradis* Liberal
  Chambly Ghislain Lebel Bloc Québécois
  Champlain Réjean Lefebvre Bloc Québécois
  Charlesbourg Jean-Marc Jacob Bloc Québécois
  Charlevoix Gérard Asselin Bloc Québécois
  Chateauguay Maurice Godin Bloc Québécois
  Chicoutimi Gilbert Fillion Bloc Québécois
  Drummond Pauline Picard Bloc Québécois
  Frontenac Jean-Guy Chrétien Bloc Québécois
  Gaspé Yvan Bernier Bloc Québécois
  Gatineau—La Lièvre Mark Assad Liberal
  Hochelaga—Maisonneuve Réal Ménard Bloc Québécois
  Hull—Aylmer Marcel Massé Liberal
  Joliette René Laurin Bloc Québécois
  Jonquière André Caron Bloc Québécois
  Kamouraska—Rivière-du-Loup Paul Crête Bloc Québécois
  La Prairie Richard Bélisle Bloc Québécois
  Lac-Saint-Jean Lucien Bouchard Bloc Québécois
  Stéphan Tremblay** Bloc Québécois
  Lachine—Lac-Saint-Louis Clifford Lincoln Liberal
  LaSalle—Émard Paul Martin Liberal
  Laurentides Monique Guay Bloc Québécois
  Laurier—Sainte-Marie Gilles Duceppe Bloc Québécois
  Laval Centre Madeleine Dalphond-Guiral Bloc Québécois
  Laval East Maud Debien Bloc Québécois
  Laval West Michel Dupuy Liberal
  Lévis Antoine Dubé Bloc Québécois
  Longueuil Nic Leblanc Bloc Québécois
  Independent Sovereigntist***
  Lotbinière Jean Landry Bloc Québécois
  Louis-Hébert Philippe Paré Bloc Québécois
  Manicouagan Bernard St-Laurent Bloc Québécois
  Matapédia—Matane René Canuel Bloc Québécois
  Mégantic—Compton—Stanstead Maurice Bernier Bloc Québécois
  Mercier Francine Lalonde Bloc Québécois
  Mount Royal Sheila Finestone Liberal
  Notre-Dame-de-Grâce Warren Allmand Liberal
  Outremont Martin Cauchon Liberal
  Papineau—Saint-Michel André Ouellet Liberal
  Pierre Pettigrew***** Liberal
  Pierrefonds—Dollard Bernard Patry Liberal
  Pontiac—Gatineau—Labelle Robert Bertrand Liberal
  Portneuf Pierre de Savoye Bloc Québécois
  Québec Christiane Gagnon Bloc Québécois
  Quebec East Jean-Paul Marchand Bloc Québécois
  Richelieu Louis Plamondon Bloc Québécois
  Richmond—Wolfe Gaston Leroux Bloc Québécois
  Rimouski—Témiscouata Suzanne Tremblay Bloc Québécois
  Roberval Michel Gauthier Bloc Québécois
  Rosemont Benoît Tremblay Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Denis Eleni Bakopanos Liberal
  Saint-Henri—Westmount David Berger Liberal
  Lucienne Robillard****** Liberal
  Saint-Hubert Pierrette Venne Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Hyacinthe—Bagot Yvan Loubier Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Jean Claude Bachand Bloc Québécois
  Saint-Laurent—Cartierville Shirley Maheu Liberal
  Stéphane Dion******* Liberal
  Saint-Léonard Alfonso Gagliano Liberal
  Saint-Maurice Jean Chrétien Liberal
  Shefford Jean Leroux Bloc Québécois
  Sherbrooke Jean Charest Progressive Conservative
  Témiscamingue Pierre Brien Bloc Québécois
  Terrebonne Benoît Sauvageau Bloc Québécois
  Trois-Rivières Yves Rocheleau Bloc Québécois
  Vaudreuil Nick Discepola Liberal
  Verchères Stéphane Bergeron Bloc Québécois
  Verdun—Saint-Paul Raymond Lavigne Liberal
* Gaston Péloquin died in a car accident in 1994, and was replaced by Denis Paradis in a by-election on February 13, 1995.
** Lucien Bouchard left parliament in 1995 to become premier of Quebec; Stéphan Tremblay is elected to replace him in a by-election.
*** Nic Leblanc left the Bloc Québécois and sat as an "independent sovereigntist" on March 17, 1997.
**** Bernard St-Laurent left the Bloc Québécois and sat as an Independent on March 5, 1997.
***** André Ouellet was appointed head of Canada Post, and was replaced by Pierre Pettigrew in a by-election on March 25, 1996.
****** David Berger was appointed Canadian Ambassador to Israel and high commissioner to Cyprus in 1994, and was replaced by Lucienne Robillard in a by-election on February 13, 1995.
******* Shirley Maheu was appointed to the Senate, and was replaced by Stéphane Dion also in a by-election on March 26, 1996.


Riding Member Political party
  Algoma—Manitoulin Brent St. Denis Liberal
  Beaches—Woodbine Maria Minna Liberal
  Bramalea—Gore—Malton Gurbax Malhi Liberal
  Brampton Colleen Beaumier Liberal
  Brant Jane Stewart Liberal
  Broadview—Greenwood Dennis Mills Liberal
  Independent Liberal
  Bruce—Grey Ovid Jackson Liberal
  Burlington Paddy Torsney Liberal
  Cambridge Janko Peric Liberal
  Carleton—Gloucester Eugène Bellemare Liberal
  Cochrane—Superior Réginald Bélair Liberal
  Davenport Charles Caccia Liberal
  Don Valley East David Collenette Liberal
  Don Valley North Sarkis Assadourian Liberal
  Don Valley West John Godfrey Liberal
  Durham Alex Shepherd Liberal
  Eglinton—Lawrence Joe Volpe Liberal
  Elgin—Norfolk Gar Knutson Liberal
  Erie John Maloney Liberal
  Essex-Kent Jerry Pickard Liberal
  Essex-Windsor Susan Whelan Liberal
  Etobicoke Centre Allan Rock Liberal
  Etobicoke North Roy MacLaren Liberal
  Roy Cullen** Liberal
  Etobicoke—Lakeshore Jean Augustine Liberal
  Glengarry—Prescott—Russell Don Boudria Liberal
  Guelph—Wellington Brenda Chamberlain Liberal
  Haldimand—Norfolk Bob Speller Liberal
  Halton—Peel Julian Reed Liberal
  Hamilton East Sheila Copps Liberal
  Hamilton Mountain Beth Phinney Liberal
  Hamilton—Wentworth John Bryden Liberal
  Hamilton West Stan Keyes Liberal
  Hastings—Frontenac—Lennox and Addington Larry McCormick Liberal
  Huron—Bruce Paul Steckle Liberal
  Kenora—Rainy River Robert Daniel Nault Liberal
  Kent Rex Crawford Liberal
  Kingston and the Islands Peter Milliken Liberal
  Kitchener John English Liberal
  Lambton—Kent—Middlesex Rose-Marie Ur Liberal
  Lanark—Carleton Ian Murray Liberal
  Leeds—Grenville Jim Jordan Liberal
  Lincoln Tony Valeri Liberal
  London East Joe Fontana Liberal
  London—Middlesex Pat O'Brien Liberal
  London West Sue Barnes Liberal
  Markham—Whitchurch—Stouffville Jag Bhaduria Liberal
  Independent Liberal***
  Mississauga East Albina Guarnieri Liberal
  Mississauga South Paul Szabo Liberal
  Mississauga West Carolyn Parrish Liberal
  Nepean Beryl Gaffney Liberal
  Niagara Falls Gary Pillitteri Liberal
  Nickel Belt Ray Bonin Liberal
  Nipissing Bob Wood Liberal
  Northumberland Christine Stewart Liberal
  Oakville—Milton Bonnie Brown Liberal
  Ontario Dan McTeague Liberal
  Oshawa Ivan Grose Liberal
  Ottawa Centre Mac Harb Liberal
  Ottawa South John Manley Liberal
  Ottawa West Marlene Catterall Liberal
  Ottawa—Vanier Jean-Robert Gauthier Liberal
  Mauril Bélanger**** Liberal
  Oxford John Baird Finlay Liberal
  Parkdale—High Park Jesse Flis Liberal
  Parry Sound—Muskoka Andy Mitchell Liberal
  Perth—Wellington—Waterloo John Richardson Liberal
  Peterborough Peter Adams Liberal
  Prince Edward—Hastings Lyle Vanclief Liberal
  Renfrew—Nipissing—Pembroke Len Hopkins Liberal
  Rosedale Bill Graham Liberal
  Sarnia—Lambton Roger Gallaway Liberal
  Sault Ste. Marie Ron Irwin Liberal
  Scarborough Centre John Cannis Liberal
  Scarborough East Doug Peters Liberal
  Scarborough West Tom Wappel Liberal
  Scarborough—Agincourt Jim Karygiannis Liberal
  Scarborough—Rouge River Derek Lee Liberal
  Simcoe Centre Ed Harper Reform
  Simcoe North Paul DeVillers Liberal
  St. Catharines Walt Lastewka Liberal
  St. Paul's Barry Campbell Liberal
  Stormont—Dundas Bob Kilger Liberal
  Sudbury Diane Marleau Liberal
  Thunder Bay—Atikokan Stan Dromisky Liberal
  Thunder Bay—Nipigon Joe Comuzzi Liberal
  Timiskaming—French River Benoît Serré Liberal
  Timmins—Chapleau Peter Thalheimer Liberal
  Trinity—Spadina Tony Ianno Liberal
  Victoria—Haliburton John O'Reilly Liberal
  Waterloo Andrew Telegdi Liberal
  Welland—St. Catharines—Thorold Gilbert Parent Liberal
  Wellington—Grey—Dufferin—Simcoe Murray Calder Liberal
  Willowdale Jim Peterson Liberal
  Windsor West Herb Gray Liberal
  Windsor—St. Clair Shaughnessy Cohen Liberal
  York Centre Art Eggleton Liberal
  York North Maurizio Bevilacqua Liberal
  York South—Weston John Nunziata Liberal
  Independent Liberal*****
  York—Simcoe Karen Kraft Sloan Liberal
  York West Sergio Marchi Liberal
* Dennis Mills quit the Liberal caucus to sit as an Independent Liberal in May 1996, but returned to the party in August of the same year.
** Roy MacLaren was appointed High Commissioner of Canada to the United Kingdom, and his seat was filled by Roy Cullen in a by-election in 1996.
*** Jag Bhaduria was expelled from the Liberal Party for falsifying his credentials.
**** Jean-Robert Gauthier was appointed to the Senate in 1994, and replaced by Mauril Bélanger in a by-election in 1995.
***** John Nunziata was expelled from the Liberal Party for voting against the 1996 budget on April 16 of that year, and sat for the rest of the session as an Independent.


Riding Member Political party
  Brandon—Souris Glen McKinnon Liberal
  Churchill Elijah Harper Liberal
  Dauphin—Swan River Marlene Cowling Liberal
  Lisgar—Marquette Jake Hoeppner Reform
  Portage—Interlake Jon Gerrard Liberal
  Provencher David Iftody Liberal
  Selkirk—Red River Ron Fewchuk Liberal
  Saint Boniface Ronald Duhamel Liberal
  Winnipeg North Centre David Walker Liberal
  Winnipeg North Rey Pagtakhan Liberal
  Winnipeg South Reg Alcock Liberal
  Winnipeg St. James John Harvard Liberal
  Winnipeg South Centre Lloyd Axworthy Liberal
  Winnipeg—Transcona Bill Blaikie New Democrat


Riding Member Political party
  Kindersley—Lloydminster Elwin Hermanson Reform
  Mackenzie Vic Althouse New Democrat
  Moose Jaw—Lake Centre Allan Kerpan Reform
  Prince Albert—Churchill River Gordon Kirkby Liberal
  Regina—Lumsden John Solomon New Democrat
  Regina—Qu'Appelle Simon De Jong New Democrat
  Regina—Wascana Ralph Goodale Liberal
  Saskatoon—Clark's Crossing Chris Axworthy New Democrat
  Saskatoon—Dundurn Morris Bodnar Liberal
  Saskatoon—Humboldt Georgette Sheridan Liberal
  Souris—Moose Mountain Bernie Collins Liberal
  Swift Current—Maple Creek—Assiniboia Lee Morrison Reform
  The Battlefords—Meadow Lake Len Taylor New Democrat
  Yorkton—Melville Garry Breitkreuz Reform


Riding Member Political party
  Athabasca David Chatters Reform
  Beaver River Deborah Grey Reform
  Calgary Centre Jim Silye Reform
  Calgary North Diane Ablonczy Reform
  Calgary Northeast Art Hanger Reform
  Calgary Southeast Jan Brown Reform
  Calgary Southwest Preston Manning Reform
  Calgary West Stephen Harper Reform
  Crowfoot Jack Ramsay Reform
  Edmonton East Judy Bethel Liberal
  Edmonton North John Loney Liberal
  Edmonton Northwest Anne McLellan Liberal
  Edmonton Southeast David Kilgour Liberal
  Edmonton Southwest Ian McClelland Reform
  Edmonton—Strathcona Hugh Hanrahan Reform
  Elk Island Ken Epp Reform
  Lethbridge Ray Speaker Reform
  Macleod Grant Hill Reform
  Medicine Hat Monte Solberg Reform
  Peace River Charlie Penson Reform
  Red Deer Bob Mills Reform
  St. Albert John G. Williams Reform
  Vegreville Leon Benoit Reform
  Wetaskiwin Dale Johnston Reform
  Wild Rose Myron Thompson Reform
  Yellowhead Cliff Breitkreuz Reform
* Jan Brown was suspended from the Reform Party, and then quit the party to sit as an Independent Reform member.

British ColumbiaEdit

Riding Member Political party
  Burnaby—Kingsway Svend Robinson New Democrat
  Capilano—Howe Sound Herb Grubel Reform
  Cariboo—Chilcotin Philip Mayfield Reform
  Comox—Alberni Bill Gilmour Reform
  Delta John Cummins Reform
  Esquimalt—Juan de Fuca Keith Martin Reform
  Fraser Valley East Chuck Strahl Reform
  Fraser Valley West Randy White Reform
  Kamloops Nelson Riis New Democrat
  Kootenay East Jim Abbott Reform
  Kootenay West—Revelstoke Jim Gouk Reform
  Mission—Coquitlam Daphne Jennings Reform
  Nanaimo—Cowichan Bob Ringma Reform
  New Westminster—Burnaby Paul Forseth Reform
  North Island—Powell River John Duncan Reform
  North Vancouver Ted White Reform
  Okanagan Centre Werner Schmidt Reform
  Okanagan—Shuswap Darrel Stinson Reform
  Okanagan—Similkameen—Merritt Jim Hart Reform
  Port Moody—Coquitlam Sharon Hayes Reform
  Prince George—Bulkley Valley Richard Harris Reform
  Prince George—Peace River Jay Hill Reform
  Richmond Raymond Chan Liberal
  Saanich—Gulf Islands Jack Frazer Reform
  Skeena Mike Scott Reform
  Surrey North Margaret Bridgman Reform
  Surrey—White Rock—South Langley Val Meredith Reform
  Vancouver Centre Hedy Fry Liberal
  Vancouver East Anna Terrana Liberal
  Vancouver Quadra Ted McWhinney Liberal
  Vancouver South Herb Dhaliwal Liberal
  Victoria David Anderson Liberal


Riding Member Political party
  Western Arctic Ethel Blondin-Andrew Liberal
  Nunatsiaq Jack Anawak Liberal
  Yukon Audrey McLaughlin New Democrat


By-election Date Incumbent Party Winner Party Cause Retained
Hamilton East June 17, 1996 Sheila Copps      Liberal Sheila Copps      Liberal Resignation Yes
Humber—St. Barbe—Baie Verte March 25, 1996 Brian Tobin      Liberal Gerry Byrne      Liberal Resignation Yes
Labrador March 25, 1996 Bill Rompkey      Liberal Lawrence D. O'Brien      Liberal Resignation Yes
Etobicoke North March 25, 1996 Roy MacLaren      Liberal Roy Cullen      Liberal Resignation Yes
Lac-Saint-Jean March 25, 1996 Lucien Bouchard      Bloc Québécois Stéphan Tremblay      Bloc Québécois Resignation Yes
Papineau—Saint-Michel March 25, 1996 André Ouellet      Liberal Pierre Pettigrew      Liberal Resignation Yes
Saint-Laurent—Cartierville March 25, 1996 Shirley Maheu      Liberal Stéphane Dion      Liberal Called to the Senate Yes
Ottawa—Vanier February 13, 1995 Jean-Robert Gauthier      Liberal Mauril Bélanger      Liberal Resignation Yes
Brome—Missisquoi February 13, 1995 Gaston Péloquin      Bloc Québécois Denis Paradis      Liberal Death (car accident) No
Saint-Henri—Westmount February 13, 1995 David Berger      Liberal Lucienne Robillard      Liberal Resignation Yes


  1. ^ http://www.parl.gc.ca/parlinfo/Files/Parliament.aspx?Item=421af128-812f-4cfb-a018-6ff76ce7a98e&Language=E&MenuID=Lists.Parliament.aspx&MenuQuery=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.parl.gc.ca%2Fparlinfo%2FLists%2FParliament.aspx&Section=PartyStandingsSEN
  2. ^ Members of the Canadian Senate are appointed by the Governor General on the advice of the Prime Minister and remain as Senators until the age of 75, even if the House of Commons has been dissolved or an election has been called.
  • Government of Canada. "26th Ministry". Guide to Canadian Ministries since Confederation. Privy Council Office. Retrieved 2006-11-09.
  • Government of Canada. "35th Parliament". Members of the House of Commons: 1867 to Date: By Parliament. Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-12-20. Retrieved 2006-11-30.
  • Government of Canada. "Duration of Sessions". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
  • Government of Canada. "General Elections". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-05-04. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
  • Government of Canada. "Key Dates for each Parliament". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2005-09-14. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
  • Government of Canada. "Leaders of the Opposition in the House of Commons". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
  • Government of Canada. "Party Standings (1974 to date): At the Senate". Library of Parliament. Retrieved 2007-04-24.
  • Government of Canada. "Prime Ministers of Canada". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 27 April 2006. Retrieved 2006-05-12.
  • Government of Canada. "Speakers". Library of Parliament. Archived from the original on 2006-09-17. Retrieved 2006-05-12.