Thirty-two-bar form

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The 32-bar form, also known as the AABA song form, American popular song form and the ballad form, is a song structure commonly found in Tin Pan Alley songs and other American popular music, especially in the first half of the 20th century.[2]

"Over the Rainbow" (Arlen/Harburg) exemplifies the 20th-century popular 32-bar song.[1]

As its alternative name AABA implies, this song form consists of four sections: an eight-bar A section; a second eight-bar A section (which may have slight changes from the first A section); an eight-bar B section, often with contrasting harmony or "feel"; and a final eight-bar A section. The core melody line is generally retained in each A section, although variations may be added, particularly for the last A section.

Examples of 32-bar AABA form songs include "Over the Rainbow", "I Got Rhythm", "What'll I Do", "Make You Feel My Love",[2] "The Man I Love"[3]: 5 , "Dream River", "Primrose Lane", "Let's Get Away From It All", and "Blue Skies".[3]: 109  Many show tunes that have become jazz standards are 32-bar song forms.

Basic song form edit

At its core, the basic AABA 32-bar song form consists of four sections, each section being eight bars in length, totaling 32 bars. Each of these eight-bar sections is assigned a letter name ("A" or "B"), based on its melodic and harmonic content. The A sections all share the same melody (possibly with slight variations), and the recurring title lyric typically falls on either the first or last line of each A section. The "B" section musically and lyrically contrasts the A sections, and may or may not contain the title lyric. The "B" section may use a different harmony that contrasts with the harmony of the A sections. For example in the song "I've Got Rhythm", the A sections are in the key of B, but the B section involves a circle of fifths series of dominant seventh chords going from D7, G7, C7, to F7. Song form terminology is not standardized, and the B section is also referred to as the "middle eight", "bridge", or "primary bridge".[2]

The song form of "What'll I Do" by Irving Berlin is as follows:

Name Lyric from "What'll I Do" by Irving Berlin
A1 What'll I do when you are far away and I am blue? What'll I do?
A2 What'll I do when I am won'dring who is kissing you? What'll I do?
B What'll I do with just a photograph to tell my troubles to?
A3 When I'm alone with only dreams of you that won't come true… What'll I do?

Terminology edit

Sectional verse edit

Some Tin Pan Alley songs composed as numbers for musicals precede the main tune with what was called a "sectional verse" or "introductory verse" in the terminology of the early 20th century. This introductory section is usually 16 bars long and establishes the background and mood of the number, with a free musical structure, speech-like rhythms, and rubato delivery, in order to highlight the attractions of the main tune. Some verses contained a second set of lyrics intended to be sung between repeated performances of the main chorus. The sectional verse is often omitted from modern performances.[4][5] It is not assigned a letter in the "AABA" naming scheme.

The introductory verse from "What'll I Do" by Irving Berlin is as follows:

Gone is the romance that was so divine,
'tis broken and cannot be mended
You must go your way, and I must go mine,
but now that our love dreams have ended...

Bridge edit

In music theory, the middle eight or bridge is the B section of a 32-bar form.[6] This section has a significantly different melody from the rest of the song and usually occurs after the second "A" section in the AABA song form. It is also called a middle eight because it happens in the middle of the song and the length is generally eight bars.

Terminological confusion edit

In early-20th-century terminology, the main 32-bar AABA section, in its entirety, was called the "refrain" or "chorus". Accordingly, jazz players improvising on the 32-bar sections may still speak today of "blowing for a couple of choruses".[7]This is in contrast to the modern usage of the term "chorus", which refers to a repeating musical and lyrical section in verse–chorus form. Additionally, "verse", "chorus", and "refrain" all have different meanings in modern musical terminology. See the below chart for clarification:

Early terminology Modern terminology Definition
Introductory verse or
sectional verse
Introductory verse or
sectional verse
The opening section, often 16 bars in length, which resembles recitative from opera.
Refrain or
Verse-refrain form or
AABA form
The 32-bar section, composed of four separate 8-bar sections, taking the form AABA.
None Verse Any of the three individual 8 bar "A" sections
Bridge Bridge or
middle 8 or
release or
primary bridge
8-bar "B" section
None Refrain line This recurring lyric line is often the title of the song (e.g. "Yesterday", "Let's Face the Music and Dance", "Luck Be a Lady Tonight").

History edit

Though the 32-bar form resembles the ternary form of the operatic da capo aria, it did not become common until the late 1910s. It became "the principal form" of American popular song around 1925–1926,[8] with the AABA form consisting of the chorus or the entirety of many songs in the early 20th century.[9][full citation needed] It was commonly used by composers George Gershwin (for example, in "I Got Rhythm" from 1930[10]), Cole Porter, and Jerome Kern,[11] and it dominated American popular music into the 1950s.[3]: 5 

The 32-bar form was often used in rock in the 1950s and '60s, after which verse–chorus form became more prevalent. Examples include:

Though more prevalent in the first half of the 20th century, many contemporary songs show similarity to the form, such as "Memory" from Cats, which features expanded form through the B and A sections repeated in new keys.[12] Songwriters such as Lennon–McCartney and those working in the Brill Building also used modified or extended 32-bar forms, often modifying the number of measures in individual or all sections. The Beatles ("From Me to You" [1963] and "Yesterday" [1965]), like many others, would extend the form with an instrumental section, second bridge, break or reprise of the introduction, etc., and another return to the main theme. Introductions and codas also extended the form. In "South of the Border Down Mexico Way" by Gene Autry, "the A sections… are doubled in length, to sixteen bars—but this affects the overall scheme only marginally".[10] The theme tune of the long-running British TV series Doctor Who has, in some incarnations, followed 32-bar form.

See also edit

References edit

  1. ^ "Chapter 2: Jazz Form and improvisation | Jazz: W. W. Norton StudySpace". WW Norton.
  2. ^ a b c Ralf von Appen; Markus Freight-Hauenschild (9 March 2015). "AABA, Refrain, Chorus, Bridge, Prechorus — Song Forms and Their Historical Development". SAMPLES, Retrieved 2 January 2016.{{cite journal}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  3. ^ a b c Paymer, Marvin E. (1999). Sentimental Journey: Intimate Portraits of America's Great Popular Songs, 1920-1945. Darien, Conn.: Two Bytes Publishing. OCLC 45357972.
  4. ^ Beil, Richard (January 2009). "The Lost Verses, Songs you Thought you Knew". The Parlor Songs Academy. Retrieved 29 July 2018. Although the Tin Pan Alley song-type continued to include verses, these most often were much shorter, sometimes serving as little more than introductions. The song became, in most cases and for most purposes, coextensive with the chorus. And, as was quickly learned within the time-restrictive environment of recording in the 1920s, the new Tin Pan Alley song, uprooted from the stage, worked best without its verses, as a fragment of expression that was somewhat fluid.
  5. ^ "The golden age of Tin Pan Alley song, 1920s" (PDF). Northern Highlands Regional High School. n.d. Retrieved 29 July 2018. Verses were regarded as mere introductions by the 1920s, and today the verses of Tin Pan Alley songs are infrequently performed.
  6. ^ Parkinson, Alice (2006). Music. Lotus Press. p. 125. ISBN 978-81-89093-50-1..
  7. ^ "lessonplan/8/2/203-Musical Elements". Herbie Hancock Institute of Jazz. n.d. Retrieved 24 January 2024. In a nutshell, the format of the performance of a jazz tune is: head for one chorus - improvised solos for several choruses - head for one chorus.
  8. ^ Wilder, Alec (1972). American Popular Song: the Great Innovators 1900–1950. New York: Oxford University Press. p. 56. ISBN 0-19-501445-6..
  9. ^ Benward & Saker (2003), pp. 317–318. "The popular chorus form is often referred to as a quaternary form, because it usually consists of four phrases."
  10. ^ a b c d e f Covach (2005), Form in Rock Music: A Primer, p. 70.
  11. ^ Stacey, Lee; Henderson, Lol, eds. (2013). "Pop Music". Encyclopedia of Music in the 20th Century. Routledge. p. 473. ISBN 978-1-135-92946-6.
  12. ^ Benward & Saker (2003), p. 318.

Further reading edit