The 30s decade ran from January 1, AD 30, to December 31, AD 39.

Jesus was crucified early in the decade: his suffering and redemptive death would form central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement. Peter the Apostle founded the Church of Antioch. Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Alexandria. A financial crisis hit Rome in 33 AD.

In Africa, the Kushan Empire was founded. In Europe, the 30s saw a Dacian revolt against the Sarmatian tribe of Iazyges, who had enslaved them, and a Samaritan uprising. In west Asia, Artabanus II of Parthia fought a war with Rome over Armenia. The Han Dynasty saw the outbreak of the Rebellion of Gongsun Shu. Roman emperor Tiberius died in 37 AD, being succeeded by Caligula.

An earthquake that shook Antioch in AD 37 caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city.[1] In China, an epidemic broke out in K'aui-chi, causing many deaths, and Imperial official Ch'ung-li I (Zhongli Yi) provided medicine that saved many lives.[citation needed]

Valerius Maximus wrote Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX: It is a collection of approximately a thousand short stories that Valerius wrote during the reign of Tiberius (42 BC – AD 37). Other literary works from the 30s include a popular collection of fables written by Phaedrus, a symbolic interpretation of the Old Testament (Allegory) written by Philo, and a general history of the countries known in Antiquity written by Velleius Paterculus.

Events

By placeEdit

South AsiaEdit
Roman EmpireEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit

  • Philo writes his symbolic interpretation of the Old Testament (Allegory).

By dateEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • Emperor Tiberius founds a credit bank in Rome.[6]
  • A financial crisis hits Rome,[7] due to poorly chosen fiscal policies. Land values plummet, and credit is increased. These actions lead to a lack of money, a crisis of confidence, and much land speculation. The primary victims are senators, knights and the wealthy. Many aristocratic families are ruined.
ChinaEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
EuropeEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
PersiaEdit

By placeEdit

ChinaEdit
Roman EmpireEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
  • March 18 – The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius's will, and proclaims Caligula as Roman Emperor,[10] nullifying the joint claim of Tiberius Gemellus. Caligula's attempt to have himself deified creates friction between himself and the Senate.
  • October – Caligula becomes seriously ill, or perhaps is poisoned. He recovers from his illness, but Caligula turns toward the diabolical: he starts to kill off those who are close to him, whom he sees as a serious threat.

By topicEdit

EarthquakeEdit
ReligionEdit

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
ChinaEdit
  • An epidemic breaks out in K'aui-chi, causing many deaths. Imperial official Ch'ung-li I provides medicines that save many lives.[citation needed]

By topicEdit

Arts and sciencesEdit
ReligionEdit
  • Paul meets Peter and James in Jerusalem ( approximate date) (After 3 years "from his vision on the road to Damascus " went to Jerusalem to meet Peter and stayed 15 days with him.(Epistle to Galatians chapter a 18)
  • Stachys the Apostle becomes the second patriarch of Constantinople.

By placeEdit

Roman EmpireEdit
VietnamEdit

Significant peopleEdit

Births

AD 30

AD 31

AD 32

AD 33

AD 34

AD 35

AD 36

AD 38

AD 39

Deaths

AD 30

AD 31

AD 32

AD 33

AD 34

AD 35

AD 36

AD 37

AD 38

AD 39


ReferencesEdit

  1. ^   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRockwell, William Walker (1911). "Antioch". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–132.
  2. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius, pp. 53–54.
  3. ^ "Phaedrus Biography - eNotes.com". eNotes. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  4. ^ a b Humphreys, Colin J. (2011). The Mystery of the Last Supper. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77 and 189. ISBN 978-0521732000.
  5. ^ a b "Last Supper 'was on a Wednesday'". United Kingdom: BBC. April 18, 2011.
  6. ^ Harris, W. V. (2011). Rome's Imperial Economy: Twelve Essays. Oxford University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-19-959516-7.
  7. ^ Thornton, M. K.; Thornton, R. L. (1990). "The Financial Crisis of A.D. 33: A Keynesian Depression?". The Journal of Economic History. 50 (3): 655–662. doi:10.1017/S0022050700037207. ISSN 0022-0507. JSTOR 2122822. S2CID 154785575.
  8. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2006). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). BRILL. p. 270. ISBN 978-90-474-1184-0.
  9. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.113–126; Bruce, F. F. (1963–1965). "Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea" (PDF). Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society. 5: 6–23, pp. 17–18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
  10. ^ a b Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew (1996). The Cambridge ancient history: The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.–A.D. 69. Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-521-26430-3.
  11. ^ Downey, Glanville (1961). A history of Antioch in Syria: from Seleucus to the Arab conquest. Princeton University Press. p. 190.
  12. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.247–252; Bruce, F. F. (1963–1965). "Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea" (PDF). Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society. 5: 6–23, p. 21. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
  13. ^ Johnson, Marguerite (2012). Boudicca. A&C Black. p. 13. ISBN 9781853997327.
  14. ^ a b Dillon, Michael; Dillon, Michael O. (1998). China: A Historical and Cultural Dictionary. Psychology Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-7007-0439-2.
  15. ^ Tacitus, Annals, pp. 413
  16. ^ Morgan, Julian (2002). Nero: Destroyer of Rome. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8239-3596-3.
  17. ^ Josephus, Flavius (2001). Mason, Steve (ed.). Flavius Josephus: translation and commentary. Brill. p. 9. ISBN 978-90-04-11793-8.
  18. ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Titus (39 AD - 81 AD)". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
  19. ^ a b c Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington, "Dating the Crucifixion ," Nature 306 (December 22/29, 1983), pp. 743-46. [1]
  20. ^ a b Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, page 194
  21. ^ a b c d e Blinzler, J. Der Prozess Jesu, fourth edition, Regensburg, Pustet, 1969, pp101-126
  22. ^ a b Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, pages 14 and 62
  23. ^ Vagi, David (2016). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-135-97125-0.
  24. ^ Cramer, Frederick H. (1945). "Bookburning and Censorship in Ancient Rome: A Chapter from the History of Freedom of Speech" (PDF). Journal of the History of Ideas. 6 (2): 157–196 (173). doi:10.2307/2707362. ISSN 0022-5037. JSTOR 2707362. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  25. ^ Maier, P.L. (1968). "Sejanus, Pilate, and the Date of the Crucifixion". Church History. 37 (1): 3–13. doi:10.2307/3163182. JSTOR 3163182. S2CID 162410612.
  26. ^ Fotheringham, J.K. (1934). "The evidence of astronomy and technical chronology for the date of the crucifixion". Journal of Theological Studies. 35 (138): 146–162. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXXV.138.146. S2CID 162258391.
  27. ^ Rainer Riesner, Paul's Early Period: Chronology, Mission Strategy, Theology (Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 1998), page 58.
  28. ^ Salisbury, Joyce E. (2001). Encyclopedia of women in the ancient world. ABC-CLIO. p. 3. ISBN 978-1-57607-092-5.
  29. ^ Fantham, Elaine (2006). Julia Augusti: The Emperor's Daughter. Taylor & Francis. p. 122. ISBN 978-0-415-33145-6.
  30. ^ Bunson, Matthew (2002). Encyclopedia of the Roman Empire (2nd ed.). Infobase Publishing. p. 50. ISBN 978-0-8160-4562-4.
  31. ^ Hazel, John (2002). Who's who in the Roman world (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 166. ISBN 978-0-415-29162-0.
  32. ^ Kokkinos, Nikos (1992). Antonia Augusta: portrait of a great Roman lady. Routledge. p. 28. ISBN 978-0-415-08029-3.
  33. ^ Vagi, David (2016). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Routledge. p. 125. ISBN 978-1-135-97125-0.