The 30s decade ran from January 1, AD 30, to December 31, AD 39.

A denarius of Tiberius (r. 14–37). Due to a financial crisis that hit Rome in AD 33, coins such as these came in short supply.

Jesus was crucified early in the decade: his suffering and redemptive death would form central aspects of Christian theology concerning the doctrines of salvation and atonement. Peter the Apostle founded the Church of Antioch. Anti-Jewish riots broke out in Alexandria. A financial crisis hit Rome in AD 33.

In Asia, the Western Satraps and Kushan Empire emerged. In Europe, the 30s saw a Dacian revolt against the Sarmatian tribe of Iazyges, who had enslaved them, and a Samaritan uprising. In west Asia, Artabanus II of Parthia fought a war with Rome over Armenia. The Han dynasty saw the outbreak of the Rebellion of Gongsun Shu. Roman emperor Tiberius died in AD 37, being succeeded by Caligula.

An earthquake that shook Antioch in AD 37 caused the emperor Caligula to send two senators to report on the condition of the city.[1] In China, an epidemic broke out in K'aui-chi, causing many deaths, and Imperial official Ch'ung-li I (Zhongli Yi) provided medicine that saved many lives.[citation needed]

Valerius Maximus wrote Factorum ac dictorum memorabilium libri IX: It is a collection of approximately a thousand short stories that Valerius wrote during the reign of Tiberius (42 BC – AD 37). Other literary works from the 30s include a popular collection of fables written by Phaedrus, a symbolic interpretation of the Old Testament (Allegory) written by Philo, and a general history of the countries known in Antiquity written by Velleius Paterculus.

Manning (2008) tentatively estimates the world population in AD 30 as 247 million.

Demographics edit

Due to lack of reliable demographic data, estimates of the world population in the 1st century vary wildly, with estimates for AD 1 varying from 150[2] to 300[3] million. Demographers typically do not attempt to estimate most specific years in antiquity, instead giving approximate numbers for round years such as AD 1 or AD 200. However, attempts at reconstructing the world population in more specific years have been made, with Manning (2008) tentatively estimating the world population in AD 30 as 247 million.[4]

Events

By place edit

South Asia edit
Roman Empire edit

By topic edit

Religion edit
  • 7 April (Good Friday) – Jesus is crucified (according to one dating scheme). He is later reported alive by his disciples.

By place edit

Roman Empire edit

  • Philo writes his symbolic interpretation of the Old Testament (Allegory).

By date edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
  • Emperor Tiberius founds a credit bank in Rome.[9]
  • A financial crisis hits Rome,[10] due to poorly chosen fiscal policies. Land values plummet, and credit is increased. These actions lead to a lack of money, a crisis of confidence, and much land speculation. The primary victims are senators, knights and the wealthy. Many aristocratic families are ruined.
China edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
Europe edit

By topic edit

Religion edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
Persia edit

By place edit

China edit
Roman Empire edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
  • March 18 – The Roman Senate annuls Tiberius's will, and proclaims Caligula as Roman Emperor,[14] nullifying the joint claim of Tiberius Gemellus. Caligula's attempt to have himself deified creates friction between himself and the Senate.
  • October – Caligula becomes seriously ill, or perhaps is poisoned. He recovers from his illness, but Caligula turns toward the diabolical: he starts to kill off those who are close to him, whom he sees as a serious threat.
  • Abilene is granted to King Agrippa I.

By topic edit

Earthquake edit
Religion edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
China edit
  • An epidemic breaks out in K'aui-chi, causing many deaths. Imperial official Ch'ung-li I provides medicines that save many lives.[citation needed]

By topic edit

Arts and sciences edit
Religion edit

By place edit

Roman Empire edit
Vietnam edit

Significant people edit

Births

AD 30

AD 31

AD 32

AD 33

AD 34

AD 35

AD 36

AD 37

AD 38

AD 39

Deaths

AD 30

AD 31

AD 32

AD 33

AD 34

AD 35

AD 36

AD 37

AD 38

AD 39

References edit

  1. ^   This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainRockwell, William Walker (1911). "Antioch". In Chisholm, Hugh (ed.). Encyclopædia Britannica. Vol. 2 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 130–132.
  2. ^ John H. Tanton, 1994, "End of the Migration Epoch? Time For a New Paradigm", The Social Contract, Vol. 4 (no 3), pp. 162–173.
  3. ^ Haub (1995): "By 1 A.D., the world may have held about 300 million people. One estimate of the population of the Roman Empire, from Spain to Asia Minor, in 14 A.D. is 45 million. However, other historians set the figure twice as high, suggesting how imprecise population estimates of early historical periods can be."
  4. ^ Manning, Scott (2008-01-12). "Year-by-Year World Population Estimates: 10,000 B.C. to 2007 A.D." Historian on the Warpath. Retrieved 2023-03-05.
  5. ^ Suetonius, The Lives of Twelve Caesars, Life of Tiberius, pp. 53–54.
  6. ^ "Phaedrus Biography - eNotes.com". eNotes. Retrieved 2018-01-11.
  7. ^ a b Humphreys, Colin J. (2011). The Mystery of the Last Supper. Cambridge University Press. pp. 77 and 189. ISBN 978-0521732000.
  8. ^ a b "Last Supper 'was on a Wednesday'". United Kingdom: BBC. April 18, 2011.
  9. ^ Harris, W. V. (2011). Rome's Imperial Economy: Twelve Essays. Oxford University Press. p. 238. ISBN 978-0-19-959516-7.
  10. ^ Thornton, M. K.; Thornton, R. L. (1990). "The Financial Crisis of A.D. 33: A Keynesian Depression?". The Journal of Economic History. 50 (3): 655–662. doi:10.1017/S0022050700037207. ISSN 0022-0507. JSTOR 2122822. S2CID 154785575.
  11. ^ "Tiberius (42 BC-37AD". BBC. Retrieved February 20, 2024.
  12. ^ de Crespigny, Rafe (2006). A Biographical Dictionary of Later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23–220 AD). BRILL. p. 270. ISBN 978-90-474-1184-0.
  13. ^ Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews 18.113–126; Bruce, F. F. (1963–1965). "Herod Antipas, Tetrarch of Galilee and Peraea" (PDF). Annual of Leeds University Oriental Society. 5: 6–23, pp. 17–18. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09. Retrieved 2007-10-21.
  14. ^ a b Bowman, Alan K.; Champlin, Edward; Lintott, Andrew (1996). The Cambridge ancient history: The Augustan Empire, 43 B.C.–A.D. 69. Cambridge University Press. p. 221. ISBN 978-0-521-26430-3.
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  19. ^ Tacitus, Annals, pp. 413
  20. ^ Morgan, Julian (2002). Nero: Destroyer of Rome. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 7. ISBN 978-0-8239-3596-3.
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  22. ^ "BBC - History - Historic Figures: Titus (39 AD - 81 AD)". www.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 7 April 2019.
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  24. ^ a b Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, page 194
  25. ^ a b c d e Blinzler, J. Der Prozess Jesu, fourth edition, Regensburg, Pustet, 1969, pp101-126
  26. ^ a b Colin Humphreys, The Mystery of the Last Supper Cambridge University Press 2011 ISBN 978-0-521-73200-0, pages 14 and 62
  27. ^ Colin J. Humphreys and W. G. Waddington, "Dating the Crucifixion ," Nature 306 (December 22/29, 1983), pp. 743-46. [2]
  28. ^ Vagi, David (2016). Coinage and History of the Roman Empire. Routledge. p. 107. ISBN 978-1-135-97125-0.
  29. ^ Cramer, Frederick H. (1945). "Bookburning and Censorship in Ancient Rome: A Chapter from the History of Freedom of Speech" (PDF). Journal of the History of Ideas. 6 (2): 157–196 (173). doi:10.2307/2707362. ISSN 0022-5037. JSTOR 2707362. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2022-10-09.
  30. ^ Humphreys, Colin J.; Waddington, W. G. (22 December 1983). "Dating the Crucifixion". Nature. 306: 743–46.
  31. ^ Humphreys, C. J.; Waddington, W. G. (1992). "The Jewish calendar, a lunar eclipse and the date of Christ's crucifixion". Tyndale Bulletin. 43 (2): 331–351.
  32. ^ Maier, P.L. (1968). "Sejanus, Pilate, and the Date of the Crucifixion". Church History. 37 (1): 3–13. doi:10.2307/3163182. JSTOR 3163182. S2CID 162410612.
  33. ^ Fotheringham, J.K. (1934). "The evidence of astronomy and technical chronology for the date of the crucifixion". Journal of Theological Studies. 35 (138): 146–162. doi:10.1093/jts/os-XXXV.138.146. S2CID 162258391.
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