The 270s decade ran from January 1, 270, to December 31, 279.
- Emperor Claudius II Gothicus dies of plague while preparing to fight the Vandals and Sarmatians, who have invaded Pannonia. He is succeeded by his brother Quintillus, who briefly holds power over the Roman Empire.
- Quintillus commits suicide and is succeeded by an associate of his brother Lucius Domitius Aurelianus, the military leader who distinguished himself last year at the Battle of Naissus (Serbia).
- Aurelianus pushes the Goths back across the Danube and recovers Roman territory.
- The Romans leave Utrecht after regular invasions of Germanic tribes.
- Crisis of the Third Century: An economic crisis strikes the Roman empire; due to the partition of the empire, invasions and usurpations and the sacking of the countryside and cities by invaders, agricultural and industrial production are significantly decreased, and mines lie unused. A monetary crisis ensues, including inflation of up to 1,000 % in certain areas of the empire.
- Fan Hsiung, aka Pham Hung, comes to power in Champa and raids the Chinese-occupied territory of Tonkin.
- The Kingdom of Aksum (modern Ethiopia) begins minting its own gold coins to facilitate international trade, following the model of Roman coinage.
- Anthony the Great, a Christian saint from Egypt, regarded as Father of All Monks, enters the wilderness to become ascetic.
- The Chinese invent gunpowder (black powder), a mixture of sulfur, charcoal and potassium nitrate. It appears to have first been used only for fireworks.[contradictory]
- Emperor Aurelian pushes the Vandals back from Pannonia and forces them to withdraw over the Danube. He withdraws the Roman army from Dacia (modern Romania). (Note: This may have lasted until 272. Both years are mentioned by various sources.)
- Battle of Placentia: The Juthungi invade Italy and sack the city of Piacenza. A Roman army (15,000 men) under Emperor Aurelian is ambushed and defeated.
- Battle of Fano: The Juthungi move towards a defenceless Rome. Aurelian rallies his men and defeats the Germanic tribes on the Metauro River, just inland of Fano.
- Battle of Pavia: The Roman army pursues the Alamanni in Lombardy. Aurelian closes the passes in the Alps and encircles the invaders near Pavia. The Alamanni are destroyed and Aurelian receives the title Germanicus Maximus.
- Felicissimus, financial minister of the state treasury, leads an uprising of mint workers against Aurelian. He is defeated and killed on the Caelian Hill.
- Aurelian begins construction of a new defensive wall to protect Rome. The Aurelian Walls, 19 kilometers (12 mi), enclose the city with fortifications.
- Victorinus, Emperor of the Gallic Empire, is assassinated by Attitianus, reportedly for reasons of personal revenge. Domitian II presumably serves as Emperor for a few days before being replaced by Tetricus I.
- Zenobia proclaims herself to be Empress, and breaks all relations with the Roman Empire.
- Zenobia gives her son Vaballathus the title of Augustus.
Arts and sciencesEdit
- King Shapur I builds the Academy of Gundishapur (Iran), which becomes the intellectual center of the Sassanid Empire. The Nestorians fleeing religious persecution seek his protection. He commissions the refugees to translate Greek and Syriac works on astronomy, medicine and philosophy.
- A magnetic compass is first used in China.
- Emperor Aurelian sends his commander Marcus Aurelius Probus to restore Roman rule in Egypt.
- During the Siege of Tyana, Emperor Aurelian has a dream of Apollonius of Tyana and spares the city.
- Battle of Immae: Aurelian defeats the forces of the Palmyrene Empire near Antioch. Queen Zenobia flees under cover of darkness to Emesa (Syria).
- Battle of Emesa: Aurelian destroys the Palmyrene heavy cavalry (clibanarii) and conquers Palmyra. Zenobia escapes to Persia but is captured on the Euphrates.
- Aurelian lays siege to Palmyra after a revolt; he restores Roman control and sacks the city. Zenobia and her son Vabalathus are forced to parade in golden chains through the streets of Rome.
- Rome forms an alliance with the king of Aksum (Axum).
- Dacia is abandoned.
- King Shapur I of Persia dies after a reign of more than 30 years; he is succeeded by his eldest son Hormizd I.
- Dometius succeeds Titus as Patriarch of Constantinople.
- Saint Denis, first Bishop of Paris, and two of his disciples are beheaded on the road to the Temple of Mercury that stands atop a hill outside of the city. The hill will later be called Montmartre (Mountain of Martyrs) in Lutetia (modern Paris).
- Paul of Samosata is deposed as Patriarch of Antioch.
- Emperor Aurelian sacks the city of Palmyra for a second time after putting down a new revolt.
- The kingdom of Palmyra is reunited with the Roman Empire.
- Aurelian refuses to wear the imperial crown and coat.
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, future Roman Emperor, is consul in Rome.
- Tetricus I and Tetricus II are deposed as Gallic Emperors by Aurelian.
- Administrative reorganization of Italy: Aurelian adopts, as permanent, the reforms instituted by Caracalla.
- Aurelian increases Rome's daily bread ration to nearly 1.5 pounds and adds pig fat to the list of foods distributed free to the populace.
- Cassius Longinus, counselor of Queen Zenobia, is executed by the Romans for conspiring against Aurelian.
- An Indian delegation visits Aurelian.
- King Hormizd I of Persia dies after a brief reign in which he has shown tolerance toward the ascetic, anti-materialist Manichean faith. He is succeeded by his brother Bahram I, who has been governing the province of Atropatene.
- Battle of Châlons: Emperor Aurelian reconquers the Gallic Empire (Gaul and Britain). Tetricus I surrenders his army near Châlons-sur-Marne, France. With the conquests of the Palmyrene Empire and the Gallic Empire, the Roman Empire is united again.
- Rome greets Aurelian as Restitutor Orbis ("Restorer of the World") and accords him a magnificent triumph (victory procession), which is graced by his captives Tetricus I and his son Tetricus II.
- Aurelian issues an important reform of Roman currency.
- Germanic tribes take advantage of the destroyed Roman forces of the Rhine. They pillage and depopulate large areas of Gaul, including Paris. The Rhine border is lost for 20 years. Franks live in the area of present southern Netherlands, northern Belgium and Rhineland from now on.
- December 25 – Aurelian has the Temple of the Sun dedicated to Sol Invictus, on the third day after the solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun. This religion, which is in essence monotheistic, becomes the state religion of Rome.
- Britain rebels over the value of coinage.
- March 2 – Mani, a sage of Persia, dies at Gundeshapur after 30 years of preaching his "heresy" at the court of the late Sassanian King Shapur I and on long journeys to Khorasan, India and China. He is executed or allowed to die in prison, and claims to be a prophet of God. Mani combines Zoroastrian dualism with Christian theology, and his disciples gain wide support for Manichaeism, despite opposition from Byzantine and Roman Emperors.
- December 30 – Pope Felix I dies in Rome after a 5-year reign.
- Japanese shipwrights build a 100-foot oar-powered vessel for Emperor Ōjin. The Japanese will not use sails for another seven centuries.
- Emperor Aurelian prepares a campaign against the Sassanids in Asia Minor. In Thrace, while waiting to cross the Bosphorus with his army, he hands out severe punishments to corrupt soldiers, and his secretary forges a list of high-ranking officers marked for execution.
- September – Aurelian falls victim to a conspiracy of the Praetorian Guard, and is murdered near Byzantium (Turkey).
- September 25 – Marcus Claudius Tacitus is proclaimed Emperor by the Senate; his half brother Marcus Annius Florianus becomes Praetorian prefect.
- The Pallava Dynasty begins in Southern India.
- The Franks take advantage of chaos caused by the war between the Gallic Empire and the Western Roman Empire to cross the Rhine river into Gaul.
- Emperor Tacitus doubles the silver content of the aurelianianus and halves its tariffing to 2.5 d.c. carry the value marks X.I.
- Marcus Annius Florianus defeats the Goths and Alans who have invaded Asia Minor. Tacitus dies of illness or is murdered at Tyana in Cappadocia.
- Florianus becomes Roman Emperor; he breaks off his campaign against the Heruli and marches from the Bosporus with support from the Roman legions in Britain, Gaul, Spain and Italy to fight an indecisive battle with Marcus Aurelius Probus in Cilicia.
- Florianus holds power for some weeks, but is assassinated by his own troops near Tarsus (Turkey). Probus, age 44, is proclaimed new Emperor of Rome.
- Probus appoints Marcus Aurelius Carus to Prefect of the Praetorian Guard; he returns the aurelianianus to the standard and official tariffing of Aurelian.
- King Bahram I of Persia dies after a 3-year reign in which the Zoroastrian priests at Ctesiphon (Iran) put pressure on him to persecute Buddhists, Christians, and Manichaeans. He is succeeded by his son Bahram II.
- Reign of Mahasena in Ceylon. Orthodox and unpopular, he tries to introduce Mahayana Buddhism to the country.
- Emperor Probus travels with his army west across the Sea of Marmara (Turkey), and through the provinces of Thrace, Moesia, and Pannonia to defeat the Goths along the lower Danube. He acquires from the troops the title of Gothicus.
- Probus enters Rome, to have his position as Emperor ratified by the Senate.
- Emperor Probus defeats the Alamanni, advancing through the Neckar Valley. He expels the Franks from Gaul, and reorganizes the Roman defenses on the Rhine.
- Probus resettles the Germanic tribes in the devastated provinces of the Roman Empire. He adopts the titles of Gothicus Maximus and Germanicus Maximus.
- Piracy along the coast of Lycia and Pamphylia: The Romans besiege the city of Cremna (Pisidia) and kill the Isaurian robber Lydius.
- Emperor Probus defeats the Burgundians and Vandals, in Raetia and Pannonia (modern Switzerland and Hungary).
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- March 15 – Saint Nicholas (Santa Claus) (d. 343)
- Rabbah bar Nahmani, Babylonian 'amora
- Saint Spyridon, bishop of Trimythous (d. 348)
- February 27 – Constantine the Great, first Christian Emperor of the Roman Empire (d. 337)
- Saint Januarius, Bishop of Naples and saint
- Wei Shuo, calligrapher of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (d. 349)
- Li Xiong, first emperor of Cheng Han (d. 334)
- Shi Le, founder and emperor of the Chinese Jie state (d. 333)
- Gregory the Elder, bishop of Nazianzus (approximate date)
- Guo Pu, Chinese writer (d. 324)
- Maxentius, Roman Emperor (d. 312)
- Wang Dao, Chinese statesman of the Jin dynasty (d. 339)
- Emperor Yuan of Jin, Chinese emperor of the Jin dynasty (d. 323)
- Sima Ai, Chinese prince of the Jin dynasty (d. 304)
- Zhang Mao, Chinese ruler of Former Liang (d. 324)
- Claudius II, Roman Emperor (b. 210)
- Jingu of Japan, possibly legendary empress of Japan
- Plotinus, father of Neo-Platonism (b. c. 205) (approximate date)
- Quintillus, Roman emperor
- St. Valentine (executed by Claudius II) (Possible year)
- Ding Feng, Chinese general of the Eastern Wu state
- Domitian II, Emperor of the Gallic Empire
- Felicissimus, Roman financial minister (rationalis)
- Liu Shan, Chinese emperor of the Shu Han state (b. 207)
- Pei Xiu, Chinese official, writer, geographer and cartographer (b. 224)
- Sima Wang, Chinese general and prince of the Jin dynasty (b. 205)
- Victorinus, Emperor of the Gallic Empire
- Saint Denis, first Bishop of Paris and saint
- Liu Qubei, Right Prince of the Southern Xiongnu
- Shapur I, king of Persia
- Sima Fu, Chinese prince and statesman of the Jin dynasty (b. 180)
- Wan Yu, Chinese statesman of the Eastern Wu state
- Cassius Longinus, Greek philosopher
- Dexippus, Greek historian
- Hormizd I, king of Persia
- Wei Zhao, Chinese historian and scholar (b. 204)
- Emperor Wu of Jin, first emperor of the Jin Dynasty (b. 236)
- March 2 – Mani, prophet and founder of Manichaeism (b. 216)
- August 25 – Empress Yang Yan, Chinese empress of the Jin dynasty (b. 238)
- December 30 – Pope Felix I
- Cao Fang, Chinese emperor of the Cao Wei state (b. 232)
- Lu Kang, Chinese general of the Eastern Wu state (b. 226)
- Septimia Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrene Empire (b. c. 240)
- Aurelian, Roman emperor (b. 214 or 215)
- Xiang Xiu, Chinese sage
- Zenobia, queen of the Palmyrene Empire (b. 240)
- Bahram I, king of Persia
- Marcus Annius Florianus, Roman Emperor
- Marcus Claudius Tacitus, Roman Emperor
- December 27 – Yang Hu, Chinese general, scholar of the Jin Dynasty (b. 221)
- Fu Xuan, Chinese scholar, poet (b. 217)
- Yang Huiyu, Chinese empress dowager of the Jin Dynasty (b. 214)
- Yochanan bar Nafcha, rabbi, compiler of the Jerusalem Talmud
- Tiberius Julius Teiranes, Roman prince and Client King of the Bosporan Kingdom
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Watson, Alaric. Aurelian and the Third Century. London, United Kingdom: Routledge, 1999, p. 50.
- Villari, Pasquale (2018-01-30). The Barbarian Invasions of Italy. Ozymandias Press. ISBN 9781531265649.
- Clauss, Manfred (2001). Die römischen Kaiser - 55 historische Portraits von Caesar bis Iustinian. p. 250. ISBN 978-3-406-47288-6.
- "Saint Felix I | pope". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 24 May 2019.
- Knechtges, David R.; Chang, Taiping (2010). Ancient and Early Medieval Chinese Literature (vol.I): A Reference Guide, Part One. BRILL. p. 542. ISBN 9789004191273.
- "Quintillus | Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 25 March 2019.
- "Aurelian | Roman emperor". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 27 May 2019.
- Cruz, Juana Inés de la (2016). Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz: Selected Works (International Student Edition) (Norton Critical Editions). W. W. Norton & Company. p. 112. ISBN 9780393623406.
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