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24 cm K L/35

The 24 cm K L/35 was a German Naval Gun developed in the years before World War I that armed ships of the Imperial German Navy, Argentine Navy and the Austro-Hungarian Navy. Guns removed from ships of the Imperial German Navy were modified to perform Coastal Artillery and Railway Artillery roles and saw service in both world wars. The actual bore diameter was 23.8 cm (9.4 in), but the classification system for artillery rounded up to the next highest centimeter.

24 cm K L/35
SMS Odin NH 47886.jpg
The forward 24 cm K L/35 gun turrets aboard SMS Odin
Type Naval Gun
Coastal Artillery
Railway Artillery
Place of origin German Empire
Service history
In service 1890-1945
Used by German Empire
Argentina
Austria-Hungary
Wars Boxer Rebellion
World War I
World War II
Production history
Designer Krupp
Designed 1888
Manufacturer Krupp
Produced 1888
Specifications
Weight 21.5 t (23.7 short tons)
Length 8.4 m (27 ft 7 in)
Barrel length 7.8 m (25 ft 7 in)

Shell Separate loading bagged charges and projectiles
Shell weight 140–215 kg (309–474 lb)
Caliber 24 cm (9.4 in) 35 caliber
Breech Cylindro-prismatic breech block
Elevation -4° to +25°
Traverse -150° to +150°
Rate of fire 2 rpm
Muzzle velocity 580–650 m/s (1,900–2,100 ft/s)
Maximum firing range 13 km (8.1 mi) at +25°[1]

Contents

HistoryEdit

In 1888 Krupp designed the 24 cm K L/35 and started production to arm two classes of the Imperial German Navy's coastal defense ships. Krupp also produced guns for export that armed one class of coastal defense ships for Argentina and one class of protected cruisers and one unique armored cruiser for Austria-Hungary. The Ottoman Osmaniye-class ironclads were rearmed with these guns in the early 1890s.[citation needed]

Naval ArtilleryEdit

The 24 cm K L/35 was the primary armament of the Siegfried-class and Odin-class coastal defense ships of the Imperial German Navy.[2]

German ship details:
  • Siegfried-class - The six ships of this class had a primary armament of three guns in an unusual arrangement. Two MPL C/88 single gun turrets were mounted side-by-side forward, while a third was mounted aft of the central superstructure in a single gun turret.[3]
  • Odin-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of three guns in an unusual arrangement. Two MPL C/93 single gun turrets were mounted side-by-side forward, while a third was mounted aft of the central superstructure in a single gun turret.[4]

The 24 cm K L/35 was also the primary armament of the Argentine Navy's Independencia-class coastal defense ships.

Argentine ship details:
  • Independencia-class – The two ships of this class had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[5]

The 24 cm K L/35 was the primary armament of the Kaiser Franz Joseph I-class of protected cruisers and the unique armored cruiser SMS Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia.

Austro-Hungarian ship details:
  • Kaiser Franz Joseph I-class - The two ships of this class had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[6]
  • SMS Kaiserin und Königin Maria Theresia - This ship had a primary armament of two guns, which were mounted in two single gun turrets, one fore and one aft of the central superstructure.[7]

Coastal ArtilleryEdit

During 1916 the Odin-class ships were decommissioned and disarmed. The 24 cm K L/35 guns salvaged from these ships were converted to coastal artillery. Three guns were emplaced at Battery Bremen on Norderney and three guns were emplaced at Battery S1 on Sylt.[8] They remained there until the late 1930s.[citation needed]

Railway ArtilleryEdit

Beginning in 1937 the six guns at Norderny and Sylt were converted to railway artillery and were collectively known as 24 cm Theodor Bruno Kanone (E). During the Battle of France Theodor Brunos equipped three batteries of two guns each. Later one battery of four guns defended Cherbourg from 1941 until June 1944 when they were destroyed during the Battle of Cherbourg.[9]

BibliographyEdit

  • Friedman, Norman (2011). Naval Weapons of World War One. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Seaforth. ISBN 978-1-84832-100-7. 
  • Chamberlain, Peter (1979). Weapons of the Third Reich: An Encyclopedic Survey of All Small Arms, Artillery and Special Weapons of the German Land Forces 1939-1945. New York: Doubleday. ISBN 0-385-15090-3. 
  • François, Guy (2006-01-01). Eisenbahnartillerie: Histoire de l'artillerie lourd sur voie ferrée allemande des origines à 1945. Paris: Editions Histoire et Fortifications. ISBN 2915767084. 

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ DiGiulian, Tony. "Germany 24 cm/35 (9.4") SK L/35 - NavWeaps". www.navweaps.com. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  2. ^ Friedman, Norman (2011-01-01). Naval weapons of World War One. Seaforth. ISBN 9781848321007. OCLC 786178793. 
  3. ^ "SIEGFRIED coast defence battleships (1890-1894) - Kaiserliche Marine (Germany)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  4. ^ "ODIN coast defence battleships (1896) - Kaiserliche Marine (Germany)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  5. ^ "Nueve de Julio coast defence battleships (1891-1892) - Argentinean Navy (Argentina)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  6. ^ "KAISER FRANZ JOSEPH I protected cruisers (1890-1892) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  7. ^ "KAISERIN UND KÖNIGIN MARIA THERESIA armoured cruiser (1894) - K-u-K Marine (Austro-Hungarian Navy) (Austria-Hungary)". www.navypedia.org. Retrieved 2017-03-23. 
  8. ^ Chamberlain, Peter. Weapons of the Third Reich : an encyclopedic survey of all small arms, artillery, and special weapons of the German land forces, 1939-1945. Doubleday. ISBN 0385150903. 
  9. ^ Francois, Guy (2006-01-01). Eisenbahnartillerie : histoire de l'artillerie lourde sur voie ferrée allemande des origines à 1945. Éd. Histoire et fortifications. ISBN 2915767084. OCLC 470748404. 

External linksEdit