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2328 Robeson, provisional designation 1972 HW, is a background asteroid from the inner regions of the asteroid belt, approximately 13 kilometers (8 miles) in diameter. It was discovered on 19 April 1972, by astronomer Soviet–Russian Tamara Smirnova at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory in Nauchnij, on the Crimean peninsula.[1] It was named after American actor and singer Paul Robeson.[2] The C/X-type asteroid has a rotation period of 18.6 hours.[4]

2328 Robeson
Discovery [1]
Discovered byT. Smirnova
Discovery siteCrimean Astrophysical Obs.
Discovery date19 April 1972
MPC designation(2328) Robeson
Named after
Paul Robeson[2]
(American singer and actor)
1972 HW
main-belt[1][3] · (inner)[4]
background [5]
Orbital characteristics[3]
Epoch 23 March 2018 (JD 2458200.5)
Uncertainty parameter 0
Observation arc45.76 yr (16,714 d)
Aphelion2.6814 AU
Perihelion2.0009 AU
2.3411 AU
3.58 yr (1,308 d)
0° 16m 30.72s / day
Physical characteristics
Mean diameter
7.46 km (calculated)[4]
11.75±1.4 km[6]
12.67±0.77 km[7]
12.75±4.10 km[8]
12.895±2.594 km[9]
12.90±2.59 km[9]
13.30±0.46 km[10]
18.632±0.004 h[11]
0.20 (assumed)[4]
SMASS = C[3] · X[12]
S (assumed)[4]
12.50[10] · 12.80[9]
13.0[3][4] · 13.02[8]
13.16[7] · 13.52±0.24[12]

Orbit and classificationEdit

Robeson is a non-family asteroid from the main belt's background population.[5] It orbits the Sun in the inner main-belt at a distance of 2.0–2.7 AU once every 3 years and 7 months (1,308 days; semi-major axis of 2.34 AU). Its orbit has an eccentricity of 0.15 and an inclination of 10° with respect to the ecliptic.[3] The body's observation arc begins with its official discovery observation at Nauchnij in April 1972.[1]

Physical characteristicsEdit

In the SMASS classification Robeson is a carbonaceous C-type asteroid.[3] It has also been characterized as an X-type asteroid by Pan-STARRS' photometric survey.[12]

Rotation periodEdit

In December 2006, a rotational lightcurve of Robeson was obtained from photometric observations at the Leura (E17) and Hunters Hill (E14) observatories in Australia. Lightcurve analysis gave a rotation period of 18.632 hours with a brightness amplitude of 0.20 magnitude (U=2+).[11]

Diameter and albedoEdit

According to the surveys carried out by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite IRAS, the Japanese Akari satellite and the NEOWISE mission of NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, Robeson measures between 11.75 and 13.30 kilometers in diameter and its surface has an albedo between 0.06 and 0.1281.[6][7][8][9][10]

The Collaborative Asteroid Lightcurve Link assumes it to be a stony asteroid with a standard albedo of 0.20 and calculates a diameter of 7.46 kilometers based on an absolute magnitude of 13.0.[4]


This minor planet was named after in memory of African-American singer and actor Paul Robeson (1898–1976).[2] The official naming citation was published by the Minor Planet Center on 8 February 1982 (M.P.C. 6648).[13]


  1. ^ a b c d "2328 Robeson (1972 HW)". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  2. ^ a b c Schmadel, Lutz D. (2007). "(2328) Robeson". Dictionary of Minor Planet Names – (2328) Robeson. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. p. 190. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-29925-7_2329. ISBN 978-3-540-00238-3.
  3. ^ a b c d e f "JPL Small-Body Database Browser: 2328 Robeson (1972 HW)" (2018-01-22 last obs.). Jet Propulsion Laboratory. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g "LCDB Data for (2328) Robeson". Asteroid Lightcurve Database (LCDB). Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  5. ^ a b "Small Bodies Data Ferret". Nesvorny HCM Asteroid Families V3.0. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  6. ^ a b c Tedesco, E. F.; Noah, P. V.; Noah, M.; Price, S. D. (October 2004). "IRAS Minor Planet Survey V6.0". NASA Planetary Data System: IRAS-A-FPA-3-RDR-IMPS-V6.0. Bibcode:2004PDSS...12.....T. Archived from the original on 3 June 2016. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  7. ^ a b c d Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Kramer, E. A.; Grav, T.; et al. (September 2016). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year Two: Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astronomical Journal. 152 (3): 12. arXiv:1606.08923. Bibcode:2016AJ....152...63N. doi:10.3847/0004-6256/152/3/63. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  8. ^ a b c d Masiero, Joseph R.; Mainzer, A. K.; Grav, T.; Bauer, J. M.; Cutri, R. M.; Nugent, C.; et al. (November 2012). "Preliminary Analysis of WISE/NEOWISE 3-Band Cryogenic and Post-cryogenic Observations of Main Belt Asteroids". The Astrophysical Journal Letters. 759 (1): 5. arXiv:1209.5794. Bibcode:2012ApJ...759L...8M. doi:10.1088/2041-8205/759/1/L8. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  9. ^ a b c d e f Nugent, C. R.; Mainzer, A.; Masiero, J.; Bauer, J.; Cutri, R. M.; Grav, T.; et al. (December 2015). "NEOWISE Reactivation Mission Year One: Preliminary Asteroid Diameters and Albedos". The Astrophysical Journal. 814 (2): 13. arXiv:1509.02522. Bibcode:2015ApJ...814..117N. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/814/2/117. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  10. ^ a b c d Usui, Fumihiko; Kuroda, Daisuke; Müller, Thomas G.; Hasegawa, Sunao; Ishiguro, Masateru; Ootsubo, Takafumi; et al. (October 2011). "Asteroid Catalog Using Akari: AKARI/IRC Mid-Infrared Asteroid Survey". Publications of the Astronomical Society of Japan. 63 (5): 1117–1138. Bibcode:2011PASJ...63.1117U. doi:10.1093/pasj/63.5.1117. Retrieved 27 March 2018. Online catalog
  11. ^ a b Higgins, David; Oey, Julian (September 2007). "Asteroid Lightcurve Analysis at Hunters Hill Observatory and Collaborating Stations - December 2006 - April 2007". The Minor Planet Bulletin. 34 (3): 79–80. Bibcode:2007MPBu...34...79H. ISSN 1052-8091. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  12. ^ a b c Veres, Peter; Jedicke, Robert; Fitzsimmons, Alan; Denneau, Larry; Granvik, Mikael; Bolin, Bryce; et al. (November 2015). "Absolute magnitudes and slope parameters for 250,000 asteroids observed by Pan-STARRS PS1 - Preliminary results". Icarus. 261: 34–47. arXiv:1506.00762. Bibcode:2015Icar..261...34V. doi:10.1016/j.icarus.2015.08.007. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
  13. ^ "MPC/MPO/MPS Archive". Minor Planet Center. Retrieved 27 March 2018.

External linksEdit