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The 220s decade ran from January 1, 220, to December 31, 229.
- The Goths invade Asia Minor and the Balkans.
- An Indian delegation visits the Roman emperor Elagabalus.
- Great frost in Roman Britain is said to have lasted for five months.
- Imperator Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (Elagabalus) and Publius Valerius Comazon become Roman consuls.
- Elagabalus divorces Julia Paula and marries Aquilia Severa, a Vestal Virgin. The wedding causes an enormous controversy – traditionally, the punishment for breaking celibacy is death by being buried alive.
- King Ardashir I, founder of the Sassanid dynasty, gains support from some Parthian sub-kings and revolts against the rule of Vologases VI. Ardashir, a grandson of Sasan, had ruled Persis since 208 and six years earlier gained control of the region surrounding Persepolis.
- March 15 – Cao Cao, Imperial Chancellor and ruler of the Kingdom of Wei, dies.
- December 11 – Cao Pi receives the abdication of Emperor Xian of Han and proclaims himself emperor of Cao Wei. This ends the Han dynasty, the former emperor being created Duke of Shanyang.
- The Wei dynasty gave official recognition to Taoism as its religious sect, and the sect’s celestial masters reciprocated by giving spiritual approbation to the Wei as successors to the Han. By the end of the century, most powerful families in northern China had subscribed to Daoist principles.
- June 26 – Emperor Elagabalus adopts his cousin Alexander Severus as his heir and receives the title of Caesar.
- July – Elagabalus is forced to divorce Aquilia Severa and marries his third wife Annia Faustina. After five months he returns to Severa and claims that the original divorce is invalid. The marriage is symbolic, because Elagabalus appears to be homosexual or bisexual. According to the historian Cassius Dio, he has a stable relationship with his chariot driver, the slave Hierocles.
- May 15 – Liu Bei, Chinese warlord and descendant of the imperial clan of the Han dynasty, proclaims himself emperor in Chengdu, Sichuan and establishes the state of Shu Han.
- March 11 – Emperor Elagabalus is assassinated, along with his mother, Julia Soaemias, by the Praetorian Guard during a revolt. Their mutilated bodies are dragged through the streets of Rome before being thrown into the Tiber.
- Alexander Severus succeeds Elagabalus. He is only 13 years old; his mother, Julia Avita Mamaea, governs the Roman Empire with the help of Domitius Ulpianus and a council composed of 16 senators.
- The silver content of the Roman denarius falls to 35 percent under emperor Alexander Severus, down from 43 percent under Elagabalus.
- October 14 – Pope Callixtus I is killed by a mob in Rome's Trastevere after a 5-year reign in which he has stabilized the Saturday fast three times per year, with no food, oil, or wine to be consumed on those days. Callixtus is succeeded by Cardinal Urban I.
- April 28 – Battle of Hormozdgan in Shushtar: King Ardashir I defeats Artabanus V, destroying the Parthian Empire, and establishing the Sassanid Dynasty. Artabanus V's brother Vologases VI will continue to rule, with Armenian and Kushan support, over outlying parts of Parthia.
- Emperor Alexander Severus marries Sallustia Orbiana, and possibly raises her father Seius Sallustius to the rank of caesar.
Arts and ScienceEdit
- A merchant from the Roman Empire, called "Qin Lun" by the Chinese, arrives in Jiaozhi (modern Hanoi), and is taken to see King Sun Quan of Eastern Wu, who requests him to make a report on his native country and people. He is given an escort for the return trip, including a present of ten male and ten female "blackish-coloured dwarfs." However, the officer in charge of the Chinese escort dies, and Qin Lun has to continue his journey home alone.
- Seius Sallustius is executed for the attempted murder of his son-in-law, Emperor Alexander Severus. Sallustius' daughter, as well as Alexander's wife, Sallustia Orbiana, is exiled to Libya.
- The rule of High King Cormac mac Airt begins (approximate).
- King Ardashir I, ruler of Persia, annexes his new empire from the east to the northwest. He conquers, with his army, the provinces of Chorasmia, Sistan and the island Bahrain in the Persian Gulf. The kings of the Kushan Empire and Turan recognise Ardashir as their overlord.
- Shah Ardashir I, four years after establishing the Sassanid Persian Empire, completes his conquest of Parthia.
- c. February - May – Battle of Jieting: The Cao Wei Kingdom decisively defeats the Shu Han Kingdom.
- June - October – Battle of Shiting: The Eastern Wu Kingdom defeats the Cao Wei Kingdom.
- February – May: Battle of Jianwei: The state of Shu Han is victorious over the state of Cao Wei.
- June 23 – Chinese warlord Sun Quan formally declares himself emperor of the state of Eastern Wu. The city of Jianye (modern Nanjing) is founded as the capital of Eastern Wu. The independent kingdoms in Cambodia and Laos become Eastern Wu vassals.
- Eastern Wu merchants reach Vietnam; ocean transport is improved to such an extent, that sea journeys are made to Manchuria and the island of Taiwan.
Arts and sciencesEdit
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- Marcus Aurelius Carus, Roman Emperor (d. 283)
- Du Yu, Chinese general and scholar of the Jin dynasty (d. 285)
- King Jungcheon of Goguryeo (d. 270)
- Marcus Aurelius Carus, Roman emperor (d. 283)
- Saint Mercurius, Christian saint and martyr (d. 250)
- Pei Xiu, Chinese official, geographer, writer and cartographer of the Jin Dynasty (d. 271)
- Sun He, Chinese prince of the Eastern Wu state (d. 253)
- January 20 – Gordian III, Roman emperor (d. 244)
- Trieu Thi Trinh, Vietnamese female warrior (d. 248)
- Zhong Hui, Chinese general, official and writer of the Cao Wei state (d. 264)
- March 15 – Cao Cao, Chinese warlord of the Eastern Han dynasty (b. 155)
- June 13 – Xiahou Dun, Chinese general serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Cao Cao
- December – Cheng Yu, Chinese official serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Cao Cao (b. 141)
- Fa Zheng, Chinese official serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Liu Bei (b. 176)
- Guan Yu, Chinese general serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Liu Bei
- Huang Zhong, Chinese general serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Liu Bei
- Lü Meng, Chinese general serving under the Eastern Han dynasty warlord Sun Quan (b. 178)
- Bassilla, Roman actress, dancer and singer (approximate year)
- August 4 – Lady Zhen, noble lady of the Cao Wei state (b. 183)
- Mi Zhu, official of the Shu Han state (b. 165)
- Yu Jin, general of the Cao Wei state
- Zhang Fei, general of the Shu Han state
- March 11 –
- Bardaisan, Syriac philosopher (b. 154)
- Pope Callixtus I
- Hierocles, favourite of Elagabalus
- Ma Chao, Chinese general of the Shu Han state (b. 176)
- Publius Valerius Comazon, Roman general
- Taurinus, Roman rebel (drowned)
- Zhang Liao, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state (b. 169)
- May 6 – Cao Ren, general of the Cao Wei state (b. 168)
- June 10 – Liu Bei, Chinese warlord and founding emperor of the state of Shu Han in the Three Kingdoms period (b. 161)
- August 1 – Cao Zhang, prince and general of the Cao Wei state
- August 11 – Jia Xu, official of the Cao Wei state (b. 147)
- June 29 – Cao Pi, Chinese emperor of the Cao Wei state (b. 187)
- Shi Xie, Chinese warlord who controlled Jiaozhi (in present-day northern Vietnam) (b. 137)
- Han Dang, Chinese general of the Eastern Wu state
- He Qi, Chinese general of the Eastern Wu state
- Seius Sallustius, Roman Caesar (executed)
- Xu Huang, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state
- Cao Xiu, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state
- Domitius Ulpian, Roman jurist (murdered in riot) (b. 180)
- Jia Kui, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state (b. 174)
- Lü Fan, Chinese general of the Eastern Wu state
- Ma Su, Chinese general of the Shu Han state (b. 190)
- Meng Da, Chinese general of the Cao Wei state
- Wang Lang, Chinese official of the Cao Wei state
- Stratton, J.M. (1969). Agricultural Records. John Baker. ISBN 0-212-97022-4.
- An annotated translation of the Weilue
- "List of Rulers of Korea". www.metmuseum.org. Retrieved 18 April 2019.
- Lühmann, Werner (2003). Konfuzius: aufgeklärter Philosoph oder reaktionärer Moralapostel? : der Bruch in der Konfuzius-Rezeption der deutschen Philosophie des ausgehenden 18. und beginnenden 19. Jahrhunderts. Harrassowitz. p. 68. ISBN 978-3-447-04753-1.
- Crespigny, Rafe de (2010). Imperial Warlord: A Biography of Cao Cao 155-220 AD. BRILL. p. 459. ISBN 9789004188303.