21st Century Medicine
21st Century Medicine (21CM) is a California cryobiological research company which has as its primary focus the development of perfusates and protocols for viable long-term cryopreservation of human organs, tissues and cells at temperatures below −100 °C through the use of vitrification. 21CM was founded in 1993.
In 2004 21CM received a $900,000 grant from the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) to study a preservation solution developed by the University of Rochester in New York for extending simple cold storage time of human hearts removed for transplant.
At the July 2005 annual conference of the Society for Cryobiology, 21st Century Medicine announced the vitrification of a rabbit kidney to -135 °C with their vitrification mixture. The kidney was successfully transplanted upon rewarming to a rabbit, the rabbit being euthanized on the 48th day for histological follow-up.
- "NIH grant to be used for heart preservation research". Business Wire. October 31, 2004. Retrieved 2012-05-02.
- "Plenary Session: Fundamentals of Biopreservation". CRYO 2005 Scientific Program. Society for Cryobiology. July 24, 2005. Archived from the original on 2006-08-30. Retrieved 2006-11-08.
- Fahy GM, Wowk B, Pagotan R, Chang A, Phan J, Thomson B, Phan L (2009). "Physical and biological aspects of renal vitrification". Organogenesis. 5 (3): 167–175. doi:10.4161/org.5.3.9974. PMC 2781097. PMID 20046680.
After ensuring that the animal appeared capable of living indefinitely using the vitrified kidney as the sole renal support, it was euthanized for histological follow-up on day 48.
- Thomson, Helen. "Mammal brain frozen and thawed out perfectly for first time". New Scientist. Retrieved 2018-12-23.
- Dvorsky, George (2018-03-14). "New Brain Preservation Technique Could Be a Path to Mind Uploading". Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 2018-03-16. Retrieved 2018-12-23.