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The 20th New Zealand Parliament was a term of the New Zealand Parliament. It was elected at the 1919 general election in December of that year.

20th Parliament of New Zealand
19th Parliament 21st Parliament
Parliament House, Wellington, New Zealand (50).JPG
Term14 June 1920 – 31 October 1922
Election1919 New Zealand general election
GovernmentReform Government
House of Representatives
New Zealand 20th Parliament.png
Speaker of the HouseFrederic Lang
Prime MinisterWilliam Massey
Leader of the OppositionThomas Wilford from 8 September 1920
––William MacDonald until 31 August 1920 †
Legislative Council
Members43 (at start)
38 (at end)
Speaker of the CouncilSir Walter Carncross
Leader of the CouncilSir Francis Bell
MonarchHM George V
Governor-GeneralHE Rt. Hon. The Viscount Jellicoe from 27 September 1920
HE Rt. Hon. The Earl of Liverpool until 8 July 1920


1919 general electionEdit

The 1919 general election was held on Tuesday, 16 December in the Māori electorates and on Wednesday, 17 December in the general electorates, respectively.[1] A total of 80 MPs were elected; 45 represented North Island electorates, 31 represented South Island electorates, and the remaining four represented Māori electorates.[2] 683,420 voters were enrolled and the official turnout at the election was 80.5%.[1]


The 20th Parliament sat for five sessions (there were two sessions in 1912 and 1913, respectively), and was prorogued on 30 November 1922.[3]

Session Opened Adjouned
first 24 June 1920 11 November 1920
second 10 March 1921 22 March 1921
third 22 September 1921 22 December 1921
fourth 11 January 1922 11 February 1922
fifth 28 June 1922 31 October 1922

Party standingsEdit

Start of ParliamentEdit

Party Leader(s) Seats at start
Reform Party William Massey 43
Liberal Party William MacDonald 17
Labour Party Harry Holland 8
Independents 8

End of ParliamentEdit

Party Leader(s) Seats at end
Reform Party William Massey 44
Liberal Party Thomas Wilford 16
Labour Party Harry Holland 9
Independents 7


The wartime coalition between the Reform Party and the Liberal Party had come to an end by August 1919. William Massey of the Reform Party had been the leader of the coalition, with Joseph Ward of the Liberal Party as the deputy.[4] Ward left the coalition because it had become deeply unpopular with the population.[5] Massey then formed the second Massey Ministry on 25 August 1919 and remained in power during the term of the 20th Parliament and beyond until his death on 10 May 1925.[5][6]

Initial composition of the 20th ParliamentEdit

The table below shows the results of the 1919 general election:


 Reform    Liberal    Labour        Liberal–Labour
 Independent Liberal    Independent Labour    Independent  

Electorate results for the New Zealand general election, 1919[7]

Electorate Incumbent Winner Majority Runner up
General electorates
Ashburton William Nosworthy 1,493 William Dickie
Auckland Central Albert Glover Bill Parry 786 Albert Glover
Auckland East Arthur Myers 158 Clutha Mackenzie
Auckland West Charles Poole Michael Joseph Savage 533 Charles Frederick Bennett[8]
Avon George Russell Dan Sullivan 1,648 George Russell
Awarua Joseph Ward John Hamilton 757 Joseph Ward
Bay of Islands Vernon Reed 1,195 St. Claire Jounneaux
Bay of Plenty William MacDonald 1,234 Kenneth Williams
Bruce James Allen 126 John Edie
Buller James Colvin Harry Holland 1,003 Denis Quinlan O'Brien[8]
Chalmers James McColl Dickson 883 John Gilchrist
Christchurch East Henry Thacker 1,940 Hiram Hunter
Christchurch North Leonard Isitt 2,403 Tim Armstrong
Christchurch South Harry Ell Ted Howard 1,675 Henry Holland
Clutha Alexander Malcolm 134 R A Rodger
Dunedin Central Charles Statham 497 James Wright Munro
Dunedin North Andrew Walker Edward Kellett 806 Andrew Walker
Dunedin South Thomas Sidey 84 Tom Paul
Dunedin West William Downie Stewart 2,421 J A Brown[9]
Eden James Parr 1,854 Oscar McBrine
Egmont Charles Wilkinson Oswald Hawken 191 David Lyon Abbott Astbury
Ellesmere Heaton Rhodes 749 George Barclay
Franklin William Massey 3,030 Joseph Rea
Gisborne James Carroll Douglas Lysnar 373 James Carroll
Grey Lynn John Payne Fred Bartram 481 Ellen Melville
Hawke's Bay John Findlay Hugh Campbell 942 Gilbert McKay
Hurunui George Forbes 667 J G Armstrong
Hutt Thomas Wilford 1,005 David Pritchard
Invercargill Josiah Hanan 1,403 John Archer
Kaiapoi David Buddo David Jones 50 David Buddo
Kaipara Gordon Coates 3,291 Alfred Gregory
Lyttelton James McCombs 577 R MacCartney[8]
Manawatu New electorate Edward Newman 866 Alfred Hillier
Manukau Frederic Lang 2,508 Rex Mason
Marsden Francis Mander 189 Alfred Murdoch
Masterton George Sykes George Sykes 344 A C Holms
Mataura George Anderson 1,336 David McDougall
Motueka Richard Hudson 661 Percy Power
Napier Vigor Brown 54 Frederick Charles Evans[10][11]
Nelson Thomas Field Harry Atmore 510 Thomas Field
Oamaru Ernest Lee 276 John MacPherson
Ohinemuri Hugh Poland 555 J Clark
Oroua David Guthrie 1,843 E J Tunnicliffe
Otaki William Hughes Field 1,232 James McKenzie
Pahiatua Harold Smith Archibald McNicol 170 Robert Ross
Palmerston Jimmy Nash 1,004 Moses Ayrton[12]
Parnell James Samuel Dickson 3,419 Tom Bloodworth
Patea George Pearce Walter Powdrell 255 William Morrison
Raglan Richard Bollard 988 Bill Jordan
Rangitikei Edward Newman William Glenn 635 F P Brady[13]
Riccarton George Witty 626 William Russell Devereux[14]
Roskill New electorate Vivian Potter 1,854 James Gunson
Rotorua New electorate Frank Hockly 1,733 Malcolm Larney[15]
Stratford John Hine Robert Masters 61 John Hine
Taranaki Sydney George Smith Sydney George Smith 1,023 Buckeridge
Tauranga William Herries 1,860 Benjamin Robbins[16]
Temuka Charles Talbot Thomas Burnett 31 Charles Talbot
Thames Thomas William Rhodes 1,590 W J McCormick
Timaru James Craigie James Craigie 1,519 Percy Vinnell
Waikato Alexander Young 2,893 P H Watts
Waimarino Robert William Smith 643 Frank Langstone
Waipawa George Hunter 274 Albert Jull
Wairarapa J. T. Marryat Hornsby Alexander McLeod 540 J. T. Marryat Hornsby
Wairau Richard McCallum 796 B J Cooke
Waitaki John Anstey John Bitchener 472 John Anstey
Waitemata Alexander Harris 1,419 Arthur Edwin Greenslade[17]
Waitomo New electorate William Jennings 377 K C Wilson
Wakatipu William Fraser James Horn 801 Robert Scott
Wallace John Charles Thomson Adam Hamilton 43 John Charles Thomson
Wanganui Bill Veitch 1,703 W J Cuttle
Wellington Central Peter Fraser 1,056 Frederick Pirani[8]
Wellington East Alfred Newman 1,058 Alec Monteith
Wellington North John Luke 1,065 H. Oakley Browne
Wellington South Bob Semple George Mitchell 1,426 Bob Semple
Wellington Suburbs Robert Wright 1,127 Alexander Croskery
Westland Tom Seddon 1,497 James O'Brien
Māori electorates
Eastern Maori Āpirana Ngata Uncontested
Northern Maori Taurekareka Henare 1,629 Nau Parone Kawiti
Southern Maori Hopere Uru 207 Riki te Mairaki Taiaroa
Western Maori Māui Pōmare 1,424 Ngarangi Katitia

By-elections during 20th ParliamentEdit

There were a number of changes during the term of the 20th Parliament.

Electorate and by-election Date Incumbent Cause Winner
Bruce 1920 14 April James Allen Resignation John Edie
Stratford 1920 6 May Robert Masters Election declared void Robert Masters
Bay of Plenty 1920 30 September William MacDonald Death Kenneth Williams
Patea 1921 13 April Walter Powdrell Death Edwin Dixon
Auckland East 1921 2 November Arthur Myers Resignation Clutha Mackenzie
Southern Maori 1922 25 January Hopere Uru Death Henare Uru
Dunedin North 1922 21 June Edward Kellett Death James Munro


  1. ^ a b "General elections 1853–2005 - dates & turnout". Elections New Zealand. Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  2. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 90.
  3. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 69.
  4. ^ Scholefield 1950, p. 44.
  5. ^ a b Gustafson, Barry. "Massey, William Ferguson - Biography". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 10 December 2011.
  6. ^ Scholefield 1950, pp. 44–45.
  7. ^ Hislop, J. (1921). The General Election, 1919. National Library. pp. 1–6. Retrieved 6 December 2014.
  8. ^ a b c d Gustafson 1980, p. 181.
  9. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 155.
  10. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received". Hawke's Bay Tribune. IX (303). 9 December 1919. p. 6. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  11. ^ "Napier". Hawera & Normanby Star. LXXIV. 7 November 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 16 October 2015.
  12. ^ Brown, Colin. "Moses Ayrton". Dictionary of New Zealand Biography. Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 28 December 2013.
  13. ^ Gustafson 1980, p. 154.
  14. ^ "Notice of Nominations Received". The Press. LV (16702). 10 December 1919. p. 12. Retrieved 20 December 2014.
  15. ^ "Rotorua Seat". Auckland Star. L (282). 27 November 1919. p. 11. Retrieved 12 December 2014.
  16. ^ "Liberal Selection for Tauranga". Wairarapa Daily Times. 45 (13977). 11 November 1919. p. 5. Retrieved 7 December 2014.
  17. ^ "Waitemata Parliamentary Election". Observer. XL (14). 6 December 1919. p. 12. Retrieved 5 December 2014.


  • Gustafson, Barry (1980). Labour's path to political independence: The Origins and Establishment of the New Zealand Labour Party, 1900–19. Auckland, New Zealand: Auckland University Press. ISBN 0-19-647986-X.
  • McRobie, Alan (1989). Electoral Atlas of New Zealand. Wellington: GP Books. ISBN 0-477-01384-8.
  • Scholefield, Guy (1950) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1949 (3rd ed.). Wellington: Govt. Printer.
  • Wilson, James Oakley (1985) [First published in 1913]. New Zealand Parliamentary Record, 1840–1984 (4th ed.). Wellington: V.R. Ward, Govt. Printer. OCLC 154283103.