2022 Pacific hurricane season

The 2022 Pacific hurricane season was a fairly active Pacific hurricane season, with nineteen named storms (including two that crossed over from the Atlantic), ten hurricanes, and four major hurricanes forming. The season officially began on May 15 in the Eastern Pacific, and on June 1 in the Central Pacific; both ended on November 30. These dates historically describe the period each year when most tropical cyclogenesis occurs in these regions of the Pacific and are adopted by convention.[1]

2022 Pacific hurricane season
2022 Pacific hurricane season summary map.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMay 28, 2022
Last system dissipatedOctober 24, 2022
Strongest storm
NameOrlene[nb 1]
 • Maximum winds130 mph (215 km/h)
(1-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure949 mbar (hPa; 28.02 inHg)
Seasonal statistics
Total depressions19
Total storms19
Hurricanes10
Major hurricanes
(Cat. 3+)
4
Total fatalities26 total
Total damage> $54.2 million (2022 USD)
Related articles
Pacific hurricane seasons
2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024

The first named storm of the season, Hurricane Agatha, formed on May 28, and made landfall two days later at Category 2 strength on the Saffir–Simpson scale, making it the strongest hurricane on record to make landfall during the month of May in the Eastern Pacific basin. In June, Hurricane Blas and Tropical Storm Celia caused heavy rainfall over southwestern Mexico despite remaining offshore. The season's first major hurricane, Hurricane Bonnie, entered into the basin from the Atlantic on July 2, after crossing Nicaragua as a tropical storm, becoming the first storm to survive the crossover from the Atlantic to the Pacific since Hurricane Otto in 2016. In September, tropical storms Javier, Lester, and Madeline all caused flooding across the Pacific coast of Mexico, though none left severe damage. Hurricane Kay also formed that month, and struck the Baja California Peninsula before bringing gale-force winds to the west coast of the continental United States, becoming the first Pacific hurricane to do so since Hurricane Nora 25 years earlier. In early October, Hurricane Orlene became the most intense storm of the season before weakening and making landfall in Sinaloa as a Category 1 hurricane, resulting in heavy rainfall and flooding. Also, Hurricane Julia became the second storm of the season to cross over from the Atlantic basin intact, and made landfall in El Salvador soon thereafter. In late October, Hurricane Roslyn became the fourth major hurricane of the season and was the strongest landfalling Pacific hurricane since Hurricane Patricia in 2015. Altogether, six named storms made landfall during the season.

Seasonal forecastsEdit

Record Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
Average (1991–2020): 15 8 4 [2]
Record high activity: 1992: 27 2015: 16 2015: 11 [3]
Record low activity: 2010: 8 2010: 3 2003: 0 [3]
Date Source Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
May 17, 2022 SMN 14–19 6–9 2–4 [4]
May 24, 2022 NOAA 10–17 4–8 0–3 [5]
Area Named
storms
Hurricanes Major
hurricanes
Ref
Actual activity: EPAC 19 10 4
Actual activity: CPAC 0 0 0
Actual activity: 19 10 4

Forecasts include weekly and monthly changes in important factors that help determine the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a particular year. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the average hurricane season in the Eastern and Central Pacific between 1991 and 2020 contained approximately 15 tropical storms, 8 hurricanes, and 4 major hurricanes. The NOAA generally classifies a season as above average, average, or below average based on the cumulative ACE index, but occasionally the number of tropical storms, hurricanes, and major hurricanes within a hurricane season is also considered. Factors they expected to reduce activity were near- or below-average sea surface temperatures across the eastern Pacific and the El Niño–Southern Oscillation remaining in the neutral phase, with the possibility of a La Niña developing, corresponding to a low chance of an El Niño.

On May 17, 2022, the Servicio Meteorológico Nacional (SMN) issued its forecast for the season, predicting a total of 14–19 named storms, 6–9 hurricanes, and 2–4 major hurricanes to develop.[4] On May 24, 2022, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) issued their outlook, calling for a below-normal season with 10–17 named storms, 4–8 hurricanes, 0–3 major hurricanes, and an accumulated cyclone energy index of 45% to 100% of the median.[5]

Seasonal summaryEdit

Hurricane Roslyn (2022)Hurricane Julia (2022)Hurricane Orlene (2022)Hurricane Kay (2022)Hurricane Bonnie (2022)Hurricane Blas (2022)Hurricane AgathaSaffir–Simpson scale
 
Left to right: Tropical Storm Georgette and Tropical Storm Frank on July 28

The season began with the formation of Hurricane Agatha on May 28, which rapidly intensified to a high-end Category 2 hurricane before making landfall along the coast of southwestern Mexico two days later. This marked the strongest Pacific hurricane to make landfall during the month of May since records began in 1949.[6] Activity continued into June with the formation of Hurricane Blas, which caused four deaths while offshore of southwestern Mexico, and Tropical Storm Celia, which meandered across the basin for twelve days in late June. Four days after Celia dissipated, Tropical Storm Bonnie became the first to survive the crossover from the Atlantic to the Pacific since Hurricane Otto in 2016.[7] It also became the season's first major hurricane.[8] The same day Bonnie dissipated, the depression that would become Hurricane Darby formed. The storm rapidly intensified into the strongest storm of the season so far late on July 11, and later crossed into the Central Pacific on July 14. The following day, Hurricane Estelle formed and paralleled the coast of Mexico for most of its six-day existence. After a brief period without any active tropical cyclones, July activity continued with the formations of Hurricane Frank and Tropical Storm Georgette. The busy pace continued into August with the formation of Hurricane Howard on August 7 and Tropical Storm Ivette eight days later.

Six systems developed during September, the peak of the season. Tropical Storm Javier and then Hurricane Kay both formed off the coast of southwestern Mexico during the first week of the month and paralleled the coast offshore. Kay, the longer-lived and stronger of the two, became the first tropical cyclone to extend its effects northward into Southern California since Nora in 1997.[9] Activity continued well into September with the formations of tropical storms Lester and Madeline, which caused flooding and a combined 4 fatalities in Mexico, after Lester made landfall there and Madeline passed closely offshore. Madeline's dissipation was closely followed by the formation of Tropical Storm Newton and then Hurricane Orlene to close out the month. A Category 4 hurricane, Orlene became the most intense storm of the season, attaining a minimum pressure of 949 mbar (28.02 inHg), before ultimately making landfall in southern Sinaloa at Category 1 strength.

October began with Tropical Storm Paine, a weak and short-lived system that remained away from land. Shortly thereafter, Hurricane Julia became the second storm of the season to cross over into the Pacific basin intact from the Atlantic. Not since 1996 has more than one storm crossed between the Atlantic and Pacific basins intact during a single season.[10] Later in the month, Hurricane Roslyn paralleled the coast of Western Mexico before making landfall in Nayarit with 120 mph (195 km/h) winds. It was the strongest hurricane to make landfall in the eastern Pacific since Hurricane Patricia in 2015, which struck about 175 mi (280 km) south of where Roslyn did.[11]

The accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) index for the 2022 Pacific hurricane season as of November 29, as calculated by Colorado State University using data from the NHC, is approximately 122.4 units.[12] Broadly speaking, ACE is a measure of the power of a tropical or subtropical storm multiplied by the length of time it existed. An ACE number represents sum of the squares of the maximum sustained wind speed (knots) for all named storms while they are at least tropical storm intensity, divided by 10,000. Therefore, tropical depressions are not included.

SystemsEdit

Hurricane AgathaEdit

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationMay 28 – May 31
Peak intensity110 mph (175 km/h) (1-min) 964 mbar (hPa)

During May 22, The National Hurricane Center (NHC) noted the possible development of a low-pressure area located several miles offshore the southwestern coast of Mexico.[13] Taking a westward track, a broad area of low pressure developed with producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms at around 06:00 UTC on May 24.[14] By May 28, the system had become sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression, becoming the first system of this season.[15] At 09:00 UTC on the same day, the storm strengthened into a tropical storm and was given the name Agatha,[16] as its convection had organized significantly along with it having developed a small central dense overcast.[17] Agatha continued to organize based on satellite imagery, with curved bands forming.[18] Later, a burst of convection formed near the center,[19] and microwave imagery revealed that Agatha had improved its convective structure and better aligned its low-level circulation.[20] The NHC assessed the system to have strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane on the Saffir–Simpson scale by 12:00 UTC on May 29.[21] Agatha soon began to rapidly intensify due to stalling over an area of warm water near 86 °F (30 °C) with little vertical wind shear;[22] nine hours later, the system was assessed to have become a high end Category 2 hurricane, with winds of 110 mph (175 km/h) and a minimum central pressure of 964 mbar (28.5 inHg).[23] As the system approached the coast of Mexico, the satellite indicated that the storm displayed eye convection and remained quite symmetrical around the center of the hurricane.[24] At 21:00 UTC on May 30, the cyclone made landfall near Puerto Ángel, Oaxaca.[25] Agatha's sustained winds fell to Category 1 strength about three hours later, when it was located about 15 mi (25 km) north-northeast of Puerto Ángel.[26] As the system moved over the mountainous terrain of Oaxaca on May 31, it deteriorated quickly, weakening into a tropical storm by 03:00 UTC,[27] and into a tropical depression by 12:00 UTC.[28] Agatha's low-level center dissipated later that same day.[29]

Heavy rain brought by the storm triggered landslides and flash flooding in many parts of Oaxaca. Agatha killed nine people, all in the Sierra Madre del Sur, with six others missing.[30]

Hurricane BlasEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJune 14 – June 19
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 978 mbar (hPa)

On June 7, The NHC first forecast the formation of an area of low pressure just to the south of Gulf of Tehuantepec and noted its potential for possible tropical development.[31] Four days later, a low-pressure area formed, and its shower activity showed signs of increased organization.[32] Early on June 14, the low quickly became organized around a well-defined circulation, thereupon becoming Tropical Storm Blas while its center was located about 290 mi (465 km) southwest of Acapulco, Guerrero.[33] That afternoon, satellite imagery revealed that a convective core had developed.[34] Blas retained a well-defined structure with banding features,[35] as a circular central dense overcast became embedded on the system.[36] Blas continued to rapidly strengthen as it developed an inner core, and the storm became a Category 1 system at 15:00 UTC on June 15.[37] Blas then continued to improve its structure, developing a mid-level eye on the western portions of the cyclone.[38] An upper-level outflow and cold cloud tops caused the cyclone to maintain its intensity;[39] however, central deep convection only occurred in Blas' southern semicircle.[40] Blas strengthened further on June 17, reaching its peak intensity with maximum 1-min sustained winds increasing to near 85 mph (150 km/h).[41] Later in the day however, conditions turned unfavorable and the system began to deteriorate. Its mid-level center became sheared off to the southwest, with no deep convection near the surface center, and by 03:00 UTC on June 18, Blas had weakened to a tropical storm.[42] Blas transitioned into a post-tropical cyclone at 18:00 UTC on June 19, while about 310 mi (500 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[33]

The high winds and heavy rains caused landslides, loosening of hills, overflowing of streams and floods in several Mexican states, especially Michoacán and Guerrero.[43] Blas caused four deaths, two in Guerrero and two in Puebla.[43] Overall damage was relatively minimal.[44]

Tropical Storm CeliaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJune 16 – June 28
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 997 mbar (hPa)

On June 11, The NHC began to forecast that an area of low pressure would form during the next few days south or southwest off the coast of Central America.[45] A trough of low pressure formed a couple of hundred miles southwest of the coast of Nicaragua two days later.[46] The structure of the low became better organized on organized on June 16, which resulted in the formation of a tropical depression at 18:00 UTC that day, about 195 mi (315 km) south of Los Cobanos, El Salvador. The system strengthened into Tropical Storm Celia six hours later.[47] Afterward, the storm's overall satellite presentation began to degrade, with its deepest convection becoming displaced far to the northwest of the exposed low-level circulation,[48] and by 00:00 UTC on June 18, the storm weakened to a tropical depression.[47] The depression was adversely affected by strong upper-level winds, which resulted moderate wind shear as it moved west-southwestward over the following few days due to the steering flow of a mid-level ridge to its north.[49][50] Deep convection increased on June 21, and Celia re-strengthened into a tropical storm.[51] The storm intensified slightly the following day as it moved west-northwestward at 10 mph (15 km/h), while being steered by a strong mid-level ridge centered over the south-central United States.[52] The deep-layer shear that had for days impeded Celia's development into a stronger storm diminished considerably on June 24,[53] and the storm intensified, attaining sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) with a minimum barometric pressure of 993 mbar (29.32 inHg) later that day.[54] On June 25, Celia passed to the south of Socorro Island and moved into cooler waters.[55] Although it began to weaken, the system rebounded unexpectedly late on June 26, as a mid-level eye developed and winds rose to 60 mph (95 km/h).[56] This re-intensification was brief however, and by early the next day, Celia was only producing small bursts of convection on the western and southern portions of its circulation.[57] At 09:00 UTC on June 28, Celia weakened into a tropical depression,[58] and degenerated into a remnant low 12 hours later.[59]

While stalled off the coast of Central America, Celia interacted with a nearby low-pressure system which brought heavy rainfall to western Guatemala, affecting over 28,000 people.[60] One death has been attributed to Celia. It occurred in Oaxaca, where a man drowned.[61]

Hurricane BonnieEdit

Category 3 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 2 (Entered basin) – July 9
Peak intensity115 mph (185 km/h) (1-min) 964 mbar (hPa)

At around 15:00 UTC on July 2, Tropical Storm Bonnie emerged into the Eastern Pacific from the Atlantic basin after crossing Nicaragua.[62] Bonnie steadily reorganized as it moved westward away from the coast. Satellite images from later on July 2, revealed the storm to have a deep convective curved band with −117 °F (−83 °C) cloud tops enveloping its west side.[63] This strengthening trend continued, and by the end of the next day, the primary band had become wrapped completely around the center and an inner core was developing.[64] At 03:00 UTC on July 4, Bonnie became a hurricane while located about 210 mi (340 km) south of Salina Cruz, Oaxaca,[65] and attained Category 2 strength later that same day.[66] By early on July 5, Bonnie's inner core structure had become well-developed with a 10 mi-wide (20 km) eye.[67] As a result, the hurricane was able to reach Category 3 strength by 15:00 UTC that day.[68] Beginning several hours afterward and continuing into July 6, Bonnie's cloud pattern deteriorated and the central convection became less organized due to moderate north-northeasterly shear, causing it to weaken to Category 2 strength.[69][70] The system maintained wind speeds of around 105 mph (165 km/h) for much of that day as it moved west-northwestward away from the Mexican coast,[71] before weakening to Category 1 strength with winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) on July 7.[72] Bonnie's intensity continued to decrease the following day as it moved into cooler waters with sea surface temperatures of 75–77 °F (24–25 °C),[73] where it weakened to a tropical storm about 825 mi (1,330 km) west-southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[74] Then, on July 9, Bonnie degenerated into a post-tropical low as all deep convection within ceased.[75]

Hurricane DarbyEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 9 – July 17
Peak intensity140 mph (220 km/h) (1-min) 954 mbar (hPa)

On July 5, the NHC began forecasting that an area of low pressure would develop well south of the southern coast of Mexico within a few days.[76] Late that same day, a disturbance formed south of the coast of Central America,[77] associated with a tropical wave.[78] Thunderstorm activity associated with the tropical wave and a broad area of low pressure became better organized on July 8[79] and into July 9, with a well-defined curved band to the north and west visible on satellite imagery, along with a burgeoning central dense overcast forming near the center, and indications that the disturbance had likely developed a closed circulation.[80] Therefore, at 21:00 UTC, advisories were initiated on Tropical Storm Darby.[81] The next day, the storm became better organized, with increased banding over the eastern part of its circulation along with a better developed low-level inner core structure.[82] Darby strengthened into a Category 1 hurricane at 03:00 UTC on July 11, while located about 905 mi (1,455 km) southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[83] This strengthening trend continued, and Darby rapidly intensified, reaching Category 2 strength by 10:00 UTC,[84] and becoming a Category 3 major hurricane by 13:15 UTC that same day,[85] as a clear eye surrounded by a thick ring of −85 to −103 °F (−65 to −75 °C) cloud top temperatures developed and sustained winds increased to 125 mph (205 km/h).[86] Then, eight hours later, it reached Category 4 strength.[87] While maintaining winds of 140 mph (220 km/h) on July 11, the system gained annular characteristics.[88] The following day however, there was some erosion in the inner-core convective structure with the eye in particular becoming less distinct. As a result, Darby weakened to Category 3 strength by 15:00 UTC.[89] Further weakening occurred later that day, and Darby dropped to Category 2 strength by 03:00 UTC on July 13.[90] The Hurricane's eye unexpectedly reappeared later that morning,[91] and it again reached Category 3 strength at 03:00 UTC on July 14.[92] This re-strengthening was short lived however, as Darby weakened back to Category 2 strength six hours later as it approached and entered the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility.[93][94] Darby's strength continued to wane into July 15, as the system weakened to Category 1 strength and then to tropical storm status due to moderate west-southwesterly wind shear and cooler sea surface temperatures.[95][96] Further weakening took place on July 16, while Darby was passing south of the Big Island of Hawaii, as its convection became poorly organized and sporadic near the center.[97] At 03:00 UTC on July 17, Darby lost its tropical characteristics when it opened up into a trough.[98]

At the time of Darby's passage south of Hawaii, a series of large waves from a strong south swell, some higher than 20 ft (6.1 m), hit the islands and were initially attributed to Darby. Even so, Darby had no major impact on the surf as it passed, according to Chris Brenchley of the National Weather Service office in Honolulu.[99][100]

Hurricane EstelleEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 15 – July 21
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 985 mbar (hPa)

On July 7, the NHC began monitoring the southeastern Pacific south of the coast of Central America, where a low pressure area was expected to form within a few days.[101] The anticipated disturbance formed on July 11, far south of the coasts of Guatemala and El Salvador, producing some disorganized showers.[102] By July 15, the disturbance had become sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression by the NHC.[103] By 03:00 UTC on July 16, the depression had strengthened, with a well defined low-level structure and a tight band of persistent deep convection near the center, and was upgraded to Tropical Storm Estelle.[104] Then, after being hindered by northeasterly shear later that same day,[105] intense convection was able to wrapped completely around the center and Estelle rapidly intensified into a hurricane by 03:00 UTC on July 17.[106] Twelve hours later, the sustained winds near the system's center were at 85 mph (135 km/h).[107] It became weaker, however, as the day went on, apparently due to the inflow of dry air into its core and the effects of wind shear, and its winds fell to 80 mph (130 km/h) by day's end.[108] The gradual weakening continued, and at 09:00 UTC on July 19, Estelle was downgraded to a tropical storm[109] when its center was located just north of Clarion Island.[110] Estelle's upper-level cloud shield became more symmetric later that day, due to reduced wind shear and increased convection that had wrapped around the storm's northern region.[111] By 15:00 UTC on July 21, however, the storm had weakened to a tropical depression as it moved west-northwestward over the open ocean.[112] Later that day the system became a remnant low.[113]

Though Estelle remained well off shore, heavy rains were reported in coastal areas of Baja California Sur, Jalisco, Nayarit and Sinaloa, causing localized flooding and landslides. This was later determined by the National Hurricane Center to have not been from Estelle saying, “there were no reports of damage or casualties associated with Estelle.”[114]

Hurricane FrankEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 26 – August 2
Peak intensity90 mph (150 km/h) (1-min) 976 mbar (hPa)

On July 21, the NHC began forecasting that an area of low pressure would develop off the southern coasts of El Salvador and Guatemala within a few days.[115] An area of low pressure, associated with a tropical wave, developed two days later, producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms.[116] At 09:00 UTC on July 26, after deep convection developed at the center of the disturbance and become better organized, it was designated as a tropical depression.[117] Six hours later, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Frank while located about 525 mi (845 km) south-southeast of Manzanillo, Colima.[118] Convection near the storm's center struggled to organize due to northeasterly wind shear as the storm moved westward.[119] The shear persisted through early on July 28.[120] Once the shear diminished sufficiently, the storm was able to strengthen, with deep convection becoming more symmetric around the center and banding features becoming well established by late the next day. Frank consequently intensified into a hurricane by 03:00 UTC on July 30.[121] The system moved to the northwest during the day and maintained sustained winds of 90 mph (150 km/h) for several hours, before encountering decreasing sea surface temperatures by day's end.[122] It then began to weaken as a result, and fell to tropical storm strength early on August 1.[123] Later, it ceased producing organized deep convection and degenerated into a post-tropical cyclone during the following day.[124][125]

Tropical Storm GeorgetteEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationJuly 27 – August 3
Peak intensity60 mph (95 km/h) (1-min) 998 mbar (hPa)

On July 25, the NHC began monitoring an area of low pressure located southwest of the coast of southwestern Mexico for possible tropical development.[126] The disturbance continued to become better organized and was designated as a tropical depression at 09:00 UTC on July 27.[127] Six hours later, the depression strengthened into a compact Tropical Storm Georgette.[128] The system remained relatively unchanged in strength during the next couple of days, though by early on July 29, its cloud pattern had become more symmetric with a well-developed rain band in the north part of the storm, and its sustained winds reached 60 mph (95 km/h).[129] Then, moving slowly westward, the storm waned over the next couple days, due in part to strong easterly shear generated by the outflow from the circulation of Hurricane Frank, and weakened to a tropical depression on the afternoon of July 31.[130] Further weakening occurred on August 1–2, as the depression made a northeastward turn, steered by Frank.[131] Then, during the afternoon of August 3, Georgette degenerated into a remnant low over the open ocean.[132]

Hurricane HowardEdit

Category 1 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 6 – August 11
Peak intensity85 mph (140 km/h) (1-min) 983 mbar (hPa)

On August 2, the NHC began monitoring a tropical wave producing widespread showers and thunderstorms over Central America and the adjacent waters in anticipation that an area of low pressure would form once it moved over the eastern Pacific.[133] The anticipated low developed two days later off the coasts of Guatemala and southern Mexico.[134] By August 6, the disturbance had become sufficiently organized to be classified as a tropical depression by the NHC.[135] Beset by dry air imported to the depression's center by moderate wind shear, the depression was unable to quickly intensify.[136] On the afternoon of August 7, the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Howard as convection began to build over the northern semicircle of the system, though the low-level circulation remained partially exposed to the south due to continuing wind shear.[137] The storm continued to organize into the following day, and became a Category 1 hurricane at 21:00 UTC on August 8, as an eye surrounded by deepening convective banding formed.[138] On August 9, Howard's sustained winds reached 85 mph (140 km/h) as it moved west-northwestward,[139] before weakening to a tropical storm at 03:00 UTC on August 10.[140] The remaining deep convection near Howard's center ceased by the middle of that same day, and the storm later degenerated into a post-tropical low.[141]

As Howard passed off the coast of Mexico, the port of Mazatlán was closed due to large waves.[142]

Tropical Storm IvetteEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 13 – August 16
Peak intensity40 mph (65 km/h) (1-min) 1005 mbar (hPa)

On August 7, the NHC began forecasting that an area of low pressure with a potential for tropical cyclogenesis would develop within a few days off the southwestern coast of Mexico.[143] The low developed late the next day, producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms.[144] It gradually become better defined, and on the afternoon of August 13, was classified as a tropical depression.[145] It tracked over warm ocean waters, but there was little improvement in its structure due to moderate to strong east-northeasterly shear,[146] until an unexpected burst of convection during the afternoon of August 15 resulted in the intensification of the depression into Tropical Storm Ivette.[147] But within a few hours however, that burst was shearing away to the west and Ivette soon weakened back to a tropical depression.[148] The system then degenerated into a remnant low on August 16.[149]

Tropical Storm JavierEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 1 – September 4
Peak intensity50 mph (85 km/h) (1-min) 999 mbar (hPa)

On August 29, the NHC noted that an area of disturbed weather had formed a few hundred miles south of Acapulco, Mexico.[150] The low gradually organized, developing a low-level circulation on August 31.[151] By 21:00 UTC on September 1, it had gained enough organization to be classified as a tropical depression, while situated off the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[152] Then, fueled by increasing deep convection over the depression's western region and near its center, the system strengthened into Tropical Storm Javier early the next day, though its circulation remained somewhat elongated.[153] Despite that, Javier intensified some, attaining sustained winds of 50 mph (85 km/h) on September 3.[154] Later that same day however, the storm crossed over cooler waters and began to weaken.[155] Javier became a post-tropical cyclone on September 4, while moving out to sea.[156]

Rainbands of Javier brought heavy rain and wind gusts to the southern Baja California peninsula as it passed offshore.[157]

Hurricane KayEdit

Category 2 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 4 – September 10
Peak intensity105 mph (165 km/h) (1-min) 967 mbar (hPa)

On August 30, the NHC noted that an area of disturbed weather had formed a few hundred miles south of Acapulco, Guerrero.[158] This disturbance became organized as a tropical depression on September 4,[159] and strengthened into Tropical Storm Kay later that same day.[160] The storm continued to intensify, and on the morning of September 5, became a Category 1 hurricane.[161] On the following day, the eye of the hurricane passed over Socorro Island with sustained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h).[162] Then, while moving north-northwestward early on September 7, Kay intensified into a Category 2 hurricane.[163] This intensification proved short-lived however, as the cloud tops surrounding Kay's eye warmed and its overall cloud pattern became less organized and somewhat elongated later that same day, resulting in the hurricane weakening to Category 1 strength.[164] Kay made landfall along the central Baja California peninsula coast with 75 mph (120 km/h) winds on September 8,[165] then weakened to a tropical storm, before moving back over the ocean.[166] The storm became a post-tropical cyclone about 145 mi (233 km) southwest of San Diego, California, overnight September 9–10, while slowly curving further offshore.[167]

As Kay paralleled the coast of southwestern Mexico its rainbands drenched coastal states from Oaxaca north to Nayarit with up to 5.5 in (140 mm) of rain.[168] In addition to flooding, the hurricane was also responsible for three deaths in Guerrero.[169] Before the storm hit, over 1,600 people evacuated to shelters according to Baja California Sur state officials.[170] Road and agricultural damage in Baja California Sur exceeded 72 million pesos (US$3.6 million).[171][172] Kay's outer bands also hit Southern California and southwest Arizona, bringing wind gusts of near 100 mph (160 km/h) to some areas, primarily in San Diego County, California. Rainfall totals varied across the region, with Mt. Laguna, in San Diego County, recording the highest amount at 5.08 in (129 mm). Flash flooding closed numerous roads in both states; in Imperial County, California, falling boulders impeded traffic along a stretch of I-8. The rainfall was beneficial to crews in Riverside County, California, battling the Fairview Fire, as it mitigated some of the threat posed by the high winds and dry conditions.[9][167][173]

Tropical Storm LesterEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 15 – September 17
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1002 mbar (hPa)

A trough of low pressure producing disorganized showers and thunderstorms extending from the Gulf of Tehuantepec westward to near the southern coast of Mexico formed on September 11.[174] The low remained disorganized near the southern coast of Mexico for the next few days before showing initial signs of organization early on September 15.[175] By 21:00 UTC that same day, the circulation around the center of the low had become better defined and a curved band of convection had formed over the western and southwestern areas of the circulation. In light of these developments the system was designated Tropical Depression Thirteen-E.[176] Surface wind speeds in portions of the circulation increased overnight, and therefore the depression was upgraded to Tropical Storm Lester at 09:00 UTC on September 16, even though it still had a sheared appearance.[177] The storm became somewhat better organized late that day, but this improvement proved fleeting, due in part to its close proximity to the coast.[178] Lester weakened to a tropical depression as it made landfall east of Acapulco[179] on the afternoon of September 17, and then rapidly dissipated inland.[180]

As the storm approached, ports in Guerrero were closed due to high waves of 13 ft.(4 m) in some areas. Also, nearly 600 emergency shelters were opened in preparation for evacuations due to imminent threat of rivers and streams overflowing.[181][182] Lester caused damage throughout much of Guerrero as its heavy rains caused flooding and mudslides. One person in Marquelia Municipality died when swept away by water currents.[183] The most severe damage occurred in Coyuca de Benítez, where over 700 houses were flooded. Additionally, towns in Acatepec, in the state's mountain region, were left isolated due a washed-out roadway.[184]

Tropical Storm MadelineEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 17 – September 20
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 992 mbar (hPa)

On September 12, the NHC began monitoring for potential development an small area of low pressure located off the coast of southwestern Mexico producing limited showers and thunderstorms.[185] After several days, the disturbance became sufficiently organized on September 17, to be classified as Tropical Storm Madeline.[186] After this, however, the storm strengthened very little though much of the next day due to deep-layer easterly shear.[187] When it diminished on September 18, Madeline's low-level center became embedded underneath the northeastern portion of an area of deep convection with cloud tops as cold as −85 °C (−120 °F).[187] As a result, the storm was able to attain maximum sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h) on September 19, when located about 175 mi (280 km) south-southeast of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[188] Later that same day, Madeline began to weaken, becoming first a tropical depression[189] and then a remnant low on September 20.[190]

At least three deaths were attributed to Madeline as it moved along the coast of southwest Mexico. Several coastal states were hit by heavy rains, strong winds and rough surf from the storm.[191]

Tropical Storm NewtonEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 21 – September 25
Peak intensity65 mph (100 km/h) (1-min) 996 mbar (hPa)

A small area of low pressure formed near the coast of southwestern Mexico on September 20.[192][193] Rain and thunderstorm activity within the disturbance quickly became better organized, resulting in the formation of Tropical Depression Fifteen-E at 21:00 UTC on September 21,[194] and then of Tropical Storm Newton less than four hours later.[195] As the storm moved west-northwestward on September 22, a tiny eye-like feature and new deep convection formed in the core, enabling it to generate sustained winds of 65 mph (100 km/h).[196] Later that day however, the convection at the storm's center collapsed suddenly,[197] and although it briefly recovered,[198] Newton began to weaken again the next morning as it passed near Socorro Island.[199] It became a tropical depression on September 24,[200] then degenerated into a remnant low one day later.[201] For several days afterward, through September 29, the NHC continued monitoring Newton's remnants for possible regeneration, and its associated shower activity briefly become slightly better organized on September 28, before being stymied by increasingly unfavorable conditions.[202][203]

Hurricane OrleneEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationSeptember 29 – October 4
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 949 mbar (hPa)

On September 26, the NHC noted that a low pressure area had formed south of the southwestern Mexico coast within an environment conducive for gradual tropical development.[202] Shower and thunderstorm activity associated with this low increased the following day,[204] and it steadily gained organization on September 28; the system developed a well-defined center late that day, becoming a tropical depression.[205] Further development occurred overnight and the system intensified into Tropical Storm Orlene at 09:00 UTC on September 29, while located about 295 mi (475 km) south of Manzanillo, Colima.[206] The next day, as the storm moved northward along the edge of a ridge over central Mexico, it generated a few bursts of deep convection and developed a small inner core with a curved band to the south.[207] Orlene intensified into a Category 1 hurricane at 15:00 UTC on October 1,[208] and to Category 2 strength about eight hours later.[209] Orlene continued to rapidly intensify until it peaked with Category 4 strength at 09:00 UTC on October 2, its maximum sustained winds having increased from 65 mph (100 km/h) to 130 mph (215 km/h) in 24 hours. Wind shear from the southwest began to adversely affect the system soon thereafter, weakening it to a Category 3 hurricane six hours later,[210] and then to Category 2 that night as it passed over the Islas Marías.[211] Later, at 14:45 UTC on October 3, Orlene made landfall in Escuinapa Municipality, Sinaloa, as a Category 1 hurricane with winds of 85 mph (140 km/h).[212] The system rapidly weakened inland, becoming a tropical depression by 21:00 UTC that same day,[213] and then dissipating over the Sierra Madre mountains several hours after that.[214]

Orlene brought heavy rain to several states in Western Mexico, which resulted in widespread flooding and several mudslides in Sinaloa and Nayarit, but there were no casualties reported as the storm moved through.[213] Damage in San Blas, Nayarit was over 12 million pesos (US$600,000).[215]

Tropical Storm PaineEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 3 – October 5
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1004 mbar (hPa)

On September 30, the NHC began monitoring a newly formed area of disturbed weather some 600 mi (970 km) south-southwest of the southern tip of the Baja California peninsula.[216] Shower and thunderstorm activity within the disturbance increased and began showing signs of becoming organized on October 1,[217] and satellite imagery the following day indicated that its surface circulation had become better defined.[218] These trends continued, resulting in the formation of Tropical Storm Paine on October 3.[219] There was an increase in banding around the western and southern portions of the storm's circulation into the following day, and it strengthened to an intensity of 45 mph (75 km/h).[220] This was fleeting however, and by the time the storm passed near Clarion Island early on October 5, it was devoid of deep convection.[221] Later that same day, Paine degenerated into a remnant low.[222]

Tropical Storm JuliaEdit

Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 9 (Entered basin) – October 10
Peak intensity45 mph (75 km/h) (1-min) 1000 mbar (hPa)

At 21:00 UTC on October 9, Tropical Storm Julia left the Atlantic basin and was designated as an East Pacific system about 45 mi (70 km) west-northwest of Managua, Nicaragua,[223] and its center emerged off shore a few hours later.[224] The system moved to the west and then to the west-northwest parallel to and very near the coasts of Nicaragua and El Salvador with maximum sustained winds of 40 mph (65 km/h). It maintained a band of deep convection over the southern and eastern portions of its circulation, the areas not still interacting with the mountainous terrain inland.[225] At about 12:00 UTC on October 10, the center of the storm crossed the coast of El Salvador, about 35 mi (56 km) west of San Salvador, and then weakened to a tropical depression, with the whole of its circulation becoming stretched.[226] Later that same day, Julia degenerated into an open trough overland.[227]

While an Atlantic hurricane and then tropical storm, Julia's heavy rains caused widespread life-threatening flash floods and deadly mudslides throughout Central America; several storm related fatalities were reported across the region. Torrential rain continued to fall in northwestern Central America as Julia moved inland from the Pacific.[228]

Hurricane RoslynEdit

Category 4 hurricane (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 20 – October 24
Peak intensity130 mph (215 km/h) (1-min) 950 mbar (hPa)

On October 16, the NHC began monitoring an area of disturbed weather south of the southern coast of Mexico.[229] Thunderstorm activity increased and became better organized within the disturbance over the next few days, and the low's circulation become increasingly better defined as well.[230] This trend continued, and early on October 20, it developed into Tropical Depression Nineteen-E. Soon thereafter, the depression strengthened into Tropical Storm Roslyn.[231] Roslyn became a hurricane at 03:00 UTC, on October 22, and, within 12 hours rapidly intensified to a Category 4 hurricane with sustained winds of 130 mph (215 km/h).[232] Roslyn quickly lost intensity after hitting Mexico.

The rains and winds associated with Roslyn left at least four people dead in the state of Nayarit.[233][234]

Storm namesEdit

The following names were used for named storms that formed in the northeastern Pacific Ocean during 2022.[235] Retired names, if any, will be announced by the World Meteorological Organization during the joint 45th Sessions of the RA IV Hurricane Committee in the spring of 2023. The names not retired from this list will be used again in the 2028 season. This is the same list used in the 2016 season.

  • Agatha
  • Blas
  • Celia
  • Darby
  • Estelle
  • Frank
  • Georgette
  • Howard
  • Roslyn
  • Seymour (unused)
  • Tina (unused)
  • Virgil (unused)
  • Winifred (unused)
  • Xavier (unused)
  • Yolanda (unused)
  • Zeke (unused)
  • Additionally, Bonnie and Julia entered the northeastern Pacific basin from the Atlantic basin after crossing over Central America as tropical cyclones. As the systems crossed between basins intact, they retained their Atlantic-list names.[7]

For storms that form in the Central Pacific Hurricane Center's area of responsibility, encompassing the area between 140 degrees west and the International Date Line, four rotating lists of Hawaiian names are used one after the other without regard to year. The next four names that were scheduled for use in 2022 are shown below. However, none of them were used.

  • Hone (unused)
  • Iona (unused)
  • Keli (unused)
  • Lala (unused)

Season effectsEdit

This is a table of all the storms and that have formed in the 2022 Pacific hurricane season. It includes their duration, names, landfall(s), denoted in parentheses, damages, and death totals. Deaths in parentheses are additional and indirect (an example of an indirect death would be a traffic accident), but were still related to that storm. Damage and deaths include totals while the storm was extratropical, a tropical wave, or a low, and all the damage figures are in 2022 USD.

Saffir–Simpson scale
TD TS C1 C2 C3 C4 C5
2022 Pacific hurricane season season statistics
Storm
name
Dates active Storm category
at peak intensity
Max 1-min
wind
mph (km/h)
Min.
press.
(mbar)
Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Ref(s)
Agatha May 28–31 Category 2 hurricane 110 (175) 964 Southern Mexico $50 million 9 [30][236]
Blas June 14–19 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 978 Southwestern Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands Minimal 4 [43]
Celia June 16–28 Tropical storm 60 (95) 997 El Salvador, Guatemala, Southern Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands Minimal 1 [61]
Bonnie July 2–9 Category 3 hurricane 115 (185) 964 Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Guatemala, El Salvador, Southwestern Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands (after crossover) Unknown 1
Darby July 9–17 Category 4 hurricane 140 (220) 954 Hawaii None None
Estelle July 15–21 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 985 Revillagigedo Islands None None [237]
Frank July 26 – August 2 Category 1 hurricane 90 (150) 976 None None None
Georgette July 27 – August 3 Tropical storm 60 (95) 998 None None None [238]
Howard August 6–11 Category 1 hurricane 85 (140) 983 Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Peninsula Unknown None
Ivette August 13–16 Tropical storm 40 (65) 1005 Revillagigedo Islands None None
Javier September 1–4 Tropical storm 50 (85) 999 Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California Sur Unknown None
Kay September 4–10 Category 2 hurricane 105 (165) 967 Southwestern Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands, Baja California peninsula, Southern California, Arizona $3.6 million 3 [171][172]
Lester September 15–17 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1002 Southwestern Mexico Unknown 1 [183]
Madeline September 17–20 Tropical storm 65 (100) 992 Southwestern Mexico Unknown 3 [191]
Newton September 21–25 Tropical storm 65 (100) 996 Southwestern Mexico, Revillagigedo Islands None None
Orlene September 29 – October 4 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 949 Islas Marías, Western Mexico $600,000 None [215]
Paine October 3–5 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1004 Revillagigedo Islands None None
Julia October 9–10 Tropical storm 45 (75) 1000 Nicaragua, El Salvador, Guatemala (after crossover) None None
Roslyn October 20–24 Category 4 hurricane 130 (215) 950 Western Mexico Unknown 4 [233]
Season aggregates
19 systems May 28 – Season ongoing   140 (220) 949 $54.2 million 26  

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. ^ The "strength" of a tropical cyclone is measured by the minimum barometric pressure, not wind speed. Most meteorological organizations rate the intensity of a storm by this figure, so the lower the minimum pressure of the storm, the more intense or "stronger" it is considered to be. The strongest winds were actually from Darby, at 140 mph (220 km/h).

ReferencesEdit

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