2022 North Indian Ocean cyclone season

The 2022 North Indian Ocean cyclone season is an ongoing event in the annual cycle of tropical cyclone formation. The North Indian Ocean cyclone season has no official bounds, but cyclones tend to form between April and December, with the peak from May to November. These dates conventionally delimit the period of each year when most tropical cyclones form in the northern Indian Ocean.

2022 North Indian Ocean cyclone season
2022 North Indian Ocean cyclone season summary.png
Season summary map
Seasonal boundaries
First system formedMarch 3, 2022
Last system dissipatedSeason ongoing
Strongest storm
NameAsani
 • Maximum winds100 km/h (65 mph)
(3-minute sustained)
 • Lowest pressure982 hPa (mbar)
Seasonal statistics
Depressions12
Deep depressions5
Cyclonic storms2
Severe cyclonic storms1
Very severe cyclonic storms0
Extremely severe cyclonic storms0
Super cyclonic storms0
Total fatalities70
Total damageUnknown
Related articles
North Indian Ocean tropical cyclone seasons
2020, 2021, 2022, 2023, 2024

The scope of this article is limited to the Indian Ocean in the Northern Hemisphere, east of the Horn of Africa and west of the Malay Peninsula. There are two main seas in the North Indian Ocean — the Arabian Sea to the west of the Indian subcontinent, abbreviated ARB by the India Meteorological Department (IMD); and the Bay of Bengal to the east, abbreviated BOB by the IMD.

The official Regional Specialized Meteorological Centre in this basin is the India Meteorological Department (IMD), while the Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) releases unofficial advisories. On average, three to four cyclonic storms form in this basin every season.[1]

Season summaryEdit

Cyclone SitrangCyclone Asani

The season began with BOB 01 which formed on March 3 over the Bay of Bengal.[2] It peaked as a deep depression,[3] before weakening as a well-marked low-pressure area on March 6.[4] The system became the eighth system to form in March since reliable records began in 1891.[5] On March 20, another deep depression classified as BOB 02 formed in the Andaman Sea. BOB 02 made landfall in Myanmar before dissipating. After more than 1 month of inactivity, a low-pressure system formed off the coast of Andaman and Nicobar Islands on May 6. On the next day, JTWC classified it as Tropical Cyclone 02B, followed by IMD which recognized it as Depression BOB 03. The depression intensified into a cyclonic storm, named Asani, making it the first named storm in the season. Soon, Asani was upgraded to Category 1 cyclone by JTWC, and IMD upgraded to a severe cyclonic storm. Afterward, Asani began to weaken rapidly due to high wind shear. and made landfall in Andhra Pradesh as a deep depression. Later in May, BOB 04 quickly consolidated into a depression as it landed on the south Burmese coast. Activity ceased for approximately 2 months before Depression ARB 01 was designated and struggled against strong wind shear and dry air intrusions. In August, four systems were designated by the IMD. Land Depression 01 was short-lived and degenerated to a remnant low over Chhattisgarh. Depression ARB 02 formed a couple of days later and even though the IMD kept the system as a depression, the JTWC upgraded ARB 02 to Tropical Cyclone 3A. Having a tropical storm-force cyclone form in the Arabian Sea in August is rare, and the last system to become one was Cyclone Aurora (1983). Depression BOB 05 followed and the brown ocean effect aided the system to maintain depression status for a few more days. After BOB 05, Deep Depression BOB 06 was designated by the IMD after the JTWC unofficially upgraded it to Tropical Cyclone 04B due to attaining tropical storm-force winds. BOB 06 later made landfall in Digha, West Bengal and caused 32 deaths. In September, the IMD briefly designated Land Depression 02. In late October, the IMD monitored an area of low pressure, which was designated as BOB 07 and later became Cyclonic Storm Sitrang, officially the second named storm of the season. The cyclonic storm abruptly headed north-northeast and early on October 24, it made landfall in Patuakhali, Bangladesh. Sitrang is the first tropical cyclone to hit Bangladesh since Cyclone Mora in 2017, and caused 35 fatalities. After Sitrang, Depression BOB 08 formed and struggled to consolidate a well-defined center before causing minor impacts to parts of southern India.

SystemsEdit

Deep Depression BOB 01Edit

Deep depression (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationMarch 3 – March 6
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min) 1002 hPa (mbar)

Towards the end of February, a cyclonic circulation had formed over the Strait of Malacca and the adjoining Andaman Sea,[6] which later intensified into a low pressure area on midday (17:30 IST) of February 28, as the disturbance formed a low-level circulation, according to a INSAT-3D satellite imagery.[7][8] Early the next day, at 09:00 UTC (14:30 IST), the disturbance further intensified into a well-marked low pressure area, as it developed a defined cyclonic vortex,[9] and three-and-a-half-hour later, the United States-based Joint Typhoon Warning Center (JTWC) started monitoring the same disturbance as Invest 90B.[10] On March 3 of midnight (05:30 IST), the well-marked low organized to a depression and the India Meteorological Department (IMD) identified the system as BOB 01, making it the first system of the season.[2] This intensification was possible because of a favourable Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) phase, along with a feeble easterlies outflow. Sea surface temperature (SST) was also warm enough (27–28 °C (81–82 °F)) for cyclogenesis to take place, along with moderate to high vertical wind shear.[2] During the next day, the JTWC issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on the system.[11] The depression subsequently intensified into a deep depression,[3] and by 21:00 UTC (02:30 IST), the JTWC started initiating advisories for Tropical Cyclone 01B.[12] After maintaining its intensity for a day, the JTWC issued its last warning for the system, at 15:00 UTC (20:30 IST) as the increasing dry air had weakened its convective mass.[13] The IMD subsequently weakened back to a depression due to the same reason.[14] On March 6, the IMD issued its last advisory for the system and downgraded it to a well-marked low pressure area, as its convective mass got further disorganized by the wind shear.[4]

Deep Depression BOB 02Edit

Deep depression (IMD)
DurationMarch 20 – March 23
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min) 1000 hPa (mbar)

In mid-March, a low-pressure area formed in the southwest Bay of Bengal, offshore of Sri Lanka, which later intensified into a well marked low pressure area, and the JTWC started monitoring the disturbance as Invest 91B.[15][16][17] It meandered east-southeast for three days, and on March 20, the IMD reported that a depression formed over the Bay of Bengal, giving it the designation BOB 02.[18] On that day, the JTWC issued a TCFA for the system.[19] The system gradually intensified, into a deep depression by 00:00 UTC (05:30 IST) the next day,[20] as the convection had further organized favorable conditions such as moderate to high sea-surface temperatures.[20] On March 22, the JTWC cancelled the TCFA due to the land interaction in Myanmar until the landfall.[21][22] BOB 02 rapidly weakened overland, degenerating into a depression[23] and by 03:00 UTC (08:30 IST) the next day the system weakened into a well-marked low pressure area and IMD issued last advisory.[24]

Severe Cyclonic Storm AsaniEdit

Severe cyclonic storm (IMD)
Category 1 tropical cyclone (SSHWS)
DurationMay 7 – May 12
Peak intensity100 km/h (65 mph) (3-min) 982 hPa (mbar)

During the first week of May, a strong pulse of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) and Equatorial Rossby wave (ERW) prevailed in this basin. These two conditions led to a formation, of a cyclonic circulation, over the southern Andaman Sea on May 4. At the same time, a Westerly wind burst occurred on the same day which resulted in formation of twin cyclones over the either side of the Indian Ocean. The southern hemisphere counterpart being Tropical Cyclone Karim and the northern hemisphere counterpart being this cyclonic circulation.[25][26][27] The JTWC followed suit and designated it as Invest 92B on the next day.[28] On May 6, under the influence of the same disturbance, a low pressure system formed off the coast of Andaman and Nicobar Islands.[29] Subsequently, the JTWC issued its TCFA, as it had rapidly consolidated its convective structure for the past few hours, along with development of a well-defined low-level center.[30] By the morning of May 7, the system became more well-marked over the same region.[31] At 09:00 UTC (14:30 IST), the JTWC initiated advisories on the system and classified it as Tropical Cyclone 02B, while IMD followed the suit and upgraded it to Depression BOB 03.[32][33] Three hours later, the system was further upgraded to a deep depression status by the IMD, after forming a defined central dense overcast cloud pattern.[34] By 05:30 IST (00:00 UTC) of the next day, the system organized into Cyclonic Storm Asani, becoming the first cyclone of the season.[35] The name Asani was provided by Sri Lanka, which means wrath in Sinhala language.[36][37] Nine hours later, the JTWC upgraded it to a Category 1 status.[38] At 12:00 UTC (17:30 IST), the IMD further upgraded it to a severe cyclonic storm, as microwave imagery showed a well-organized system.[39] On May 10, the cyclone began to encounter high wind shear due to which the JTWC downgraded it as a tropical storm while the IMD continue to maintain it as a severe cyclonic storm.[40][41] it began to make a sudden westward jog and mild decrease in wind shear made the JTWC to upgrade it again into a Category 1-equivalent tropical cyclone.[42] Nine hours later, Asani was further downgraded into a tropical storm, it began to weaken rapidly due to higher wind shear as well as dry air intrusion.[43]

Depression BOB 04Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationMay 20 – May 21
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 996 hPa (mbar)

A fresh cyclonic circulation developed on early May 19, over the Gulf of Martaban, due to the enhancement of the annual South-West monsoon over the basin.[44][45] By the evening, under the influence of that circulation, a low pressure system spawned over the same region.[45] At 18:00 UTC (23:30 IST), the JTWC also acknowledged that same circulation at the night of the same day.[46] By 00:30 UTC (06:00 IST) the JTWC published its TCFA for the system after it had rapidly consolidated its convective structure for the past few hours, and also formed a well-defined low-level center.[47] But eight hours later, the JTWC, cancelled it because its close proximity over land.[48] However, according to IMD, it rapidly consolidated into a well-marked low pressure area in the morning of the same day, and further into a depression at 11:30 IST (03:00 UTC), as it moved northeastwards, towards the south Burmese coast.[45] Between 08:00 UTC (13:30 IST) and 09:00 UTC (14:30 IST), the system made landfall over the southern Burmese coast, 30 km (20 mi) from Mawlamyine.[49] Despite making landfall, the system maintained its depression status as it moved further into land, due to the embedded southwesterly monsoon to sustain the system and possibly a result of the brown ocean effect as well.[50][51] At 00:00 UTC (05:30 IST), the system started to lose steam and finally weakened into a well-marked low pressure area over the Burmese-Thailand border due to the system's interaction with the rough terrain.[52]

The system helped the monsoon to further advance into parts of southern Arabian Sea, southern parts of Maldives and parts of southern and east-central Bay of Bengal.[53]

Depression ARB 01Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationJuly 16 – July 18
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

On July 15, the JTWC started monitoring a disturbance west of Jafrabad, Gujarat, and it was unofficially designated as Invest 96A.[54] The disturbance substantially deepened, early on the next day, which prompted JTWC to upgrade it chance of formation to medium.[55] At 03:00 UTC of the same day, the IMD noted the disturbance and upgraded it to a tropical depression, becoming the first tropical depression of the season in the Arabian Sea.[56] It peaked as a depression, with maximum sustained wind speed of 25 kn (45 km/h; 30 mph) and minimum barometric pressure of 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) after its initial stage of formation.[56] However, the system started to lose steam on the next day, as it moved away from the Indian coastline, due to dry air intrusion and increasing wind shear.[57] By 18:00 UTC, the JTWC ceased tracking Invest 96A,[58] and on July 18, the IMD issued its last warning, citing its weakening to a remnant low.[59]

Land Depression 01Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationAugust 9 – August 10
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

A monsoonal low spawned over the northwestern region of Bay of Bengal, off the West Bengal and Odisha coast on midday of August 6, which later concentrated into a well-marked low pressure area on the next day.[60] By August 9, it concentrated into a depression, after moving over coastal Odisha due to the incoming monsoonal trade winds.[61] It managed to maintain its intensity overland, until at 00:00 UTC (05:30 IST) of August 10, it was downgraded to a remnant low over Chhattisgarh and adjoining east Madhya Pradesh.[62]

Depression ARB 02Edit

Depression (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 12 – August 13
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 992 hPa (mbar)

After the dissipation of Depression BOB 05, a sudden surge of equatorial Rossby Waves and Kelvin Waves prevailed over the basin.[63] These two waves helped in a formation of another monsoonal low over Saurashtra and adjoining northeastern Arabian Sea on August 10,[64] which later concentrated into a well-marked low pressure on August 11.[65] The JTWC, on the same day, designated it as Invest 98A.[66] By August 12, favorable conditions like high sea-surface temperature (SST), moderate wind shear and a strong pulse of MJO, helped for further concentration into a depression, but its center was sheared due to wind shear.[67] The JTWC soon followed the suit and upgraded it to Tropical Cyclone 03A.[68] However, as it moved westwards away from the Indian coastline, the wind shear increased significally, which decayed its convective structure.[69][70] At 03:00 UTC (08:30 IST), the JTWC ceased issuing advisories to the system.[70] Nine hours later, the IMD followed the same, and downgraded to a remnant low.[71]

Depression BOB 05Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationAugust 14 – August 17
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 993 hPa (mbar)

Under an influence of another cyclonic circulation,[67] a low pressure area formed over north Bay of Bengal on August 13.[72] Substantially, it concentrated into a well-marked low pressure area on the same day.[71] After reaching near the coast of northern Odisha and West Bengal, it further concentrated into a depression at 03:00 UTC (08:30 IST) of August 14.[73] The depression made landfall near Digha, West Bengal, two hours after its designation.[74] Brown ocean effect played a major role in the system's lifetime, as it managed to maintain its depression status over land for three days. Along with brown ocean effect, low vertical wind shear and moisture feeding monsoonal trade winds also helped to retain its intensity.[74] At 12:00 UTC (17:30 IST) of August 17, the depression finally weakened into a well-marked low pressure over southwestern Rajasthan.[75] The system caused widespread heavy rainfall across Odisha, West Bengal, Jharkhand, Central India and Rajasthan.[76][77][78]

Deep Depression BOB 06Edit

Deep depression (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationAugust 18 – August 23
Peak intensity55 km/h (35 mph) (3-min) 988 hPa (mbar)

A cyclonic circulation developed over south of Myanmar coast on August 17.[citation needed] On the same day, the JTWC recognized the same circulation near Myanmar and designated it Invest 99B, which showed disorganized convective structure and an obscure low-level center.[79] By the next day, it developed into a low pressure area over northeastern Bay of Bengal and adjoining Bangladesh coast.[80] The JTWC unofficially released a TCFA for the system after its rapid development of its convective structure.[81] By the same day, at 21:00 UTC (02:30 IST), the JTWC unofficially declared it Tropical Cyclone 04B.[82] The IMD followed the same, and upgraded it to Depression BOB 06.[83] At 06:00 UTC (11:30 IST), BOB 06, further concentrated into a deep depression, just off the coast of West Bengal and Bangladesh.[84] Shortly after intensifying, it made landfall close to Digha, West Bengal between 13:30 UTC and 14:30 UTC (19:00 IST and 20:00 IST) of the same day.[85] At 21:00 UTC (02:30 IST), the JTWC issued its last advisory after making a landfall.[86] Like the previous system, it also didn't dissipate even after making landfall and instead, managed to maintain its intensity. Although, it weakened into a depression on August 21, over northeastern Madhya Pradesh and southeastern Uttar Pradesh,[87][88] it continued to stay afloat for another two days, until on August 23, it weakened into a well-marked low pressure area over eastern Rajasthan and adjoining northwestern Madhya Pradesh.[89]

There were thirty-two cyclone-related deaths as BOB 06 passed through.[90][91][92][93][94][95]

Land Depression 02Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationSeptember 11 – September 12
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 998 hPa (mbar)

Cyclonic Storm SitrangEdit

Cyclonic storm (IMD)
Tropical storm (SSHWS)
DurationOctober 22 – October 25
Peak intensity85 km/h (50 mph) (3-min) 995 hPa (mbar)

Sitrang originated from an area of ​​low pressure near the Bay of Bengal offshore the Andaman and Nicobar Islands on October 17, although it was designated as having a "low" chance for development at first. Later, during its existence, the Indian Meteorological Department designated a "high" possibility of the system becoming a depression.[96] Days later, warm waters and less wind shear contributed to favorable conditions for development, and the IMD classified the low pressure area as a depression, being called BOB 07, according to the third bulletin. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center issued a Tropical Cyclone Formation Alert (TCFA) on the system by 15:00 UTC of October 22.[97] Hours later, BOB 07 gained momentum and in the agency's fifth bulletin, it was reported that it had intensified into a deep depression.[98] On October 23, the cyclone gained more strength and reached the status of a cyclonic storm, being called Sitrang by the India Meteorological Department. By 09:00 UTC of October 23, the JTWC designated the storm as Tropical Storm 05B.[99] As it was predicted to make landfall over Bangladesh, there was a prediction that Sitrang would turn into a severe cyclonic storm, but dry air hindered its intensification.[100] Upon making landfall near Patuakhali, Bangladesh, in the early hours of October 24, the cyclone began to lose strength and was downgraded to a deep depression. The JTWC issued final warning on the system by 21:00 UTC of October 24.[101] Afterwards, Sitrang continued to weaken, and in its thirteenth and final bulletin, the IMD declared that the cyclone was downgraded to a low pressure area by 06:00 UTC of October 25. It dissipated over Northeast India that evening.[102]

Sitrang was the first cyclone to hit Bangladesh since Cyclone Mora in 2017. During its passage, at least 24 people died and another 8 are missing.[103] In Bangladesh, 700,000 people were evacuated from their homes because of heavy rains.[104] Damage was also recorded in eastern India.[105] At least 8 million customers lost power.[106] About 20 fishermen were rescued in the Bay of Bengal by the Indian Coast Guard.[107]

Depression BOB 08Edit

Depression (IMD)
DurationNovember 20 – November 24
Peak intensity45 km/h (30 mph) (3-min) 1003 hPa (mbar)

Storm namesEdit

Within this basin, a tropical cyclone is assigned a name when it is judged to have reached Cyclonic Storm intensity with winds of 65 km/h (40 mph). The names were selected by a new list from the Regional Specialized Meteorological Center in New Delhi by mid year of 2020. There is no retirement of tropical cyclone names in this basin as the list of names is only scheduled to be used once before a new list of names is drawn up. Should a named tropical cyclone move into the basin from the Western Pacific, it will retain its original name. The next eight available names from the List of North Indian Ocean storm names are below.[36]

  • Biparjoy (unused)
  • Tej (unused)
  • Hamoon (unused)
  • Midhili (unused)

Season effectsEdit

This is a table of all storms in the 2022 North Indian Ocean cyclone season. It mentions all of the season's storms and their names, duration, peak intensities according to the IMD storm scale, damage, and death totals. Damage and death totals include the damage and deaths caused when that storm was a precursor wave or extratropical low. All of the damage figures are in 2022 USD.

Name Dates Peak intensity Areas affected Damage
(USD)
Deaths Refs
Category Wind speed Pressure
BOB 01 March 3–6 Deep depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1002 hPa (29.59 inHg) Sri Lanka None 0
BOB 02 March 20–23 Deep depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 1000 hPa (29.53 inHg) Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Myanmar None 0
Asani May 7–12 Severe cyclonic storm 100 km/h (65 mph) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha Unknown 3 [108]
BOB 04 May 20–21 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 996 hPa (29.41 inHg) Myanmar, Thailand None 0
ARB 01 July 16–18 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Gujarat None 0
LAND 01 August 9–10 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Central India, Odisha None 0
ARB 02 August 12–13 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 992 hPa (29.29 inHg) Gujarat, Oman None 0
BOB 05 August 14–17 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 993 hPa (29.32 inHg) Central India, Rajasthan, Odisha, West Bengal None 0
BOB 06 August 18–23 Deep depression 55 km/h (35 mph) 988 hPa (29.18 inHg) Bangladesh, Jharkhand, Odisha, Rajasthan, West Bengal, Central India, Uttar Pradesh Unknown 32 [109][110][111]
[112][113][114]
LAND 02 September 11–12 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 998 hPa (29.47 inHg) Chhattisgarh, Odisha, West Bengal None 0
Sitrang October 22–25 Cyclonic storm 85 km/h (50 mph) 995 hPa (29.38 inHg) Andaman and Nicobar Islands, West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand, Meghalaya, Assam, Tripura, Bangladesh Unknown 35 [115]
BOB 08 November 20–24 Depression 45 km/h (30 mph) 1003 hPa (29.62 inHg) Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka None 0
Season aggregates
12 systems March 3 – Season ongoing 100 km/h (65 mph) 982 hPa (29.00 inHg) Unknown 70

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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