2022 Bosnian general election

General elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina on 2 October 2022. They decided the makeup of Bosnia and Herzegovina's Presidency as well as national, entity, and cantonal governments.

2022 Bosnian general election

← 2018 2 October 2022 2026 →
Bosniak member of the Presidency
  Denis Bećirović (1) (cropped).jpg EPP Congress Rotterdam - Day 1 (cropped).jpg
Candidate Denis Bećirović Bakir Izetbegović
Party SDP BiH SDA
Popular vote 330,238 214,412
Percentage 57.37% 37.25%
Croat member of the Presidency
  Željko Komšić 2021.jpg Borjana Krišto (cropped).jpg
Candidate Željko Komšić Borjana Krišto
Party DF HDZ BiH
Popular vote 227,540 180,255
Percentage 55.80% 44.20%
Serb member of the Presidency
  Željka Cvijanović 2022.jpg Mirko Šarović (cropped).jpg
Candidate Željka Cvijanović Mirko Šarović
Party SNSD SDS
Popular vote 327,720 224,912
Percentage 51.65% 35.45%

Presidency members before election

Šefik Džaferović (Bosniak)
Željko Komšić (Croat)
Milorad Dodik (Serb)

Elected Presidency members

Denis Bećirović (Bosniak)
Željko Komšić (Croat)
Željka Cvijanović (Serb)

Party Leader % Seats +/–
SDA Bakir Izetbegović 17.23 9 0
SNSD Milorad Dodik 16.34 6 0
HDZ BiH Dragan Čović 8.75 4 -1
SDP BiH Nermin Nikšić 8.15 5 0
SDS Mirko Šarović 7.07 2 -1
DFGS Željko Komšić 6.41 3 0
NiP Elmedin Konaković 5.01 3 +3
PDP Branislav Borenović 4.63 2 0
NS Edin Forto 3.12 2 0
NESZNG Nermin Ogrešević 2.97 2 New
ZPR Nebojša Vukanović 2.08 1 New
DEMOS Nedeljko Čubrilović 1.93 1 New
US Nenad Stevandić 1.55 1 New
BHI Fuad Kasumović 1.28 1 New
This lists parties that won seats. See the complete results below.
2022 Bosnian Municipalities.svg
Colours denote the party with the most votes by municipalities.
Chairman before Chairman after
Zoran Tegeltija
SNSD
Borjana Krišto
HDZ BiH

The elections for the House of Representatives were divided into two; one for the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and one for Republika Srpska. In the presidential election, voters in the Federation elected Bosniak Denis Bećirović and re-elected Croat Željko Komšić, while voters in Republika Srpska elected Serb Željka Cvijanović. The Party of Democratic Action emerged as the largest party in the House of Representatives, winning 9 of the 42 seats.

BackgroundEdit

At the 2018 Bosnian general election, Šefik Džaferović of the Party of Democratic Action (SDA), Željko Komšić of the Democratic Front (DF) and Milorad Dodik of the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats (SNSD) were elected as the new Bosnian Presidency members, succeeding Bakir Izetbegović, Dragan Čović and Mladen Ivanić respectively.[1] The SDA emerged as the largest party in the national House of Representatives, winning 9 of the 42 seats.

There was controversy over the election of the Croat member, as the non-nationalist candidate Željko Komšić won against the nationalist Dragan Čović (HDZ BiH) with the help of Bosniak voters, with Komšić winning first place almost exclusively in municipalities without a Croat relative majority. The result prompted protests of Croats accusing Bosniaks of out-voting and calling for the creation of their own entity or electoral constituency. In the following days, protests were held in the city of Mostar with signs "Not my president".[2][3] In the days following the election, several municipalities with Croat majority declared Komšić persona non grata.[4][5]

Following the 2018 election, the new Council of Ministers cabinet was confirmed by the House of Representatives after a one-year governmental formation crisis. The SNSD's Zoran Tegeltija was appointed Chairman of the Council of Ministers on 23 December 2019.[6]

Tegeltija's Cabinet is supported by a coalition of the SNSD, the Croatian Democratic Union, the SDA, the DF and the Democratic People's Alliance. The major opposition is the coalition of the Social Democratic Party (SDP), Our Party (NS) and the People and Justice (NiP) party. The coalition of the Serb Democratic Party (SDS) and the Party of Democratic Progress (PDP) is the major opposition in Republika Srpska.

In the Bosnian municipal elections that took place in November 2020, there were significant defeats for the ruling parties SDA and SNSD.[7] The SDA lost, among other municipalities, Centar, Novo Sarajevo and Ilidža to a social-liberal coalition to which the SDP, NS and NiP belong. The SNSD lost Banja Luka, to the liberal-conservative PDP and was also unable to assert itself against the moderately nationalist SDS in Bijeljina.[7]

At a House of Representatives session held in January 2021, a vote of no confidence in Tegeltija took place, due to poor performance results during his term as Chairman of the Council of Ministers, but by the end of the voting, it was clear that Tegeltija was staying as Chairman of the Council of Ministers.[8] Three months later, on 28 April, another vote of no confidence in Tegeltija took place at a House of Representatives session, but again, Tegeltija continued serving as Chairman.[9]

Electoral systemEdit

 
Official logo of the election

National electionsEdit

PresidencyEdit

The three members of the Presidency are elected by plurality. In Republika Srpska voters elect the Serb representative, whilst in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina voters elect the Bosniak and Croat members.[10] Voters registered in the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina can vote for either the Bosniak or Croat candidate, but cannot vote in both elections.

House of RepresentativesEdit

The House of Representatives, the lower chamber of the Bosnian Parliament, has 42 members who are elected at entity level according to proportional representation.[11] Voters in the Brčko District are free to vote for the Republika Srpska or Federal constituency.[12] The Federation sends 28 representatives to parliament, while Republika Srpska send 14 of them. Of the 28 representatives of the Federation, 21 are elected in five multi-person constituencies (number of deputies 3-6), to ensure proportionality, seven compensatory mandates according to the Sainte-Laguë procedure. Of the 14 MPs of Republika Srpska, nine are elected in the constituencies (three MPs each) and five via entity-wide equalization mandates.[12] There is a three percent threshold at the entity level.

Elections in Republika SrpskaEdit

PresidencyEdit

There is a list of candidates, whereby the candidate who gets the most votes (usually a Serb) is elected president; there is no runoff. The first-placed candidates from the other two ethnic groups (usually a Bosniak and a Croat) are elected as vice-presidents. The term of office of the President of Republika Srpska is four years with an option for one-time re-election. A renewed candidacy is possible again after a break of at least one term of office.[12]

National AssemblyEdit

The lower chamber of Republika Srpska, the National Assembly, is composed of 83 members elected by proportional representation. The election takes place in nine multi-person constituencies with entity-wide balancing mandates. Furthermore, at least four representatives should be represented in the National Assembly from each of the constitutive peoples. There is a three percent threshold.[12]

Elections in the Federation of Bosnia and HerzegovinaEdit

PresidencyEdit

Unlike in Republika Srpska, the president of the Federation and the two vice-presidents are not elected by direct election: The first chamber of the Federal Parliament, the House of Peoples, nominates candidates for the presidency and the vice-presidencies, followed by the second chamber, the House of Representatives, must confirm this nomination by election. Subsequently, confirmation by the majority of the delegates of all three constitutive ethnic groups in the House of Peoples is required.[12]

House of RepresentativesEdit

The House of Representatives of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina has a total of 98 members who are elected by proportional representation. The election takes place in 12 multi-person constituencies with entity-wide balancing mandates. In the Federal House of Representatives, each constitutive ethnic group should be represented by at least four members. The threshold is three percent.[12]

Cantonal AssembliesEdit

The assemblies of the 10 cantons of the Federation are also elected. The election is based on proportional representation with a threshold of three percent. The individual cantonal assemblies send members to the House of Peoples.[12]

Presidency candidatesEdit

Declared candidatesEdit

The following were the official candidates who ran for Presidency member.[13]

Bosniak member electionEdit

# Candidate Affiliation Background Reference
1   Bakir Izetbegović Party of Democratic Action Member of the Presidency (2010–2018)
President of the Party of Democratic Action (2014–present)
[14]
2   Mirsad Hadžikadić Platform for Progress Director of the Institute of Complex Systems at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte [15]
3   Denis Bećirović Social Democratic Party Vice-president of the Social Democratic Party (2009–present)
Member of the House of Peoples (2019–2022)
[16]

Croat member electionEdit

# Candidate Affiliation Background Reference
1   Željko Komšić Democratic Front Member of the Presidency (2018–present; 2006–2014) [17]
2   Borjana Krišto Croatian Democratic Union President of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2007–2011)
Member of the House of Representatives (2014–2022)
[18]

Serb member electionEdit

# Candidate Affiliation Background Reference
1   Željka Cvijanović Alliance of Independent Social Democrats President of Republika Srpska (2018–2022)
Prime Minister of Republika Srpska (2013–2018)
[19]
2   Nenad Nešić Democratic People's Alliance Member of the House of Representatives (2018–2022)
President of the Democratic People's Alliance (2020–present)
[20]
3   Vojin Mijatović Social Democratic Party Vice-president of the Social Democratic Party [21]
4   Mirko Šarović Serb Democratic Party Member of the Presidency (2002–2003)
President of Republika Srpska (2000–2002)
President of the Serb Democratic Party (2019–2022)
[22]
5 Borislav Bijelić Party of Life [23]

Declined to be candidatesEdit

The individuals in this section were the subject of speculation about their possible candidacy, but publicly denied interest in running.

ResultsEdit

PresidencyEdit

 
Results by municipality for the Serb member of the Presidency

The elected members of the national Presidency were Denis Bećirović (Bosniak, SDP BiH), Željko Komšić (Croat, DF) and Željka Cvijanović (Serb, SNSD).[26]

CandidatePartyVotes%
Bosniak member
Denis BećirovićSocial Democratic Party330,23857.37
Bakir IzetbegovićParty of Democratic Action214,41237.25
Mirsad HadžikadićPlatform for Progress30,9685.38
Total575,618100.00
Croat member
Željko KomšićDemocratic Front227,54055.80
Borjana KrištoCroatian Democratic Union180,25544.20
Total407,795100.00
Serb member
Željka CvijanovićAlliance of Independent Social Democrats327,72051.65
Mirko ŠarovićSerb Democratic Party224,91235.45
Vojin MijatovićSocial Democratic Party38,6556.09
Nenad NešićDemocratic People's Alliance34,9555.51
Borislav BijelićParty of Life8,2781.30
Total634,520100.00
Valid votes1,617,93393.35
Invalid/blank votes115,2736.65
Total votes1,733,206100.00
Registered voters/turnout3,368,66651.45
Source: Centralna izborna komisija BiH

House of RepresentativesEdit

PartyVotes%Seats+/–
Party of Democratic Action273,54517.2390
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats259,52116.3460
Croatian Democratic Union139,0188.754–1
Social Democratic Party129,4998.1550
Serb Democratic Party112,2507.072–1
Democratic FrontCivic Alliance101,7136.4130
People and Justice79,5555.013+3
Party of Democratic Progress73,4894.6320
Our Party49,4813.1220
People's European UnionFor New Generations47,1572.972New
For Justice and Order32,9822.081New
Democratic Union30,5911.931New
Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina26,4801.6700
HDZ 1990Croatian National Shift25,6911.6200
Platform for ProgressIndependent Bloc25,0071.570–1
Union for a Better Future of BiH24,7861.560–2
United Srpska24,6871.551+1
Socialist Party23,0181.450–1
Democratic People's Alliance21,8321.370–1
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Initiative20,2591.281New
Bosnian Party17,7211.1200
Movement of Democratic Action14,8890.940–1
Social Democrats11,8310.750New
Croatian Republican Party11,2310.710New
Labour Party3,7270.2300
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Greens3,3940.210New
Party of Life1,8400.120New
Union for New Politics7060.0400
The Left Wing5450.030New
SMS5300.030New
Re-Balance5030.030New
Circle3630.020New
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party1580.0100
Total1,587,999100.0042
Valid votes1,587,99991.62
Invalid/blank votes145,2618.38
Total votes1,733,260100.00
Registered voters/turnout3,368,66651.45
Source: Centralna izborna komisija BiH

By entityEdit

PartyFederationRepublika Srpska
Votes%Votes%
Party of Democratic Action243,41325.1730,1324.85
Alliance of Independent Social Democrats4,0060.41255,51541.15
Croatian Democratic Union137,34014.201,6780.27
Social Democratic Party129,49913.39
Serb Democratic Party112,25018.08
Democratic FrontCivic Alliance101,71310.52
People and Justice79,5558.23
Party of Democratic Progress4660.0573,02311.76
Our Party49,4815.12
People's European UnionFor New Generations47,1574.88
For Justice and Order32,9825.31
Democratic Union30,5914.93
Party for Bosnia and Herzegovina26,4802.74
HDZ 1990Croatian National Shift25,2462.614450.07
Platform for ProgressIndependent Bloc19,8232.055,1840.83
Union for a Better Future of BiH23,1012.391,6850.27
United Srpska3740.0424,3133.92
Socialist Party23,0183.71
Democratic People's Alliance1880.0221,6443.49
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Initiative18,6971.931,5620.25
Bosnian Party17,7211.83
Movement of Democratic Action14,8891.54
Social Democrats9,9281.031,9030.31
Croatian Republican Party11,2311.16
Labour Party3,7270.39
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Greens1,7650.181,6290.26
Party of Life1,8400.30
Union for New Politics4030.043030.05
The Left Wing1710.023740.06
SMS2240.023060.05
Re-Balance1630.023400.05
Circle1040.012590.04
Bosnian-Herzegovinian Patriotic Party1580.02
Total967,023100.00620,976100.00
Valid votes967,02391.56620,97691.71
Invalid/blank votes89,1428.4456,1198.29
Total votes1,056,165100.00677,095100.00
Registered voters/turnout2,109,34450.071,259,32253.77

Allegations of voter fraudEdit

Following the release of the preliminary results in the Republika Srpska entity elections, opposition parties filed accusations of electoral fraud directly against the leading candidate Milorad Dodik, who they claimed had coordinated stuffing ballot boxes with thousands of illegal votes to put the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats ahead in the polls and that Jelena Trivić of the Party of Democratic Progress was the true winner of the Republika Srpska presidential election.[27][28] As a result of the allegations, the Central Election Commission began a recount the ballots.[29] When the Election Commission verified the preliminary results, they did not verify the Republika Srpska elections.[30] However on 27 October, officials confirmed Dodik's victory. The commission noted that while there were irregularities, none were on a level that would have changed the outcome of the election.[31]

AftermathEdit

On 15 December 2022, a coalition led by the Alliance of Independent Social Democrats, the Croatian Democratic Union (HDZ BiH) and the Social Democratic Party reached an agreement on the formation of a new government for the 2022–2026 parliamentary term, designating Borjana Krišto (HDZ BiH) as the new Chairwoman of the Council of Ministers.[32] The Presidency officially nominated Krišto as chairwoman-designate on 22 December.[33] The national House of Representatives confirmed her appointment on 28 December.[34] On 25 January 2023, the House of Representatives confirmed the appointment of Krišto's cabinet.[35]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ Er. M. (8 October 2018). "CIK ponovo potvrdio: Džaferović, Dodik i Komšić novi članovi Predsjedništva BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 3 November 2020. Retrieved 8 October 2018.
  2. ^ Reuters Editorial (12 October 2018). "Croats protest against election of moderate in Bosnia's presidency". Reuters. Archived from the original on 29 July 2022. Retrieved 29 July 2022. {{cite news}}: |author= has generic name (help)
  3. ^ Mladen Lakic (3 May 2013). "Bosnian Croats Protest Against Komsic's Election Victory". Balkan Insight. Archived from the original on 13 October 2018. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  4. ^ "I Čitluk prekrižio Komšića". Bljesak.info. Archived from the original on 1 August 2022. Retrieved 4 October 2022.
  5. ^ "STUDENTI SVEUČILIŠTA U MOSTARU KOMŠIĆA PROGLASILI NEPOŽELJNIM 'Takve nas stvari ne zanimaju od nekoga tko se lažno predstavlja kao Hrvat' - Jutarnji List". Jutarnji.hr. Reuters. 9 October 2018. Archived from the original on 13 April 2019. Retrieved 14 October 2018.
  6. ^ Er.M. (23 December 2019). "Počela sjednica o imenovanju Vijeća ministara BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 23 December 2019. Retrieved 23 December 2019.
  7. ^ a b Rathfelder, Erich (17 November 2020). "Lokalwahlen in Bosnien und Herzegowina: Schlappe für die Nationalisten". Die Tageszeitung: taz (in German). ISSN 0931-9085. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  8. ^ I.Č. (11 January 2021). "Vijeće ministara za sada neće biti smijenjeno, nema većine u Parlamentu BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 13 January 2021. Retrieved 11 January 2021.
  9. ^ D.Be. (28 April 2021). "Parlamentarci nisu podržali smjenu Zorana Tegeltije zbog slabih rezultata rada" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 28 April 2021. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  10. ^ Maja Sahadžic (2009) The Electoral System of Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Short Review of Political Matter and/or Technical Perplexion Archived 27 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine Contemporary Issues, Vol. 2, No. 1
  11. ^ Electoral System Archived 3 January 2017 at the Wayback Machine IPU
  12. ^ a b c d e f g "Election Law in Bosnia and Herzegovina" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 2 October 2022.
  13. ^ "Kandidatske liste Opći izbori 2022" [Candidate lists General elections 2022.] (PDF). Centralna izborna komisija BiH (in Bosnian, Croatian, and Serbian). 5 August 2022. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  14. ^ N.Š. (5 July 2021). "Izetbegović najavio kandidaturu za Predsjedništvo: Sumnjam da Konaković ima hrabrost ući u utrku, sa Radončićem i Zvizdićem ne bi bilo dosadno" (in Bosnian). oslobodjenje.ba. Archived from the original on 5 July 2021. Retrieved 5 July 2021.
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  16. ^ G.M. (21 May 2022). "Denis Bećirović zvanično kandidat opozicije za člana Predsjedništva BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  17. ^ D. Be. (8 May 2022). "Željko Komšić će se ponovo kandidovati za Predsjedništvo BiH: Moram, ne mogu stati" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 8 May 2022. Retrieved 8 May 2022.
  18. ^ "Čović odustao, Borjana Krišto kandidat za člana Predsjedništva BiH?" (in Croatian). n1info.ba. 29 June 2022. Archived from the original on 29 June 2022. Retrieved 29 June 2022.
  19. ^ E.Ć. (1 July 2022). "SNSD šalje Cvijanović u utrku za člana Predsjedništva BiH, Dodik kandidat za predsjednika RS" (in Bosnian). avaz.ba. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 1 July 2022.
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  21. ^ V.K. (10 June 2022). "Vojin Mijatović i zvanično kandidat SDP-a za Predsjedništvo BiH, planira pobijediti Dodika" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 10 June 2022. Retrieved 10 June 2022.
  22. ^ M.G. (23 June 2022). "Mirko Šarović je kandidat SDS-a za Predsjedništvo BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 23 June 2022.
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  24. ^ Fu.M. (28 April 2021). "Džaferović: Neću biti kandidat 2022., član Predsjedništva će, ako Bog da, biti Bakir Izetbegović" (in Bosnian). avaz.ba. Archived from the original on 4 October 2022. Retrieved 28 April 2021.
  25. ^ D.Be. (21 May 2022). "Haris Silajdžić: Neću se kandidirati za predsjedništvo, reforme nakon izbora odredit će sudbinu zemlje" (in Bosnian). avaz.ba. Archived from the original on 21 May 2022. Retrieved 21 May 2022.
  26. ^ D.Be. (23 October 2022). "Bećirović dobio 116 hiljada glasova više od Izetbegovića, a Cvijanović sama više od svojih protukandidata skupa" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 23 October 2022.
  27. ^ "Bosnia election: Vote-rigging allegations spark more mass protests". Euronews. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  28. ^ Kurtic, Azem. "Republika Srpska Opposition Files 'Election Fraud' Criminal Complaints". Balkan Insight. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  29. ^ "Bosnia recounts Serb president race after reports of fraud". Associated Press. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  30. ^ "Election commission confirms preliminary results of Bosnia general vote". Reuters. Retrieved 24 October 2022.
  31. ^ "Bosnia's Dodik declared winner in disputed election after recount". Al Jazeera Balkans. 27 October 2022.
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  33. ^ Svjetlana Šurlan (22 December 2022). "Borjana Krišto imenovana za predsjedavajuću Savjeta ministara BiH". bloombergadria.com (in Bosnian). Retrieved 22 December 2022.
  34. ^ N.V. (28 December 2022). "Borjana Krišto izglasana za predsjedavajuću Vijeća ministara BiH" (in Bosnian). Klix.ba. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  35. ^ "Bosnia Finally Forms State-Level Government". Balkan Insight. 25 January 2023. Retrieved 25 January 2023.

External linksEdit