Belarusian and Russian partisan movement (2022–present)

Pro-democratic and pro-Ukrainian partisan movements have emerged in Belarus and Russia following the Russian invasion of Ukraine, a major escalation of the Russo-Ukrainian War. These resistance movements act against the authoritarian governments of Alexander Lukashenko in Belarus and Vladimir Putin in Russia, as well as against civilian supporters of these authorities and the armed forces of both countries, with the aim of stopping the war.[32]

Belarusian and Russian partisan movement
Part of the Russian invasion of Ukraine and the anti-war protests in Russia (2022–present)

Anti-war graffiti in Saint Petersburg
Date24 February 2022 (2022-02-24) – present
(2 years, 4 months, 3 weeks and 5 days)
Location
Status Ongoing
Belligerents

Russian opposition


Belarusian opposition


Separatist movements

 Russian government


 Belarusian government

Commanders and leaders
Decentralized Leadership

Vladimir Putin
Mikhail Mishustin
Sergei Shoigu
Valery Gerasimov


Alexander Lukashenko
Roman Golovchenko
Viktor Khrenin
Viktor Gulevich
Casualties and losses

Russian Opposition:
Arrests: Unknown (at least 8)[24][25][26]

Belarusian Opposition:
Deaths: At least 1[27]

Arrests: Unknown (at least 12)[28][26]

Russia Russia:

Deaths: 40+[29][30][31]
  1. ^ 2023 Bryansk Oblast raid
  2. ^ in the North Caucasus region only
  3. ^ in the Bashkortostan region only
  4. ^ in Karelia region only

Attacks on property of authorities and supporters of the war

edit

By 2022-03-07, cases of arsons of police departments were recorded in Smolensk and Krasnoyarsk.[33]

As of 5 July 2022, at least 23 attacks on military enlistment offices were recorded, 20 of which were arson.[34] The arson attacks were not a single coordinated campaign: behind them were a variety of people: from far-left to far-right groups. Sometimes they were lone actors who did not associate themselves with any movements.[35][36] Civilian vehicles bearing the letter Z insignia (supporting the war efforts) were also set ablaze.[32]

On 2022-08-27, multiple Russian-language outlets reported that a woman named Evgenia Belova doused a parked BMW X6 with accelerant and set it ablaze in Moscow. The vehicle belonged to Yevgeny Sekretarev (Russian: Евгения Секретарева) who reportedly works for the Eighth Directorate [he; ru] of the General Staff of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation; the Directorate oversees the State Secret Protection Service [he; ru] handling wartime censorship. A woman detained for the arson also reportedly proclaimed her opposition to the war.[37][38][39][40][41] The woman is described as 65 years old, a patient of a local "psychoneurological clinic," and lives in the same building as Sekretarev.[42] Coverage of the incident by Radio Svoboda, mentioned a relative of the woman making the unverified claim that she was kidnapped prior to the arson by Ukrainian special forces, held for a ransom of 500,000 Russian rubles, and "hypnotized." The woman's relatives further insisted she was never against the Russian authorities, and would never have committed arson against the Russian government.[43]

Rail war

edit

Belarus

edit

The rail war in Belarus began in February 2022. Signaling equipment was destroyed in three Belarusian regions, and railway lines were blocked. As a result of these operations, the work of several branches of the Belarusian railway was disrupted.

Russia

edit

In Russia, the movements Combat Organization of Anarcho-Communists (BOAK) and Stop the Wagons announced their sabotage activities on the railway infrastructure. According to The Insider, 63 freight trains derailed in Russia between March and June 2022, about one and a half times as much as during the same period the previous year. At the same time, the geography of wagon wrecks shifted to the west, and some trains got into accidents near military units.[35] According to Russian Railways and inspection bodies, half of the accidents are related to the poor condition of the railway tracks.[44]

Attributed to BOAK

edit

Representatives of BOAK took responsibility not only for dismantling rails and railway sabotage in Sergiyev Posad near Moscow and near Kirzhach, Vladimir Oblast, but also for setting fire to cell towers (for example, in the village of Belomestnoye in the Belgorod Oblast) and even for setting fire to cars of people supporting actions of the Russian leadership. According to the anarchists themselves, their activities were largely inspired by the actions of the Belarusian partisans, who effectively resisted the Russian invasion through the territory of Belarus at the very beginning of the war.[35]

Attributed to Stop the Wagons

edit

The "Stop the Wagons" movement in Russia claimed responsibility for the derailment of wagons in the Amur Oblast, due to which traffic on the Trans-Siberian Railway was stopped on 29 June,[45][46][47][48] for the derailment of a train in Tver on 5 July,[49] several wagons with coal in Krasnoyarsk on 13 July,[50] as well as freight trains in the Krasnoyarsk Krai at the Lesosibirsk station on 19 July,[51] in Makhachkala overnight between 23 and 24 July (the investigating authorities of Dagestan are also considering sabotage as a probable cause of this incident)[52][53] and on the Oktyabrskaya railway near Babaevo station on 12 August.[54] According to the map published by the movement, its activists operate on more than 30% of the territory of Russia.[55][56]

Assassination of Darya Dugina and the National Republican Army manifesto

edit

On 2022-08-21, a bomb planted in a vehicle killed Darya Dugina; it is widely presumed the bomb was also meant to kill her father, Aleksandr Dugin. Both are identified with Nazbolism, gave statements justifying war against Ukraine, and denied atrocities such as Bucha massacre.[57][58] The United States sanctioned both figures for their support of the regime and the war; Dugina was sanctioned for her work with Yevgeny Prigozhin in the Russian interference in the 2016 United States elections.[59]

Former State Duma deputy Ilya Ponomarev, who is based in Kyiv, said that a partisan organization called the "National Republican Army" is operating inside Russia and engaged in "overthrowing the Putin regime", and that it was behind the assassination of Dugina. The politician called the event a "momentous event" and said that the partisans inside Russia are ready for further similar attacks.[60] Ponomarev has told several outlets he has been "in touch" with representatives of the organization since April 2022. He states that the group has been involved in unspecified partisan activities.[61] In a May 2022 conference of exiles in Vilnius sponsored by the Free Russia Forum, Ponomarev appealed to attendees to support direct action within Russia. A Spektr (Russian: Спектр) reporter noted an indifferent response from the attendees.[62]

Purported manifesto

edit

Ponomarev read the NRA's purported manifesto on a YouTube channel he owns, February Morning (Russian: Утро Февраля).[63] The text of the manifesto was also shared over February Morning's affiliated Telegram channel, Rospartizan (Russian: Роспартизан).[64] As of 26 August 2022, YouTube's metrics indicate video containing the claim of responsibility and sharing the manifesto is February Morning's most-seen video with 176,646 views.[63]

Doubts of NRA's existence

edit

Doubts of the NRA's responsibility and its very existence have been raised by a wide variety of commentators.[65][66] A 22 August 2022 report from Reuters says that "[Ponomarev's] assertion and the group's existence could not be independently verified."[67] The sole suspect named by Russian investigators is a Ukrainian woman whom, Russia claims, is part of its military. The Russian government has also stated that the woman fled to Estonia.[68] The governments of Ukraine and Estonia each denied any role in the assassination.[69][70][71]

Exiles denounce Ponomarev

edit

The veracity of Ponomarev's claims notwithstanding, his endorsement of armed action against the regime resulted in his blacklisting by the Russian Action Committee, an anti-Putin exile group. According to the committee's statement, this was because he "called for terrorist attacks on Russian territory." The committee's statement also implied that Dugina was a "civilian" who "did not take part in the armed confrontation," and condemned denunciations of Aleksandr Dugin following the attack as "a demonstrative rejection of normal human empathy for the families of the victims."[72][73]

Attack on Russian plane in Machulishchy

edit

In late February 2023 an AWACS Beriev A-50U Russian spy plane in Machulishchy, Belarus was reported as damaged. Via Telegram, the organization BYPOL claimed responsibility for what it claimed was a drone attack. Exiled Belarusian dissident Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya responded to news of the attack stating, "I am proud of all Belarusians who continue to resist the Russian hybrid occupation of Belarus & fight for the freedom of Ukraine."[74][75]

Attacks in Bryansk Oblast

edit

On 2 March 2023, the Russian Volunteer Corps claimed responsibility for an attack in the Bryansk Oblast near Russia's border with Belarus in which it allegedly killed one and took hostages.[76][77]

Belgorod Oblast incursions

edit

On 22 May 2023, two Ukraine-based Russian opposition partisan groups, the Freedom of Russia Legion and the Russian Volunteer Corps, claimed to have attacked targets in Grayvoronsky District of Belgorod Oblast. The Freedom of Russia Legion claimed the groups took control of several border towns in the district, with fighting ongoing. Russian authorities said the attacks were conducted by a Ukrainian sabotage and reconnaissance group that crossed the border into Belgorod Oblast. In response, Russia's counter-terrorist operation regime was imposed in the region to combat the incursion. It is the largest incursion into Russian territory since the beginning of the Russian invasion of Ukraine.

Reaction of the authorities

edit

The Russian authorities were forced to tighten security measures on the railways.

On 27 April, the Belarusian authorities approved amendments to the Criminal Code, providing for the possibility of applying the death penalty "for attempted acts of terrorism."

On 8 May 2022, the Telegram channel of the movement was blocked. According to their own statements, they were blocked "after the publication of a map of railway resistance, which covered over 30% of the territory of Russia."[78][79] On 19 July, the website of Stop the Wagons was blocked by Roskomnadzor in Russia at the request of the Prosecutor General's Office.[80][81]

In August 2022, a court in Moscow fined the Telegram messenger 7 million Russian rubles (quoted by TASS as equivalent to US$113,900) for refusing to remove channels providing instructions for railway sabotage and containing "propaganda pushing the ideology of anarchism."[82][83][84]

See also

edit

References

edit
  1. ^ Zemlyanskaya, Alisa (5 July 2022). "Этот поезд в огне: как российские партизаны поджигают военкоматы и пускают поезда под откос". The Insider (in Russian). Archived from the original on 10 August 2022. Retrieved 11 August 2022.
  2. ^ "Этот поезд в огне: как российские партизаны поджигают военкоматы и пускают поезда под откос" [This train is on fire: how Russian partisans set fire to military enlistment offices and derail trains]. The Insider (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2 June 2023. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  3. ^ ""Рельсовые диверсанты" сообщили о сходе поезда в Твери". Archived from the original on 14 July 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  4. ^ "Жечь военкоматы и готовиться к революции. Представители антипутинского подполья о жизни после мобилизации" [Burn the military commissariats and prepare for the revolution. Representatives of the anti-Putin underground about life after mobilization]. Vot Tak (Belsat) (in Russian). Retrieved 24 September 2022.
  5. ^ a b "Российская оппозиция начинает вооруженное сопротивление Путину: подписано декларацию". Главком | Glavcom (in Russian). 31 August 2022. Archived from the original on 29 May 2023. Retrieved 1 September 2022.
  6. ^ "Выяснилось, что Хачикян, стрелявший в сотрудника ОМОН, разделяет взгляды экстремистской группы "Артподготовка"*". Петербургский дневник (in Russian). 25 February 2023.
  7. ^ "Источник сообщил о задержании пяти человек, готовивших провокацию на 9 мая". РИА Новости (in Russian). 5 May 2023.
  8. ^ "Краткий курс NS/WP. Что мы знаем о задержанных за покушение на Соловьева — и о том, кто жег военкоматы" [An Introduction to NS/WP: What do we know about those detained for the assassination attempt on Solovyov - and about who burned the military registration and enlistment offices?]. Медиазона (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  9. ^ Smart, Jason Jay (23 August 2022). "Exclusive interview: Russia's NRA Begins Activism". Kyiv Post. Archived from the original on 9 July 2023. Retrieved 23 August 2022.
  10. ^ "В Петербурге и Оренбургской области подожгли военкоматы". Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 September 2022. Retrieved 22 September 2022.
  11. ^ "Белорусы ведут против российских войск "рельсовую войну"? | DW | 28.03.2022". Deutsche Welle.
  12. ^ "В Беларуси началась "рельсовая война" против России (видео)". Archived from the original on 3 May 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  13. ^ a b c d Shy, Liz (23 April 2022). "The Belarusian railway workers who helped thwart Russia's attack on Kyiv". Washington Post. Retrieved 25 April 2022.
  14. ^ "Охота на "рельсовых партизан": кого в Беларуси задерживают за происшествия на железной дороге". Настоящее Время (in Russian). 25 April 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  15. ^ "Охота на тех, кто проводит мобилизацию: в Дагестане создали партизанское движение". 24 Канал (in Russian). 25 September 2022. Archived from the original on 29 November 2022. Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  16. ^ Началова, Марина (25 September 2022). "Протестующие в Дагестане объявили о старте партизанского движения и выдвинули ультиматум: "Трассы запылают!"". Новости в 'Час Пик' (in Russian). Retrieved 25 September 2022.
  17. ^ "Circassian protest plays key role in killing Putin's mobilization program – the Ukrainian Weekly". 21 October 2022.
  18. ^ "Circassian Protest Plays Key Role in Killing Putin's Mobilization Program". Jamestown.
  19. ^ https://t.me/IADAT/14657 Принесите палатки и стройте барикады. Помогайте тем, кто уже несколько часов на митинге. Все в центр, и до конца никуда не уходим. Да хранит вас Аллах.
  20. ^ "Ingush activists announced the formation of the Ingush Liberation Army, threatening the Kremlin's regional presence and strategy". SpeciaEurasia.
  21. ^ ""Это не наша война. Украинцы нам ничего плохого не делали". Башкирские националисты объявили о создании вооруженного сопротивления". The Insider (in Russian). Retrieved 1 November 2022.
  22. ^ "В Карелии 18-летнего студента арестовали по делу о госизмене". Радио Свобода (in Russian). 9 March 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  23. ^ ""Насилие для нас омерзительно". Студента в Карелии обвиняют в подготовке теракта". Sever Realii (in Russian). 12 March 2023. Retrieved 12 April 2023.
  24. ^ "В Москве арестовали еще одного подозреваемого в подготовке покушения на Соловьева". tass.ru. Retrieved 3 September 2022.
  25. ^ "Russia Accuses Ex-Soldier of Helping Ukraine Organize Arson Attacks". 7 December 2023.
  26. ^ a b "Russia Says Arrested Belarusian for Siberia Railway Sabotage". 7 December 2023.
  27. ^ Nate Ostiller (7 March 2024). "Russian media: Belarusian man planning 'terrorist act' killed by FSB in Russia". The Kyiv Independent. Retrieved 7 March 2024.
  28. ^ "Партизан приравняли к террористам. Как власти Беларуси пытаются остановить "рельсовую войну" против военных эшелонов РФ". 8 April 2022.
  29. ^ ""Русский добровольческий корпус" заявил, что вошёл в село на Брянщине". Радио Свобода (in Russian). 2 March 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  30. ^ ""Они видели, что в машину садятся два человека. И думали, что второй — Дугин" Интервью Ильи Пономарева. Он комментирует убийство Дугиной от лица мистической "Национальной республиканской армии," которая, по его словам, устроила этот взрыв" ["They saw that two people were getting into the car. And they thought that the second one was Dugin" Interview with Ilya Ponomarev. He comments on the murder of Dugina on behalf of the mysterious "National Republican Army," which, according to him, carried out this explosion.]. Meduza (in Russian). Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  31. ^ Artyushenko, Oleg (17 June 2023). "'Everyone For Themselves': Attacks In Border Towns And Cities Bring The War To Russia's Doorstep". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 19 June 2023.
  32. ^ a b "Коктейли Молотова и рельсовая война — стратегия новой российской оппозиции. Роман Попков поговорил с "партизанами" об их методах борьбы" [Molotov cocktails and rail war: the strategy of the new Russian opposition. Roman Popkov speaks with the "partisans" about their methods of struggle]. БелСат (in Russian). 12 August 2022.
  33. ^ "Полицейских предупредили о возможных поджогах: уже пострадал военкомат" [Police were warned about possible arson: military registration and enlistment offices already hit]. www.mk.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 11 March 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  34. ^ "Baza: в России задержаны двое подозреваемых в поджогах военкоматов" [Baza: two suspects in arson of military registration and enlistment offices detained in Russia]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). 5 June 2022. Archived from the original on 18 June 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  35. ^ a b c ""Изображал флейту, пел — охранники его били". Кто такой Илья Фарбер — бывший сельский учитель, арестованный за поджог военкомата" [“He played a flute, sang - the guards beat him.” Who is Ilya Farber - the former village teacher arrested for setting fire to a military registration and enlistment office?]. Медиазона (in Russian). Archived from the original on 7 July 2022. Retrieved 8 July 2022.
  36. ^ ""Сплошное белое пятно": кто поджигает военкоматы в России" ["A solid white spot": who is setting military registration and enlistment offices ablaze in Russia?]. NEWS.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  37. ^ "976". Telegram (in Russian). Роспартизан. 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  38. ^ "12954". Telegram (in Russian). Baza. 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  39. ^ "12956". Telegram (in Russian). Baza. 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  40. ^ "11772". Telegram (in Russian). 112. 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  41. ^ "СМИ: в Москве подожгли автомобиль замначальника Генштаба ВС России" [Media: in Moscow, car of the Deputy Chief of the General Staff of the Russian Armed Forces set ablaze]. Главные события в России и мире | RTVI (in Russian). 27 August 2022. Retrieved 27 August 2022.
  42. ^ "Car of Russian General Staff official set on fire in Moscow, woman detained – Russian media". Ukrainska Pravda. 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  43. ^ "Москвичку, которая подожгла BMW сотрудника Генштаба, могли обмануть" [Muscovite who set fire to the BMW of a member of the General Staff may have been deceived]. Радио Свобода (in Russian). 28 August 2022. Retrieved 28 August 2022.
  44. ^ "На РЖД сходят с рельсов вагоны – почему?" [Wagons derailed at Russian Railways - why?]. www.rzd-partner.ru (in Russian). Archived from the original on 5 July 2022. Retrieved 5 July 2022.
  45. ^ "Антивоенные активисты взяли ответственность за сход с рельсов вагонов в Приамурье" [Anti-War Activists Take Responsibility for the Derailment of Wagons in the Amur Region]. Новые Времена (in Russian). 1 July 2022. Archived from the original on 1 July 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  46. ^ "В Приамурье 19 вагонов сошли с ж/д-путей, остановлен Транссиб. Ответственность за диверсию взяли на себя антивоенные активисты" [In the Amur region: 19 wagons derailed, the Trans-Siberian stopped. Anti-war activists claim responsibility for sabotage]. Общая Газета.eu. Archived from the original on 9 July 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  47. ^ "ACLED Regional Overview: Europe, Caucasus, and Central Asia (25 June-1 July 2022)". ReliefWeb. 7 July 2022.
  48. ^ Szabelak, Adam (1 July 2022). "Partyzanci kolejowi w Rosji przyznali się do wykolejenia wagonów na Dalekim Wschodzie" [Railway Partisans in Russia Admit to Derailing Carriages in the Far East]. Kresy (in Polish).
  49. ^ ""Рельсовые диверсанты" сообщили о сходе поезда в Твери" ["Rail Saboteurs" report derailment of a train in Tver]. Новые Времена (in Russian). Archived from the original on 14 July 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  50. ^ "В Красноярске сошли с рельсов 8 вагонов" [8 Wagons Derailed in Krasnoyarsk]. Новые Времена. Archived from the original on 16 July 2022. Retrieved 16 July 2022.
  51. ^ "В Красноярском крае сошел с рельсов поезд" [Train Derailed in Krasnoyarsk Territory]. Новые Времена. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  52. ^ "В Махачкале "из-за аномальной жары" сошел с рельсов поезд" [Train Derailed in Makhachkala "Due to Abnormal Heat"]. newtimes.ru. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  53. ^ "Товарные вагоны на перегоне между Калмыкией и Дагестаном сошли с рельсов из-за диверсии – источник" [Freight cars on the haul between Kalmykia and Dagestan derailed due to sabotage - source]. RFE/RL (in Russian). 25 July 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  54. ^ "Активисты жд-сопротивления сообщили о сходе вагонов" [Railway Resistance Activists Report Derailment of Wagons]. Новые Времена (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  55. ^ Кочкина, Катерина (13 March 2022). "Поджоги военкоматов и железнодорожное сопротивление. Как действует антивоенное подполье в России" [Arson of military enlistment offices and railway resistance. How the anti-war underground operates in Russia]. Настоящее Время. Archived from the original on 15 May 2022. Retrieved 16 May 2022.
  56. ^ Ostrov, Georgiy (12 May 2022). "Russische Anti-Kriegs-Bewegung berichtet über Sabotage gegen Bahnstrecken" [Russian anti-war movement reports sabotage against railway lines]. Tichys Einblick (in German). Archived from the original on 26 August 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  57. ^ "Daria Dugina's assassination could spell trouble for Putin's allies in Russia". NPR.org. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  58. ^ Mohammed Tawfeeq, Josh Pennington, Jonny Hallam, Tara John and Rob Picheta (21 August 2022). "Car bomb kills daughter of 'spiritual guide' to Putin's Ukraine invasion - Russian media". CNN. Retrieved 26 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  59. ^ "Treasury Sanctions Russians Bankrolling Putin and Russia-Backed Influence Actors". United States Department of the Treasury. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  60. ^ "Ex-Russian MP claims Russian partisans responsible for Moscow car bomb". the Guardian. 21 August 2022. Retrieved 24 August 2022.
  61. ^ "Знищення Дугіної. Насильницький супротив буде зростати, іншого шляху немає – Ілля Пономарьов" [Liquidation of Dugina: "Violent resistance will grow, there is no other way" - Ilya Ponomarev]. YouTube. Радіо НВ. 22 August 2022.
  62. ^ Kadik, Lev (22 May 2022). "Заикнулись о вооруженной борьбе. "Спектр" понаблюдал за антивоенной конференцией Форума свободной России в Вильнюсе" [Hinting at armed struggle: Spektr watched the anti-war conference of the Free Russia Forum in Vilnius]. Спектр-Пресс (in Russian). Archived from the original on 22 May 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  63. ^ a b "В РОССИИ СОЗДАНА НАЦИОНАЛЬНАЯ РЕСПУБЛИКАНСКАЯ АРМИЯ, ОСУЩЕСТВИВШАЯ ПОКУШЕНИЕ НА ДУГИНА" [Statement of The National Republican Army (NRA) OF 2022-08-21], Утро Февраля (in Russian), YouTube, 21 August 2022, archived from the original on 31 August 2022, retrieved 21 August 2022
  64. ^ "ЗАЯВЛЕНИЕ НАЦИОНАЛЬНОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКАНСКОЙ АРМИИ (НРА) ОТ 21.08.2022" [Statement of The National Republican Army (NRA) OF 2022-08-21]. Роспартизан (in Russian). Archived from the original on 21 August 2022. Retrieved 21 August 2022.
  65. ^ Welle (www.dw.com), Deutsche, Nobody had previously ever heard of the National Republican Army: Prof. Sergey Radchenko | DW | 22 August 2022, retrieved 23 August 2022
  66. ^ Young, Cathy (25 August 2022). "The Dugina Killing Aftermath". The Bulwark. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  67. ^ "Russia accuses Ukraine of killing nationalist's daughter, Putin gives her award". Reuters. 22 August 2022. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
  68. ^ "Russia blames Ukraine for nationalist's car bombing death". Washington Post. 22 August 2022.
  69. ^ Troianovski, Anton; Nechepurenko, Ivan; Gettleman, Jeffrey (21 August 2022). "Russia Opens Murder Investigation After Blast Kills Daughter of Putin Ally". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  70. ^ "A car bomb killed the daughter of a Putin ideologist Saturday. Ukraine denies involvement: 'We are not a criminal state like Russian Federation'". Fortune. Bloomberg. Archived from the original on 22 August 2022. Retrieved 22 August 2022.
  71. ^ ERR, ERR, ERR News | (23 August 2022). "Minister: FSB claim of alleged assassin fleeing to Estonia is provocation". ERR. Retrieved 25 August 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  72. ^ "Заявление Российского комитета действия от 22 августа 2022 года" [Statement of the Russian Action Committee of August 22, 2022]. Комитет действия (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  73. ^ "Statement of the Russian Action Committee 22.08.2022". Russian Action Committee (in Russian and English). Archived from the original on 23 August 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  74. ^ "Vladimir Putin's spy plane 'destroyed by drones'". The Independent. 27 February 2023. Retrieved 2 March 2023.
  75. ^ "Russian Plane Destroyed at Belarus Airstrip – Opposition". The Moscow Times. 27 February 2023.
  76. ^ "🔴 Live: Putin accuses Ukrainian 'neo-Nazis' of deadly attack in Russia". France 24. 2 March 2023.
  77. ^ "The Kremlin on Thursday blamed Ukraine for an attack in two villages in the Bryansk region of western Russia". Washington Post.
  78. ^ ""Борются только с теми, кого боятся": Телеграм заблокировал канал рельсовых партизан в России" [“They fight only with those they are afraid of”: Telegram blocks the channel of rail guerrillas in Russia]. Апостроф (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  79. ^ "Activatica". Activatica (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  80. ^ "Роскомнадзор заблокировал сайт движения "Останови вагоны"" [Roskomnadzor blocks the website of the movement "Stop the Wagons"]. DOXA News. 18 July 2022. Archived from the original on 25 September 2022. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  81. ^ "Роскомнадзор заблокировал сайт движения "Останови вагоны"" [Roskomnadzor blocks the website of the "Stop the Wagons" movement]. The Village (in Russian). Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  82. ^ "Telegram оштрафовали на 7 млн рублей за отказ удалить инструкции по проведению диверсий" [Telegram fined 7 million rubles for refusing to remove sabotage instructions]. ТАСС (in Russian). 16 August 2022.
  83. ^ "Moscow Court Fines Telegram, Twitch For Failing To Delete 'Illegal' Content". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 26 August 2022.
  84. ^ "Telegram fined for refusing to delete channel with sabotage instructions". TASS. Retrieved 26 August 2022.