2020 coronavirus pandemic in Cambodia

The first case of the pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was confirmed in Cambodia on 27 January 2020.[2] According to Global Health Security Index's report in 2019, Cambodia ranked 89th out of 195 countries in preparedness for infectious disease outbreak.[3]

2020 coronavirus pandemic in Cambodia
COVID-19 Outbreak Cases in Cambodia.svg
Map of provinces with coronavirus cases:
  Confirmed cases reported
  Suspected cases reported
(as of 8 April 2020)
DiseaseCOVID-19
Virus strainSARS-CoV-2
LocationCambodia
First outbreakWuhan, Hubei, China
Index caseSihanoukville
Arrival date27 January 2020
(2 months, 1 week and 5 days)
Confirmed cases117
Suspected cases5,659 (as of 31 March)
Recovered63[1]
Deaths
0
Official website
www.cdcmoh.gov.kh
Suspected cases have not been confirmed as being due to this strain by laboratory tests, although some other strains may have been ruled out.

BackgroundEdit

On 12 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) confirmed that a novel coronavirus was the cause of a respiratory illness in a cluster of people in Wuhan City, Hubei Province, China, which was reported to the WHO on 31 December 2019.[4][5]

The case fatality ratio for COVID-19 has been much lower than SARS of 2003,[6][7] but the transmission has been significantly greater, with a significant total death toll.[8][6]

TimelineEdit

 
Preventive measures poster by Communicable Disease Control Department

27 JanuaryEdit

 
An empty hand sanitizer shelf in Kep on January 28, the day after the first case was confirmed in Cambodia

At 3 p.m, the first case had been confirmed in Sihanoukville on a 60-year-old Chinese man who arrived in 23 January from Wuhan, Hubei with his family. Three other members of his family were placed under quarantine as they did not appear to have symptoms, while he was placed in a separate room at the Preah Sihanouk Referral Hospital.[9][10][11]

10 FebruaryEdit

After two weeks of being treated and kept under observation, he had fully recovered, Health Ministry stated on account of testing negative for the third time by Pasteur Institute of Cambodia. The family were finally discharged and flew back to their home country on the next day as of the 80 Chinese nationals who arrived in Sihanoukville on the same flight as him, most have since returned to China, although the city of Wuhan remains under quarantine.[12][13]

13 FebruaryEdit

The cruise ship MS Westerdam was reportedly taking 1,455 passengers and 802 crew around Asia, 651 of whom were U.S citizens. The ship was previously docked in Hong Kong, around the time it was badly hit by the virus.[14] The Westerdam arrived in Sihanoukville on 13 February after it had been turned away by four countries due to virus concerns. About 20 passengers on board, who were unwell, took clinical tests but the vast majority had their temperature taken and filled out a form. Most of these passengers then disembarked.

Of 145 Westerdam passengers who stopped in Malaysia by plane on 15 February, an 83-year-old American woman tested positive for the virus, leading to concern that other passengers may also have been infected.[15] By only then, the remaining of 781 passengers were isolated and taken clinical tests, and still, the Westerdam was criticized as it was not designed for quarantine and the passengers were able to socialize.[citation needed]

A comedian based in Oregon who was hired to perform on the Westerdam was said to have flouted the quarantine by sneaking a flight back to Seattle.[16] However, he averred that the quarantine never took place and was cleared by US CDC on both ends.[17]

Later tests on the American woman who had already returned home showed negative as she never had carried the virus after all, US CDC stated on 6 March.[18] While the CDC had not tested the woman directly, it was confirmed that after the patient's initial positive result, two subsequent tests came back negative. It wasn't clear why she initially tested positive for COVID-19, though CDC officials have said she might have had other respiratory illness.

7 MarchEdit

The second case of the coronavirus was a 38-year-old man, a Cambodian in Siem Reap. He was among four people (three of the man's relatives and a Japanese woman) placed under quarantine at Siem Reap Provincial Referral Hospital, all of whom had direct contact with a Japanese man in his 40s who left Cambodia on 3 February and tested positive upon arrival in his country at Chubu Centrair International Airport in Tokoname, Aichi. Meanwhile, some 40 other people in the same city had been isolated under medical supervision since indirect contacts with the same Japanese man. The government prompted its decision to close all schools and cancelled the upcoming Songkran in the city.[19][20]

10 MarchEdit

The Ministry of Health confirmed the country's third case. At 4:30 p.m, a 65-year-old British woman had tested positive for the virus in Kampong Cham. She was a passenger of a cruise ship named Viking Cruise Journey, which travelled from Ho Chi Minh City to Kampong Cham City.[21]

The woman took a flight from London straight to Hanoi on 2 March then another flight to Ho Chi Minh City with four other people, all British. Arriving to Phnom Penh on 7 March via the cruise, it was reported that a Vietnamese woman, who was seated next to the group on the plane from London, had carried the virus. The group of five were taken samples for testing. Two of them refused, claiming that they were healthy and having no symptoms, until the cruise ship reached Kampong Cham on 9 March.[22]

11 MarchEdit

Following the event, the boat had been docked to provide samples to be tested from all 29 other passengers and 34 crew and were they placed under quarantine in a hotel somewhere in the city.[23]

The British patient was transferred to Royal Phnom Penh Hospital in Phnom Penh at her own request, adding that she had been conducted with coordination from WHO.[24]

12 MarchEdit

Another cases of two passengers of Viking Cruise Journey were publicly confirmed at noon to have tested positive in a British man, 73 and his wife, 69, bringing up to five the confirmed cases at the time. Due to their ages, the married couple were transferred to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital in Phnom Penh.[25][26]

13 MarchEdit

The health officials confirmed two cases in Phnom Penh at 8 p.m sharp, tallying to seven in total. A 49-year-old Canadian and a 33-year-old Belgian were in quarantine in Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital.[27] The authorities were trying to locate those who had contacts with the patients.[28]

For the time being, another two visitors to Tuol Sleng Genocide Museum (A British and his friend, a Canadian woman who worked in China) were suspected to have the symptoms and admitted to the said hospital. A British man, however, made an escape but was found later in Kampot and hospitalized there. They were tested negative, assuming it was just a fever they had. Nevertheless, their self-monitoring was needed for any changes.

All cruise ships had since been prohibited to enter the country through K'am Samnar checkpoint and any other checkpoints.[29][30]

14 MarchEdit

Resulting from the previous day, at 12:57 p.m, MOEYS published an article, declaring that they would have to shut down all educational institutes in Phnom Penh for a while until further notice, so did an NGO of where the Belgian man had been working at.[31][32]

According to Ministry of Health's press release, Cambodia announced a ban on all entries from Italy, Germany, Spain, France and the United States, thereby all visas would be undeniably suspended. This policy would be held for thirty days, effective on March 17.[33]

15 MarchEdit

Iran was added to the list of countries whose nationals were suspended entry to Cambodia, making a total of six. This would take effect on 18 March.[34]

An additional case of COVID-19 was confirmed in Phnom Penh at 5 p.m sharp on a French man, 35. With his wife and his four-month-old baby, the family flew from Paris to Singapore on 13 March. Showing signs of fever, the authorities there took his samples for examination. To wait for the results, he wasn't allowed to go any further, however as a follow-up health checkup was presented, he was informed that he could carry on and the results would be available accordingly.

The family were off, landed at Phnom Penh International Airport on the morning of 14 March. The same day, the test came back positive. As of 15 March, the man was admitted to Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital while his wife and child, were staying at home of a relative under medical supervision.[35]

Contacts with the man were found in the plane he boarded, in total of 24 passengers (including him and his family), and another two transporters who drove them home, to be examined. At 9 p.m, a report of 4 more cases were publicized, tallied up to twelve at the end of the day. It included a 4-month-old child of the French patient, a Cambodian from France, and two Khmer Muslims, 35 and 39, who attended a mosque event near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia on 29 February. The ten mosque event attendees arrived at Preah Vihear (except one, who arrived at Stung Treng) on 3 March and up to 14 March, Malaysia informed that it had found the infected from that gathering. Another 8 people were continually in testing.[36][37]

16 MarchEdit

The closures of educational institutions had then been expanded nationwide.[38]

17 MarchEdit

Within the span of two days, total confirmed cases leapt to 33.[39][40]

At half past 9 a.m, 12 cases were publicly stated. 11 Khmer Muslims were found to be infected in various provinces. They were among 79 people returning from attending a mosque event in Malaysia. One case further referred to a Cambodian man who crossed the border from Thailand in Banteay Meanchey.[41]

At 9:00 p.m, nine more cases were included, six more attendees in Malaysia and three Malaysians out of a group of five. Two of the group were put under quarantine at a mosque in Kep.[42]

The government mandated the extended closure to karaoke clubs and cinemas and forbid all religious gatherings and concerts.[43][44][45]

18 MarchEdit

Four more cases were detected: two Malaysians in Kampot and two more tabligh attendees in Tboung Khmum.[46]

In response to Vietnam's unilaterally shutting down borders with Cambodia without prior notice, the Ministry of Foreign Affairs announced to suspend all border crossings with Vietnam for a month-long period with the exception of diplomats and official passport holders. The measure would take effect on 20 March to avert inconvenience quarantine requirements for both nations.[47][48]

It was reported that Thailand unilaterally closed Cambodian-Thai provincial border crossing, An Ses-Preah Vihear.

The government had established a national committee for combating the COVID-19, it had duties to set national policy and strategy related to the fight against the COVID-19 and control the impact of the virus on politics, economy, and society at national and international levels. The committee was obliged to direct the implementation of the strategic plan in preventing, containing and controlling the spread of the virus.[49]

19 MarchEdit

Ten more cases were detected: two wives of the infected men, two more tabligh attendees, and six Malaysians.[50]

20 MarchEdit

The Ministry of Health announced an additional 4 confirmed cases: a Malaysian, and three Cambodians, one of whom was infected from an attendee from Malaysia and had no recent travel record overseas.[51]

21 MarchEdit

Two more cases were confirmed at 9 p.m, a 67-year-old and an 80-year-old Frenchmen who arrived Sihanoukville as tourists on 18 March. 37 people suspected to have contacts with were put under quarantine.[52]

22 MarchEdit

Having tested negative for a few times, a 65-year-old patient, British woman was reported that she fully recovered. She was said to be discharged later that day.

After bilateral meetings between Cambodia and Thailand was resulted in agreement upon closing all borders starting from 23 March for 14 days. An exception was made at Poipet-Aranyaprathet border crossing where only heavy-duty trucks were allowed under strict conditions. [53]

At 10 p.m, more 29 people linked in the same tourist group of the cases confirmed the previous night, plus two Cambodian guides were detected of the virus. The tourist group arrived Cambodia on March 11, visiting four provinces. As the tour ended in Sihanoukville on 18 March, the group had stayed in Independence Hotel and was scheduled to depart from Phnom Penh on 21 March.[54]

23 MarchEdit

At 19:30, three new cases were recorded to include a mother of a 4-month-old child whom she and her infant had been placed under treatment at the Kantha Bopha Children's Hospital and other two Cambodians.[55]

Human Rights Watch said that the Cambodian government was using the Covid-19 outbreak to crack down on opposition. 17 people, including four members of the former Cambodia National Rescue Party (CNRP), had been arrested since January because they shared information about the coronavirus in Cambodia.[56]

24 MarchEdit

The Health Ministry registered four new cases, risen up to 91. A British couple and an American couple were passengers of Viking Cruise Journey where the rest of them, 24 people were cleared and would depart for home from Phnom Penh via charter flights the next day.[57] It also added that four patients, two from Tboung Khmum and another two from Battambang, were all tested negative twice and ready to be discharged.[58]

25 MarchEdit

Cambodia recorded five new cases, two from the French tourist group and 3 Cambodians with no recent foreign travels.[59]

Four more patients, three from Phnom Penh and one from Tboung Khmum, had made complete recovery for that day.[60]

174 Chinese nationals had been quarantined in Svay Rieng upon their arrival from Phnom Penh by bus after two of them exhibited high temperatures.[61][62]

26-31 MarchEdit

Reportedly around 40 thousand workers from Thailand had returned home. The local authorities were ordered to pay close attention and getting them informed on preventive measures and self-quarantine themselves for two weeks.[63]

On 26–28 March, two Indonesians taking off from Thailand and a Cambodian family of four who went on a trip to France were added to confirmed cases.[64][65][66]

On 29–31 March, six cases were added to the total of 109 at the month's end.[67][68][69]

Eleven patients from Koh Kong, Banteay Meanchey, Phnom Penh, Kampong Chhnang, Battambang and Siem Reap was reported to have recovered from the disease.[70][71][72]

On 28 March, The government mandated to impose travel restrictions to Cambodia, effective on 30 March. It stated that it would suspend visa exemption policy and issuance of tourist visa, e-visa and visa on arrival to all foreigners for a period of one month. Any foreign individual entering the country must obtain a prior visa from Cambodian missions abroad and provide a medical certificate, issued no more than 72 hours prior to arrival time and proof that he/she holds at least 50 thousand dollars for medical coverage.[73]

The authorities had traced 340 people who had indirect contacts with infected French tourist group in Siem Reap.[74]

On 30 March, all casinos were ordered to close temporarily starting from 1 April.[75]

The authorities in Cambodia were called out by Human Rights Watch on 30 March, 2020, for the use of provocative expressions against the vulnerable factions of people and foreigners, with regard to the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. The rights advocacy group demanded the government to limit sharing personal information such as, ethnicity, political affiliation, religion, race and sexual identity, of COVID-19 patients to prevent discrimination and violence against them based on the cited factors.[76]

Confirmed CasesEdit

Confirmed cases by provinces, gender and age

Province # of cases Re⁠covered Classi⁠fication # of Cases
Banteay Meanchey 4 3 All 117
Battambang 8 3 (+1)[77] Sex Male 83
Kampong Cham 16 5 Female 34
Kampong Chhnang 3 2 Age Above 80 1
Kampot 2 2 70-79 7
Kandal 2 1 60-69 40
Kep 4 2 50-59 17
Koh Kong 2 1 40-49 16
Phnom Penh 23 15 (+2)[78] 30-39 27
Preah Vihear 2 1 20-29 7
Siem Reap 7 3 10-19 1
Sihanoukville 40 19 0-9 1
Tboung Khmum 4 3 n/d 0

Details of the confirmed cases in Cambodia

Case Date Age Gen⁠der National⁠ity Detection location Treatment facility Previous country been to Status Note Source
1 27 January 2020 60 Male   China Sihanoukville Preah Si⁠hanouk Referral Hospital   China Dis⁠charged (10 February) Arrived from Wuhan on 23 January with his family. [9]
2 7 March 2020 38   Cambodia Siem Reap Siem Reap Referral Hospital No Dis⁠charged (30 March) To have person-to-person spread from his employer, a Japanese man in his 40s. [19]
3 10 March 2020 65 Female   United Kingdom Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Pro⁠vincial Hospital   Vietnam Dis⁠charged (22 March) Case 3-⁠5 were passengers of Viking Cruise Journey. Boarded the same plane from London to Hanoi. Possibly infected from a Vietnamese woman.
Case 4 and 5 are married couple.
[21]
Royal Ph⁠nom Penh Hospital
4 12 March 2020 73 Male Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March) [25]
5 69 Female
6 13 March 2020 49 Male   Canada Phnom Penh   Thailand In-patient [28]
7 33   Belgium Undisclosed Dis⁠charged (2 April) Identity requested to be concealed.
8 15 March 2020 35   France   Singapore   Singapore Dis⁠charged (29 March) Arrived from Singapore on 14 March. Possibly infected in France. [35][37]
9 4 months Phnom Penh National Pediatric Hospital Dis⁠charged (3 April) Child of case 8. Spread from his father.
Kantha Bopha Hospital IV
10 39   Cambodia Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital   France Dis⁠charged (4 April) Identity covered by the government. Later revealed to be a senior official of Foreign Affairs.
11 35 Preah Vihear Preah Vihear Provincial Hospital   Malaysia In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia. Arrived Cambodia on 3 March.
12 39 Dis⁠charged (29 March)
13 17 March 2020 38 Banteay Meanchey Banteay Meanchey Provincial Hospital   Thailand Dis⁠charged (30 March) Based in Serei Saophoan. [41][42]
14 41   Malaysia Dis⁠charged (27 March) Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.

Case 23 is a Malay translator, workplace in Kep.

15 63 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
16 64 Dis⁠charged (27 March)
17 75 Kampong Chhnang Kampong Chhnang Provincial Hospital In-patient
18 28 Dis⁠charged (7 April)
19 38 Battambang Battambang Provincial Hospital In-patient
20 41 Dis⁠charged (24 March)
21 42
22 45 In-patient
23 30 Kep Kep Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (1 April)
24 61 Tbong Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (24 March)
25 40 Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (2 April)
26 27 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
27 40 Dis⁠charged (7 April)
28 36 Kampong Chhnang Kampong Chhnang Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (29 March)
29 58   Malaysia Kep Kep Provincial Hospital In-patient
30 61 Dis⁠charged (1 April)
31 66 In-patient
32 57   Cambodia Koh Kong Koh Kong Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (26 March) Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
33 53 Tboung Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (24 March)
34 18 March 2020 60   Malaysia Kampot Kampot Provincial Hospital Dis⁠charged (4 April) [46]
35 64
36 71   Cambodia Tboung Khmum Tboung Khmum Provincial Hospital In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
37 52 Discharged (25 March)
38 19 March 2020 35 Female Battambang Bat⁠tambang Provincial Hospital No Dis⁠charged (4 April) To have person-to-person spread from her husband, Case 22. [50]
39 41 In-patient To have person-to-person spread from her husband, Case 21.
40 60 Male Kandal Kandal Pro⁠vincial Hospital   Malaysia Dis⁠charged (4 April) Attendee of a mosque event in Malaysia.
41 34 Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital In-patient Religious worker from Kampot, had stayed in Phnom Penh for a few days.
42 26   Malaysia Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital Discharged (6 April) Religious workers temporarily in Kang Meas.
43 34 In-patient
44 34 In-patient
45 51 In-patient
46 58 In-patient
47 62 Dis⁠charged (5 April)
48 20 March 2020 39 Discharged (6 April) [51]
49 33   Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital No Discharged (25 March) To have person-to-person spread from someone who attended the mosque event.
50 38 Battambang Battambang Provincial Hospital   Malaysia In-patient Attendees of a mosque event in Malaysia.
51 48 In-patient
52 21 March 2020 67   France Sihanoukville Preah Si⁠hanouk Provincial Hospital Possibly
  France
Discharged (8 April) A tourist group arrived Cambodia on 11 March. For the final tour in Sihanoukville, they had stayed at Independent Hotel on 18 March and planned to depart on 21 March. Unspecified: Four men and four women were recovered on 4 March. [52]
53 80 In-patient
54 22 March 2020 48 Female In-patient [54]
55 59 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
56 66 In-patient
57 61 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
58 63
59 52 In-patient
60 62 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
61 66 In-patient
62 59 In-patient
63 63 In-patient
64 76 In-patient
65 60 In-patient
66 63 In-patient
67 60 In-patient
68 69 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
69 69 In-patient
70 59 In-patient
71 66 Male Dis⁠charged (2 April)
72 57 In-patient
73 70 In-patient
74 70 In-patient
75 63 Discharged (8 April)
76 63 In-patient
77 63 In-patient
78 52 Dis⁠charged (2 April)
79 64 In-patient
80 62 In-patient
81 61 In-patient
82 58 In-patient
83 39   Cambodia No Dis⁠charged (4 April) Tour guides to the group above.
84 33 In-patient
85 23 March 2020 45 Male Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Pro⁠vincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from Malaysian(s) while both attended a local event in Kang Meas from 12 to 16 March. [55]
86 36 Koh Kong Koh Kong Provincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from his friend, Case 32
87 28 Female   France Phnom Penh Kantha Bopha Hospital   Singapore In-patient Mother of Case 9. Currently nursing the child in the same hospital.
88 24 March 2020 61 Male   United Kingdom Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital   Vietnam In-patient Passengers of Viking Cruise Journey.

Case 90 and 91 are married couple.

[58]
89 79 Female In-patient
90 59 Male   United States In-patient
91 62 Female In-patient
92 25 March 2020 64 Male   France Sihanoukville Preah Sihanouk Provincial Hospital Possibly
  France
Dis⁠charged (4 April) From a tourist group, Case 52-82 [59]
93 60 Female In-patient
94 27 Male   Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital No Discharged (8 April) Based in Poipet.
95 59 Kandal Kandal Provincial Hospital In-patient To have person-to-person spread from Case 40
96 37 Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital In-patient Driver for the French tourist group.
97 26 March 2020 41 Male   Indonesia   Thailand In-patient Medically tested in Thailand. [65]
98 44 In-patient
99 28 March 2020 62   Cambodia Phnom Penh Chak Angre Krom Hospital   France In-patient The family went on a trip to France. The man, Case 99 was back home on 15 March before the rest (his wife, Case 100 and his children, Case 101-102), later on 24 March. [64]
100 61 Female Dis⁠charged (7 April)
101 39 Male In-patient
102 37 Female Discharged (8 April)
103 29 March 2020 36 Female Banteay Meanchey Banteay Meanchey Provincial Hospital Undisclosed In-patient A casino staff. Possibly had contacts with Thai national. [67]
104 30 March 2020 30 Male No Dis⁠charged (7 April) A casino staff. [68]
105 36 Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital   Japan Discharged (8 April) Arrived Cambodia on 28 March. Based in Kampong Cham.
106 20 Female   United Kingdom In-patient A college student. Arrived Cambodia on 28 March.
107 61 Male   France   Guyana In-patient Arrived Cambodia on 22 March.
108 31 March 2020 39 Female   Cambodia Siem Reap Siem Reap Provincial Hospital No Dis⁠charged (7 April) Wife of Case 25, to have person-to-person spread from her husband [69]
109 12 Male In-patient Child of Case 108
110 2 April 2020 58 Sihanoukville Undisclosed hotel In-patient Hospitality manager for the French tourist group. [79]
111 3 April 2020 67   France Undisclosed, Possibly   France In-patient From the tourist group, Case 52-82 [80]
112 67 Female In-patient
113 57 In-patient From another tourist group of four people.
114 40 Male   Malaysia Kampong Cham Kampong Cham Provincial Hospital   Malaysia Discharged (6 April) A religious worker temporarily in Kang Meas.
115 7 April 2020 27 Female   Vietnam Phnom Penh Khmer-Soviet Friendship Hospital   Vietnam In-patient A tourist went to Vietnam on 2 March via Bavet and back to Cambodia on 10 March. She has a boyfriend, a Chinese national who departed on 3 April and tested positive later in China. [81]
116 8 April 2020 47 Male   Cambodia Chak Angre Krom Hospital No In-patient A friend of the Chinese man whose boyfriend of Case 115. [82]
117 45 Female In-patient Wife of Case 116.


Humanitarian assistanceEdit

On 23 March, a team of seven specialist physicians from southern China's Guangxi with medical supplies, including ventilators, medical masks, protective suits, test kits, and infrared temperature sensors, had landed in Phnom Penh to assist tackling the pandemic.[83][84]

ReferencesEdit

  1. ^ "COVID-19 Tracking System". Ministry of Health of Cambodia. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  2. ^ "Cambodia confirms first case of coronavirus: Health minister". CNA.asia. 27 January 2020. Archived from the original on 27 January 2020. Retrieved 27 January 2020.
  3. ^ Global Health Security Index, 2019 Source
  4. ^ Elsevier. "Novel Coronavirus Information Center". Elsevier Connect. Archived from the original on 30 January 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  5. ^ Reynolds, Matt (4 March 2020). "What is coronavirus and how close is it to becoming a pandemic?". Wired UK. ISSN 1357-0978. Archived from the original on 5 March 2020. Retrieved 5 March 2020.
  6. ^ a b "Crunching the numbers for coronavirus". Imperial News. Archived from the original on 19 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  7. ^ "High consequence infectious diseases (HCID); Guidance and information about high consequence infectious diseases and their management in England". GOV.UK. Archived from the original on 3 March 2020. Retrieved 17 March 2020.
  8. ^ "World Federation Of Societies of Anaesthesiologists – Coronavirus". www.wfsahq.org. Archived from the original on 12 March 2020. Retrieved 15 March 2020.
  9. ^ a b "Cambodia Confirms First Coronavirus Case". Voice of America. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  10. ^ 谭欣雨. "Cambodia confirms first case of novel coronavirus: health minister – Chinadaily.com.cn". China Daily. Archived from the original on 28 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  11. ^ "Coronavirus confirmed in Cambodia". Khmer Times-US. 27 January 2020. Retrieved 28 January 2020.
  12. ^ "Cambodia's Only Confirmed Coronavirus Patient has Recovered, says Ministry of Health". Cambodianess.com. 10 February 2020.
  13. ^ "Chinese National Recovers from Novel Coronavirus, Released from Sihanoukville Hospital". VOA Cambodia. 10 February 2020.
  14. ^ "Coronavirus: How did Cambodia's cruise ship welcome go wrong?". BBC News. 20 February 2020.
  15. ^ "Coronavirus Infection Found After Cruise Ship Passengers Disperse". The New York Times. 16 February 2020. Archived from the original on 17 February 2020. Retrieved 17 February 2020.
  16. ^ "Hotel getaway: Oregon comedian quarantined amid cruise ship virus sneaks flight to Seattle". KOMO NEWS. 18 February 2020.
  17. ^ His statements on Twitter (@theMHcomedian)
  18. ^ "U.S. Woman Who Traveled on the Westerdam Cruise Ship Does Not Have Coronavirus After All, CDC Says". TIME. 6 March 2020.
  19. ^ a b "First Case of Virus Found in Cambodian". VOA Cambodia. 7 March 2020.
  20. ^ "First Cambodian tests positive for coronavirus". Reuters. 7 March 2020.
  21. ^ a b "Cambodia confirms third case". Cambodianess.com. 10 March 2020.
  22. ^ "Cambodia Announces Third Virus Case, British Tourist Tests Positive on River Cruise from Vietnam". VOA Cambodia. 10 March 2020.
  23. ^ "Passengers Aboard Riverboat Docked in Kampong Cham to be Tested for COVID-19". Cambodianess. 11 March 2020.
  24. ^ "Cambodia's Third COVID-19 Case to be Transferred to Phnom Penh". Cambodianess. 11 March 2020.
  25. ^ a b "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 on British Citizens". Fresh News. 12 March 2020.
  26. ^ "Two British Tourists Carrying COVID-19 Are Put in Quarantine in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 12 March 2020.
  27. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 Tallying to Seven". Fresh News. 13 March 2020.
  28. ^ a b "Two More Cases of COVID-19 Are Identified in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 13 March 2020.
  29. ^ "Cruise Ships Coming from Vietnam on the Mekong River Can No Longer Enter the Country". Cambodianess. 13 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Cambodia bans cruise ships, fearing spread of COVID-19". ABS-CBN. 13 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Cambodian Government Temporarily Closes Canadian International School (Koh Pich) after a 49-year-old Canadian Staff Tested Positive of Covid-19". Fresh News. 14 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Schools in Phnom Penh and Siem Reap City Close for Early Summer Vacation". Cambodianess. 14 March 2020.
  33. ^ "Cambodia Bans Entries of Foreigners from Italy, Germany, Spain, France, and US for 30 Days to Prevent Covid-19, Effective 17 March". Fresh News. 14 March 2020.
  34. ^ "Cambodia Bans Entries of Iranians for 30 Days to Prevent Covid-19". Fresh News. 15 March 2020.
  35. ^ a b "A Frenchman Becomes the Latest Person to Test Positive for COVID-19". Cambodianess. 15 March 2020.
  36. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Four New Cases of Covid-19, Tallying to Twelve". Fresh News. 15 March 2020.
  37. ^ a b "(In Khmer) Four other cases of COVID-19 were found". VOD Khmer. 15 March 2020.
  38. ^ "Cambodia Announces Nationwide School Closures as COVID Response Ramps Up". VOA Cambodia. 16 March 2020.
  39. ^ "12 New COVID-19 Cases Confirmed". CNE. 17 March 2020.
  40. ^ "Cambodia Confirms 12 New Cases of Covid-19, Tallying to 24". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  41. ^ a b "Cambodia reports 12 new cases of COVID-19, bringing total to 24". Channel NewsAsia. 17 March 2020.
  42. ^ a b "Health Ministry reports 21 new cases of COVID-19 in six provinces". Khmer Times. 17 March 2020.
  43. ^ "Cambodian Government Closes KTVs and Cinemas Nationwide to Fight Covid-19". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  44. ^ "Cambodian Government Bans Concerts Nationwide to Fight Covid-19". Fresh News. 17 March 2020.
  45. ^ "Health Ministry Stops Religious Gatherings". CNE. 17 March 2020.
  46. ^ a b "COVID-19 infection increases to 37". Khmer Times. 18 March 2020.
  47. ^ "Vietnam shutters borders with Cambodia as pandemic spreads". Khmer Times. 18 March 2020.
  48. ^ "Cambodia Announces to Suspend Crossing Borders with Vietnam". Fresh News. 18 March 2020.
  49. ^ "Cambodia sets national committee to combat COVID-19". XINHUA. 18 March 2020.
  50. ^ a b "Ten New Cases of COVID-19 Are Identified in Cambodia". Cambodianess. 19 March 2020.
  51. ^ a b "Four New COVID-19 Cases Bring Cambodia's Total to 51". Cambodianess. 20 March 2020.
  52. ^ a b "Cambodia reports 2 new COVID-19 cases, bringing total to 53". Xinhua. 21 March 2020.
  53. ^ "ថៃ ប្រកាសបិទច្រកព្រំដែនទាំងអស់ជាមួយកម្ពុជា ដើម្បីទប់ស្កាត់ការរីករាលដាល COVID-19 តែរថយន្តដឹកទំនិញចេញចូលធម្មតា ក្រោមលក្ខខណ្ឌរឹតបន្តឹងខ្លាំង". Fresh News. 22 March 2020.
  54. ^ a b "Cambodia Sees Largest Single-Day Rise in Covid-19 Cases, Now at 84". VOD. 23 March 2020.
  55. ^ a b "Covid-19 cases in Cambodia rise to 87". The Star. 24 March 2020.
  56. ^ Cambodia uses coronavirus crisis to arrest 17 critics, rights group says Reuters, 23 Mar 2020
  57. ^ "22 Viking Cruise Journey passengers fly out of Cambodia". Khmer Times. 26 March 2020.
  58. ^ a b "Cambodia reports four new coronavirus cases, bringing total to 91". Reuters. 24 March 2020.
  59. ^ a b "Kingdom records 96 virus cases". Khmer Times. 25 March 2020.
  60. ^ "Four more COVID-19 patients make complete recovery, bringing total to 10". Khmer Times. 25 March 2020.
  61. ^ "More than 170 Chinese tourists quarantined in Bavet city". Khmer Times. 26 March 2020.
  62. ^ "Chinese Nationals Are Detained at the Bavet International Border". Cambodianess. 26 March 2020.
  63. ^ "Interior Minister Sar Kheng Says 40,000 Cambodians Working in Thailand Came Home". Cambodianess. 26 March 2020.
  64. ^ a b "Four Members of a Cambodian Family Become the Country's Latest COVID-19 Cases". Cambodianess. 28 March 2020.
  65. ^ a b "Two More Covid-19 Cases Raise Infection Count to 98". VOD English. 27 March 2020.
  66. ^ "Two Indonesians flee Thailand to Cambodia for free COVID-19 treatment". Khmer Times. 27 March 2020.
  67. ^ a b "COVID-19 cases rise to 103 in Cambodia with new patient at Poipet". Khmer Times. 29 March 2020.
  68. ^ a b "COVID-19 patients rise to 107". Khmer Times. 30 March 2020.
  69. ^ a b "COVID-19 patients soar to 109 in Cambodia". Khmer Times. 31 March 2020.
  70. ^ "Cambodia Confirms Two New Cases of Covid-19 Today, Tallying to 98; One Recovered". Fresh News. 26 March 2020.
  71. ^ "Two more COVID-19 patients recover, bring number cured to 13". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020.
  72. ^ "Cambodia's recovery rate for COVID-19 stands at 23 percent with 21 recovered out of 103 infected". Khmer News. 29 March 2020.
  73. ^ "Cambodia to impose travel restrictions from Tuesday". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020.
  74. ^ "340 in Siem Reap who had indirect contact with French tour group located". Khmer Times. 28 March 2020.
  75. ^ "All casinos to be temporarily shut on April 1 amid COVID-19 pandemic". Khmer Times. 30 March 2020.
  76. ^ "Cambodia: Fight Discrimination Amid Pandemic". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 30 March 2020.
  77. ^ A 30 year-old Cambodian man was not found in the detailed table below. The Health Ministry had not mentioned him of when he was traced of the virus, only referred him as recovered on 29 March. Source
  78. ^ Two Cambodian men, 71 and 38, who admitted to Chak Angre Krom Hospital were not found in the detailed table below. The Health Ministry had not mentioned them of when they were traced of the virus, only referred them as recovered and had tested negative twice on 25 March, along with 33-year-old man, Case 49. Source
  79. ^ Cite error: The named reference 110 cases was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  80. ^ Cite error: The named reference 114 cases was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  81. ^ Cite error: The named reference 115 cases was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  82. ^ Cite error: The named reference 117 cases was invoked but never defined (see the help page).
  83. ^ "Chinese Doctors and Medical Supplies to Fight Covid-19 Arrive in Phnom Penh". Fresh News. 23 March 2020.
  84. ^ "Chinese medical experts arrive in Cambodia to help fight outbreak". The Star. 23 March 2020.