The 2020–2021 Belarusian protests were a series of mass political demonstrations and protests against the Belarusian government and President Alexander Lukashenko. The largest anti-government protests in the history of Belarus, the demonstrations began in the lead-up to and during the 2020 presidential election, in which Lukashenko sought his sixth term in office. In response to the demonstrations, a number of relatively small pro-government rallies were held.
The protests intensified nationwide after the official election results were announced on the night of 9 August, in which Lukashenko was declared the winner. Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya, the main opponent of Lukashenko, rejected the results as falsified and claimed instead to have received 60–70% of the votes. On 14 August, she announced the creation of the Coordination Council, with membership applications open to all Belarusians who agreed that the official election had been falsified.
On 23 September, Belarusian state media announced that Lukashenko had been inaugurated for another five-year term in a brief ceremony which was held privately. The following day, the EU published a statement that rejected the legitimacy of the election, called for new elections, and condemned the repression and violence against the protesters.
The protesters faced violent persecution by the authorities. A statement by the United Nations Human Rights Office on 1 September cited more than 450 documented cases of torture and ill-treatment of detainees, as well as reports of sexual abuse and rape. At the end of 2020, the Viasna Human Rights Centre documented 1,000 testimonies of torture victims.
Alexander Lukashenko has been the head of state of Belarus since 1994, and did not have a serious challenger in the previous five elections, resulting in being referred to as "Europe's last dictator" by media outlets. Under his authoritarian rule, the government has frequently repressed the opposition.
Lukashenko had faced greater public opposition amid his handling of the COVID-19 pandemic, which Lukashenko had denied as a serious threat. Of the five elections won by Lukashenko, only the first one in 1994 was credibly deemed free and fair by international monitors.
Before the electionEdit
The protests, nicknamed the Slipper Revolution and the Anti-Cockroach Revolution, were initiated by businessman and blogger Sergei Tikhanovsky when he made a reference to the children's poem The Monster Cockroach (Russian: Тараканище, romanized: Tarakanishche) by Korney Chukovsky.
The original story, published in 1923, concerns a dictatorial yet fragile insect and his brief, chaotic reign of terror over all the other animals. It has been compared to The Emperor's New Clothes. In his reference, Tikhanovsky compared Lukashenko to the cockroach in the story. In the original poem, the cockroach is eventually eaten by a sparrow; Tikhanovsky refers to a slipper signifying stamping on the cockroach.
Tikhanovsky traveled across Belarus and streamed interviews with random people on his YouTube channel Country for life (Russian: Страна для жизни, romanized: Strana dlya zhizni). Most of his respondents expressed disagreement with Lukashenko and the current government.
Tikhanovsky was detained in late May 2020 by Belarusian authorities, and was formally accused of being a foreign agent. In June 2020, street protests against Lukashenko took place. Several opposition candidates were registered for the 2020 Belarusian presidential election, but many of them were arrested.
During an interview, Lukashenko claimed that the opposition protests were a part of a plot orchestrated by foreigners, whom he suggested might be Americans, NATO members, Russians, or even Ukrainians. On 19 June, Lukashenko announced that he had "foiled a coup attempt", resulting in the arrest of main opposition rival Viktar Babaryka. According to CNN, Babaryka stated that the charges of bribery and corruption were falsified and the arrest was politically motivated to stop him from winning the presidential election.
When Babaryka was detained by authorities, people began walking in the streets to show their disapproval. Opposition activists, protesters, journalists, and bloggers were arrested as part of the crackdown. The human rights group Viasna estimated that around 1,300 people had been detained for protesting between early May and early August.
Tikhanovsky's wife Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya registered as a candidate in the election after the arrest of Babaryka. Lukashenko insisted the country was not ready for a woman to become president. Unregistered candidate Valery Tsepkalo's wife Veronika Tsepkalo announced that she and Maria Kalesnikava, head of Babaryka's presidential campaign staff, would join Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya's campaign and provide support.
The protests led to questions of how long the crisis may last, and whether it would escalate into violence, possibly evolving into a full revolution, akin to how the Euromaidan protests turned into a revolution in Ukraine in 2014. The German Marshall Fund, a US think tank, noted that the protests were more widespread, and more brutally repressed than previous protests in Belarus.
The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) reported that it would not be monitoring the 2020 election as it wasn't invited to do so. This was the first time since 2001 that the OSCE's Office for Democratic Institutions and Human Rights (ODIHR) did not monitor elections in Belarus. The OSCE has not recognized any elections in Belarus as free and fair since 1995, and the government has obstructed past OSCE election-monitoring missions in the country.
On 24 May, hundreds protested against president Alexander Lukashenko and his decision to run for the 2020 Belarusian presidential election. Anti-government protesters held slippers as a sign of protest against the regime. Rallies and demonstrations continued strongly throughout May and June. On 27 May, protesters marched throughout the country and clashed with police. Slippers were pelted at the police and chants such as "You Cockroach" and "Resign you Rat" were heard. Elderly women and men protested daily until the elections. Balaclava-wearing police were then seen arresting popular YouTuber Sergei Tikhanovsky.
On 29 July, 33 alleged mercenaries from the Wagner Group, a Russian private military company, were arrested in a sanatorium near Minsk. Lukashenko accused Russia of lying about the arrested "mercenaries", saying "So far there is no open warfare, no shooting, the trigger has not yet been pulled, but an attempt to organize a massacre in the center of Minsk is already obvious." Belarusian authorities claimed that Tikhanovsky was working with Russians to destabilize Belarus. All but one of the mercenaries, who was a Belarusian national and remained in custody, were deported to Russia on 14 August despite a request from Ukraine for their extradition.
On 30 July, a permitted rally of presidential candidate Sviatlana Tsikhanouskaya took place in the Friendship of Peoples Park in Minsk. According to human rights activists, 63,000–70,000 people gathered, but a statement from the Belarusian Interior Ministry alleged that only 18,250 people had been recorded passing through the metal-detecting checkpoints set up at the event.
On 6 August an estimated 5,000 peaceful protesters took to the streets in Minsk, waving white ribbons, calling for free and fair elections.
|Anthem used by protestors Pahonia|
|People singing "Pahonia" at the mall|
On 9 August, all roads and entry points to Minsk were blocked by the police and army early in the morning.
In the middle of the day, the Internet in Belarus was partially blocked. Government officials claimed that the reason was a heavy denial-of-service attack originating from outside Belarus. However, independent IT specialists claimed that the Belarusian state Internet monopoly Beltelecom and affiliated state agencies deliberately used deep packet inspection (DPI) technology or traffic shaping, and that issues with the filtering equipment used may have been the cause. Telegram was the only working instant messaging application.
In the evening of the election day immediately after the close of polling stations, the Belarusian government-sponsored TV aired exit poll results showing a supposed landslide with Lukashenko receiving 80.23% of the votes, and Tsikhanouskaya receiving 9.9%. The landslide was so great that even pro-government parts of the Belarusian population found that it was unlikely to be true. This caused an immediate reaction by supporters of Tsikhanouskaya to head to the streets in all major cities in Belarus, such as Brest, Minsk, Viciebsk, Hrodna, Mazyr, Pinsk, Homel, and Babruisk. Protesters were expressing their dissatisfaction and were calling for a fair count of votes. Protests started as peaceful in the middle of the night, but in Minsk, the situation escalated into violence between protesters and authorities. Protesters started building barricades to block traffic on the streets. The number of protesters in Minsk could not be measured as they were not concentrated in a single spot.
At night, after breaking up big crowds, police officers chased smaller groups of protesters through downtown Minsk for several hours. A fight against security forces and police continued in the major cities of Belarus. Law enforcement officers used police batons, rubber bullets (fired from shotguns), grenades with lead balls, water cannons, tear gas, and stun grenades. They used them to suppress the protests as people were chased in the suburbs all night. In Brest, protesters gradually dispersed, leaving a crowd of 200–300 from an estimated previous total of 5,000. That night in Minsk, security forces dropped grenades near people, and leaving some with critical injuries.
People were reported to be arrested while waiting for the election results near their polling stations. In Minsk, a 73-year-old man with a daughter and grandchildren were arrested with nearly 20 other people who gathered near the 86th school after the closure of the polling station. It was reported that they were sentenced to 10 and 25 days in jail. In Baranavichy, two Roman Catholic priests were arrested among others; they were waiting for the results near their polling station.
Coordination Council and National Anti-Crisis ManagementEdit
On 14 August 2020, in a video in which Tsikhanouskaya claimed that she had received 60–70% of the vote, she announced the creation of the Coordination Council for the Transfer of Power.
Tsikhanouskaya stated that the council should be made of "civil society activists, respected Belarusians and professionals" to handle the transfer of power from Lukashenko. Applications for membership of the transitional council were open to any Belarusian citizen who recognised the election as having been falsified, and who was in a position of social trust such as a doctor, a teacher, a business leader, an author, or a sportsperson.
On 17 August 2020, Tsikhanouskaya released a video in which she stated that she was ready to lead a transitional government and to organise a new, free, and fair presidential election. A list of members was circulated on 17 August 2020 and included Nobel Prize laureate Svetlana Alexievich.[non-primary source needed] The first meeting of the Council took place on 18 August 2020 and its leadership was elected the following day.
Lukashenko decried the creation of the council as an 'attempt to seize power' and promised "appropriate measures". On 20 August 2020, the chief prosecutor launched a criminal case against the council, calling it unconstitutional.
United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo, in a statement urged the Belarusian government to actively engage Belarusian society, including through the newly established Coordination Council, "in a way that reflects what the Belarusian people are demanding, for the sake of Belarus’ future, and for a successful Belarus."
Dmitry Peskov, spokesperson for Russian President Vladimir Putin welcomed the fact that the leadership of the Coordination Council did not want to reduce their ties with Russia and instead hoped to continue with good bilateral relationships between the two countries.
On 17 September 2020, the European Parliament recognized the coordination council as the "interim representation of the people" of Belarus.
In late October 2020, the Coordination Council created a shadow government, called National Anti-Crisis Management (NAM), for organising the detailed administrative tasks for a peaceful transfer of power to a fairly and freely elected president. NAM is led by Pavel Latushko and states that it will lose its powers when a new president is inaugurated. In November 2020, NAM published internal reports from the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs showing that 4000 complaints for torture and other illegal actions by security forces had been submitted between 9 August 2020 and 9 November 2020, but all had been ignored by the ministry.
On 10 August, a protester, Alexander Taraikovsky, died near Pushkinskaya metro station. According to the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the protester tried to throw an explosive device at the government troopers and it exploded in his arms. However, some doubts in the circumstances of the death of the 34-year-old man were expressed. It was reported that a massive blood loss due to an open chest wound was recorded in a death certificate. A video was published on 15 August that showed the protester empty handed and while being shot at by police. On 15 August, the Associated Press published a single frame from a video made on 10 August. It showed a man in a white shirt that looked similar to Taraikovsky and that was staggering unsteadily with a big red spot on his chest. No further commentary from the Ministry of Internal Affairs followed, however, according to the Belarusian Investigative Committee, as of 15 August 2020, the circumstances of the Taraikovsky's death were under investigation. Elena German, the wife of Taraikovsky, saw the body in the morgue and reported that there were no injuries to his hands, but there was a small hole in his chest, consistent with a bullet hole. On 15 August, thousands of people gathered at the funeral in Minsk.
On 12 August, 25-year-old Alexander Vikhor died in Homel. He is believed to have had a heart-related disease. According to preliminary information, he died due to waiting in a security forces detainee van for several hours in hot weather. He was in the van because the city's temporary detention centers were overcrowded. Vikhor was sentenced to 10 days in prison, but it was reported that he didn't receive proper medical attention in time.
Also on or around 12 August, 28-year-old Nikita Krivtsov went missing. His body was found on 22 August near Minsk. Krivtsov was a fan of FC Maladzyechna, whose home ground is in the city of Maladzyechna. On 9 August, the day of the election, there was a peaceful protest in Maladzyechna against the official election result. Photographs show Krivtsov at the front of the protest, carrying a white-red-white flag, confronting a line of police. A friend stated that Krivtsov phoned him on 10 August, stating that he was in Minsk and had nearly been arrested by riot police. The friend said Krivtsov phoned him again on 11 August saying that he spent much of the day in a bar. On 12 August, the friend tried phoning Krivtsov but got no answer, which he said was out of character. Another report suggests that on 12 August, Krivtsov was in the city of Zhodzina, where his estranged wife lives with their five-year-old daughter, and that he left Zhodzina to go to the village of Karaliou Stan, where he worked, but he never arrived. On 22 August a watchman found Krivtsov's body in a forest near Minsk. The body was hanging by the neck, but its feet were on the ground. The condition of the body suggested that Krivtsov had been dead for about a week. Police claim that Krivtsov committed suicide, but his family stated that they didn't believe them.
On 15 August, 29-year-old Konstantin Shishmakov (Belarusian: Kanstantsin Shyshmakou), director of the Bagration Military History Museum in Vaukavysk, disappeared. As a member of the election commission, he refused to sign the protocols, called his wife at about 5 pm and said: "I will not work here anymore, I am going home." Shishmakov was later found dead in a river. This was announced by the search and rescue squad "Angel".
On 17 August, the human rights advocates from the Belarusian education and social association "Zvyano" ("Link") issued a report, which said that at least five people had been murdered during the protests, and seven people were in critical medical condition.
On 19 August, 43-year-old Hienadz Shutau died in the Minsk military hospital after he had received gunshot wounds in the head during the 11 August protests in Brest. It was reported that the shot may have been fired by the police. MediaZona later released footage from a security camera, showing the official version a lie, and Shutau in effect being murdered from behind without warning.
On 3 October, Denis Kuznetsov, a 41-year-old male who was detained on 29 September, died in an intensive care unit after being transported there from Akrestsina. According to Kuznetsov's relatives and his medical history, during transportation to the hospital, he informed the medics that he was beaten by the Akrestsina staff, who, in turn, claimed that Kuznetsov "fell from the top of a bunk bed". The Kuznetsov's clinical diagnosis, among other things, included moderate traumatic brain injury, numerous hematomas, basilar skull fracture, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and fractures of 11 right ribs. In a further comment by the Belarusian Ministry of Internal Affairs, it was reported that results of the preliminary investigation supported the version presented by the Akrestsina staff.
On 11 November, Raman Bandarenka, a 31-year-old Minsk resident, a manager and an art-designer, was attacked and kidnapped from his yard in The Square of Changes. After some time, an ambulance was called to the Central District Department of Internal Affairs, which found Bandarenka unconscious. He was admitted to the intensive care unit of the Minsk BHMP (Minsk City Emergency Hospital) on 12 November 2020 at 00:05, where he was diagnosed with a severe closed traumatic brain injury, the acute subdural hematomas of the head, cerebral hemorrhage, and multiple soft tissue injuries. He was in a coma and underwent surgery, but medics were unable to save Bandarenka due to his serious condition. Bandarenka died on the evening of 12 November 2020.
The authorities and leaders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs never claimed that people died at the hands of police representatives.
Human rights issuesEdit
According to numerous publications, the suppression of the 2020 Belarusian protests was accompanied by extreme police violence, and systematic violation of human rights throughout stages of the detention process.[excessive citations]
On 14 August, the World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) issued a statement that condemned the arbitrary detainment and torture of protesters across Belarus following the election. According to the statement, such actions suggested crimes against humanity. The statement also called for an unbiased worldwide investigation into the "systematic and extremely violent oppression" of peaceful protests in Belarus.
On 19 August, the classification of these events as crimes against humanity, in accordance with the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, was supported in a Human Rights Foundation (HRF) statement. According to the statement, HRF identified fifteen persons from the Belarusian state apparatus who were responsible for the arbitrary detention, beating, and torture of thousands of peaceful protesters. Letters informing these persons of imminent criminal prosecution for crimes against humanity were sent to each of them on 17 August.
On 17 August, the human rights advocates from the Belarusian education and social association "Zvyano" ("Link") issued the "Report on the violation of human rights of the participants in the protests in Belarus from 7 to 14 August 2020", based on interviews with 30 victims of the police abuse, as well as on interviews with doctors of several Minsk hospitals. Some of the cases were supported by audio or video evidence. On that same day, a statement to the Prosecutor General's Office of Belarus with request to perform an investigation of the police' actions on the basis of 16 articles of Criminal Code of Belarus, including murder, torture, and rape, was issued by Viktar Babaryka's electoral campaign manager, Maria Kalesnikava.
The numerous human rights violations were corroborated and condemned by a number of former or current Belarusian police officers, such as Sergei Mikhasev, former employee of the Viciebsk police department, who was detained along with other protesters and spent several days in a detention center, and Yuri Makhnach, a police officer from Lida, who stated that the authorities had prepared them for a war against their own people.
In a 20 August statement by the United States Secretary of State, Mike Pompeo underlined that the USA supported international efforts to look independently into Belarus’ electoral irregularities, the human rights abuses that surrounded the election, and the crackdown that had followed.
In a 21 August statement by the UN High Commissioner for Human Rights, it was noted that, despite the majority of the detainees being released, serious concerns remained about the eight missing protesters and the sixty accused of serious criminal acts. The statement underlined the lack of information about the detainees' status and called for the government to stop unlawfully detaining people. The Commissioner also confirmed that there were four deaths and was greatly concerned about the allegations of large-scale torture and ill-treatment of people, including journalists and children.
On 1 September, in a statement by the UN human rights experts, more than 450 documented cases of torture and ill-treatment of detainees were mentioned, including sexual abuse and rape with rubber batons of men, women, and children.
The Ministry of Internal Affairs of Belarus rejected allegations of abuse and torture of citizens detained during the protests. However, the beatings of the detainees, including at Akrestsina, were recognized by Alexander Lukashenko himself.
On 26 October, Anais Marin, the UN human rights investigator, called on the Belarus government to "stop repressing its own people". Around 20,000 people were detained in August and September, while hundreds have been reportedly beaten, intimidated, tortured, or ill-treated in custody, according to the sources described by Anais Marin. Belarus has witnessed large-scale demonstrations against President Alexander Lukashenko's re-election to a sixth term in the August 9 voting, which the opposition argues was rigged.
On 3 November 2020, UN experts criticized Belarus government for targeting women human rights defenders, during the mass protests. Three women human rights defenders were detained and persecuted by the authorities for their work as rights activists in September and early October.
On 6 November 2020, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe revealed in a letter about the human rights violations and cases of torture in Belarus, following the elections, where security forces used excessive violence against protesters. The report also stated to hold new presidential elections and initiated an investigation into allegations of torture.
On 15 November 2020, the UN human rights office said the government of Belarus continued to commit human rights violations with impunity against peaceful protesters three months after the country's disputed presidential elections. The Un claimed that the government had responded to these peaceful demonstrations in a heavy-handed manner, with the use of unnecessary or excessive force by law enforcement officials.
On 22 November, more than 200 people were detained in Minsk.
Attacks on journalists and censorshipEdit
During the 2020 Belarusian presidential election, reports of attacks increased. On 23 July, Lukashenko stated during a meeting with the leaders of the country's economic bloc, that his main concern was that the BBC and Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty had encouraged riots while streaming protests. Lukashenko also threatened to expel media and ban them from reporting on the election.
On 9–11 August, several independent journalists were arrested in Minsk, Brest, and Babruisk. According to a statement by the Belarusian Association of Journalists, on 10 August, internal troops and other government forces deliberately shot rubber bullets at independent journalists in Minsk (including TUT.BY and Nasha Niva). The journalists wore special high visibility jackets and had personal IDs. Nasha Niva editor-in-chief (also wearing a jacket) disappeared during the night. He managed to send an SOS SMS message to his wife, saying he was arrested. His fate was unknown as of 13:30 local time, and the Nasha Niva website was not updated for several hours after his presumed arrest. Several journalists, including foreigners, were slightly injured during the suppression of the protests. A rubber bullet hit the plastic ID of Getty Images' photojournalist Michal Fridman. Several Russian journalists from both official media and Internet projects were arrested but released soon after.
On 10 August, local journalists reported problems with all major communication platforms and pro-opposition websites.
On 11 August, it was reported that police officers and other government agents forcibly took away memory cards from journalists' devices. They also forced them to delete photos or crushed their cameras. BBC News Russia reported that three of its journalists were beaten by the government forces that night while covering the protests. Russian journalist Nikita Telizhenko was heavily beaten in Belarusian jail: he was arrested in Minsk and sent to Zhodzina because of jails' overcrowding in Minsk. In Zhodzina he was beaten on his kidneys, legs, and neck, but he was soon released at the Russian embassy's request. Arrested Russian journalist Artyom Vazhenkov was reported to be accused of mass rioting (up to 15 years of prison in Belarus).
On 12 August, Belsat journalist Jauhien Merkis was arrested in Homel while covering the protests. Even though he was there as a journalist, the next day, the local court sentenced him to 15 days in jail for "participation in an unauthorized mass event". He was released soon after, but on 21 August he was arrested again and was given 5 days in jail. Journalist Ruslan Kulevich from Hrodna, arrested on 11 August, was freed on 14 August with fractures of both hands.
One of the few communication systems that managed to avoid censorship was the independent Belarusian-owned Nexta Telegram channel based in Warsaw. The channel's subscribers rose from 100,000 on election night to over a million after a day. The channel published user-generated videos, photos, and comments of the protests. The founder of Nexta himself faced up to 15 years of prison after being indicted by the regime. The use of Telegram software provided the protesters with communication channels to share information and coordinate protest action. Its sister channel Nexta TV has more than 700,000 followers. Belarus of the Brain's had over 470,000 followers. Officials opened a criminal probe into Stepan Putilo, founder of Nexta, on charges of fomenting mass riots. Ihar Losik, founder of the Telegram channel "Republic of Belarus of the Brain", was arrested before the election, but the channel also continued to operate.
On 15 August, a meeting was held with the head of the upper chamber of Parliament of Belarus Natalia Kochanova and press Secretary of the President of Belarus Natalia Eismont. The audience, the workers at the Belarusian TV and radio company in Minsk, asked why the station was not broadcasting the truth. The officials had been escorted to the building by riot police who took control of the building. Thousands of protesters outside demanded the station show people the truth. It was also reported that some staff had resigned and one hundred were planning to strike on Monday.
It was reported that on 18 June, reporters from various countries, arriving in Minsk airport, were pulled out of passport control, interrogated and locked up before being refused entry and being told to buy a plane ticket to some other country, in an attempt to suppress the media.
On 21 August 72 to 73 websites were blocked in Belarus, including several independent news portals (Radio Liberty/Free Europe in Belarus svaboda.org, by.tribuna.com sport news, euroradio.fm (European Radio for Belarus), Belsat.eu (Belsat TV), gazetaby.com, the-village.me/news and others), electoral sites of Tsepkalo and Babaryka, "Golos" and "Zubr" platforms, spring96.org human rights portal, and several VPN services.
As of 21 August, the Belarusian edition of Komsomolskaya Pravda newspaper failed to print three editions, and Narodnaja Volya failed to print a newspaper edition (both newspapers had a contract with the government-controlled printing house). The Belarusian Association of Journalists stated that the real cause was not technical troubles, but an attempt to block information about the protests and violations of human rights. Two other independent newspapers (BelGazeta and Svobodnye Novosti) also were unable to print new editions in Belarus. New editions of Komsomolskaya Pravda and Narodnaja Volya were printed in Russia, but the state network of newsstands "Belsoyuzpechat'" denied to take them for sale. These newspapers also reported that the post service delayed the delivery by subscription.
On 27 August, around 20 journalists, from both local and international media, were detained on Freedom Square in Minsk. The journalists were taken to the Kastrychnitski district police supposedly to check their identity and accreditation.
On 29 August, accreditation of several foreign journalists was revoked; they worked for Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, Associated Press, Reuters, AFP, BBC, ARD, Radio France Internationale, Deutsche Welle and Current Time TV. It was reported that some of them (including Paul Hansen) were deported from Belarus. Independent news web sites naviny.by and nn.by (Nasha Niva) were blocked in Belarus.
On 1 September, 6 Belarusian journalists who covered the protest march of students in Minsk were detained. Initially they were taken to the police office to check the documents, but they were later charged with "participation in an unauthorized mass event" and coordination of the protests.
Starting 5 October, only state-approved and sponsored media were allowed to act as journalists in Belarus. This was achieved through journalist licenses, which was first announced on 2 October after TUT.BY, and several other news organizations were stripped of their journalist mandates. The licenses were strictly issued by the Belarusian government and forbid all medias from chronicling protests, demonstrations and other material deemed as "anti-governmental" by the state.
Photographers working for the Russian state-owned agencies Komsomolskaya Pravda and TASS were detained on 12 October during the second seniors' march.
On 12 November, anarchist activist and journalist Mikola Dziadok was arrested in a safe house in Asipovichy District. His Telegram channel was captured by the police. He was beaten during the arrest. The "Anarchist Black Cross" claimed that he was tortured to give access to his computer data.
On 19 November, NEXTA founder Stepan Putilo and former chief-editor Roman Protasevich were added to the terrorism list by the Belarusian KGB. The list included 726 persons, Putilo and Protasevich were the only Belarusian citizens on it.
On 3 December, a court in Minsk stripped TUT.BY of its media license over allegedly spreading "false information."
On 23 May 2021, Belarusian authorities ordered Ryanair Flight 4978, a passenger plane flying from Greece to Lithuania, to land while over Belarusian airspace, and sent a fighter jet to intercept the plane and escort it to Minsk. While there police entered the plane and arrested Roman Protasevich, a Belarusian journalist who had been critical of Lukashenko's government; the plane was then allowed to leave. The action prompted widespread condemnation and sanctions from various European countries.
On 1 June, Belarusian prisoner Stepan Latypov, detained in a crackdown on protests, attempted to cut his own throat with a pen during a court hearing after telling his family that he had been held in a torture cell for 51 days and being informed by police that his relatives and neighbors would be prosecuted under criminal law if he did not confess.
Persecution on religious groundsEdit
The Christian Vision working group of the Coordination Council reported that during the election campaign and during the protests in 2020, a number of employees of religious organisations were dismissed or forced to resign because of their political beliefs. A number of pastors and priests were detained, sentenced to arrest or fined, received formal warnings from law-enforcing agencies or lost a permission for pastoral activity in Belarus for participating in protests, their public support, or being close to protest sites. Orthodox priest Vladimir Drobyshevsky and his family, the family of Old Believers German and Natalia Snezhkov and Roman Catholic priest Dzmitry Prystupa left Belarus escaping persecution. The Investigative Committee submitted the content of Roman Catholic priest Viachaslau Barok's video blog for examination on suspicion of extremism. The Belarusian Orthodox Church and two Greek Catholic parishes received formal warnings of violating the law, which, in case of repeated violations, could have been used by courts to close these religious organisations down. The head of the Belarusian Orthodox Church, Metropolitan Pavel (Ponomarev), resigned as Patriarchal Exarch of All Belarus; he admitted that the change of Exarch was due to the political situation. Roman Catholic Archbishop Tadeusz Kondrusiewicz was refused re-entry to the country and lived in exile for four months. The broadcast of Sunday's Roman Catholic Mass was canceled by the national radiostation. Peacefully protesting or just praying lay believers were detained and arrested on various grounds. Some were tortured. The right of arrested believers to have objects of worship and to use religious literature in pre-trial detention and penitentiary institutions has been repeatedly violated.
On August 22, 2020, Alexander Lukashenko called on religious communities to not support the protests, shamed them for their participation in protests, and warned that "the state will not look at it with indifference."
One of the industries most affected by the government's reactions to protests was the Belarusian IT industry.
Multiple IT companies operating in Belarus began moving their employees and operations outside of the country due to internet shutdowns, namely in Minsk. The intermittent cut-offs, starting in August 2020, were said to have caused major difficulties in the IT industry. A survey conducted by Belarus IT CEO Club shortly after the presidential elections in 2020, in conjunction with RegisConsult, surveyed 270 owners and managers of IT companies in Belarus. 38% of the participants stated that their companies were exploring options for changing their offices’ location. 11% of participants said that their companies had already left or were in the process of transferring part of their workforce outside of the country; 3% of the surveyed stated that their companies had left Belarus completely or were in the process of relocating all employees.
Global success story World of Tanks either relocated employees from Belarus to Vilnius, Kyiv and other countries. However the company did not take a public stance against the government's actions, possibly out of fear that employees could be detained as hostages.
Software developer SoftSwiss transferred more than 100 employees to Ukraine in August 2020, claiming it was unable to continue to provide its services otherwise. The company stated they were planning a permanent move outside of Belarus by the end of 2021, stating their reasons are linked to the volatile situation in the country.
Global game developer, Gismart, was also affected. While Gismart is headquartered in the United Kingdom, it employed dozens of people in Belarus. Similar to SoftSwiss, in August 2020, Gismart began to move its Belarus-based employees out of the country. The company launched a relocation program in response to the growing number of requests from employees concerned about the unrest in Belarus. The company said that these employees’ work would not have been possible without a stable internet connection.
Countries and organisations voiced their opinions with some accepting and rejecting the election result. Many have commented about the protests with more condemning the violence. Some have done the following actions in relation with Belarus.
- On 14 August, EU High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Josep Borrell announced that the EU would bring in sanctions against Belarusian officials responsible for "violence and falsification". Charles Michel, President of the European Council went further on 19 August saying the EU would soon impose sanctions on a "substantial number" of individuals responsible for violence, repression, and election fraud. The European Commission announced it would divert €53 million earmarked for Belarus away from the government and towards civil society, victims of the state crackdown on protesters and the country's fight against the coronavirus pandemic.
- On 18 August, the Lithuanian parliament agreed to impose economic sanctions.
- On 19 August, the Prime Minister of Slovakia stated that the Government of Slovakia introduced sanctions against Belarus in the new legislative session.
- On 31 August, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania imposed sanctions on 30 Belarusian officials, including Alexander Lukashenko.
- On 10 September, the EU sanctions on Belarus were delayed by a separate dispute between Cyprus and Turkey, which has occupied the northern part of Cyprus since July 1974. Greece and Cyprus were pushing for a sanction on Turkey in a dispute in the Eastern Mediterranean.
- On 25 September, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania imposed sanctions on around a hundred Belarus officials.
- On 29 September, personal sanctions against members of the regime, including Alexander and Viktor Lukashenko, were imposed by the UK and Canada. 8 and 11 individuals were affected, respectively. The sanctions included travel bans and asset freezes.
- On 2 October, the EU imposed sanctions on 40 Belarusian officials. Lukashenko was exempted from the sanctions as the EU aims to encourage Lukashenko to engage in talks with the opposition. Hours later, Belarus retaliated with sanctions against EU officials. On the same day, the US imposed sanctions on 8 Belarusian individuals.
- On 13 October, Switzerland joined the EU sanctions against 40 Belarusian individuals.
- On 15 October, Canada imposed sanctions on 31 additional Belarusian individuals.
- On 6 November, the EU imposed sanctions on Alexander Lukashenko and 14 other officials for repression of the pro-democracy movement following August's contested election. Their assets in EU member states were frozen and they are banned from entering EU territory. On the same day, Canada imposed sanctions on 13 Belarusian individuals.
- On 19 November, the EU announced an upcoming list of sanctions targeting the country's firms and entrepreneurs that finance Lukashenko. According to Borrell, up to date no positive signs were seen from the regime and the new measures will increase economic pressure on the self-proclaimed president.
- On 20 November, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Albania and Ukraine aligned themselves with the October EU sanctions against 40 Belarusian individuals. Separately on the same day, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania imposed sanctions on 28 Belarusian individuals.
- On 24 November, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Albania aligned themselves with the November EU sanctions against 15 Belarusian individuals.
- On 11 December, Switzerland joined the November EU sanctions against 15 Belarusian individuals.
- On 17 December, the EU imposed a third round of economic sanctions on dozens of Belarusian individuals and entities. They include restrictive measures imposed on the head of Belarusian state television, Ivan Eismant, Deputy Prime Minister Anatol Sivak, Information Minister Ihar Lutsky, and 26 other individuals. The sanctions package also included asset freezes on seven Belarusian companies, including arms exporter CJSC Beltechexport.
- On 23 December, the US imposed sanctions on one Belarusian individual and four entities, including Central Election Commission of Belarus.
- On 26 January 2021, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Albania aligned themselves with the December EU sanctions against Belarusian individuals and entities.
- On 18 February, the UK imposed sanctions on 27 additional individuals.
- On 22 March, Switzerland imposed sanctions on 29 Belarusian individuals and seven entities.
- On 24 March, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Albania aligned themselves with the February EU decision to prolong the restrictive measures concerning Belarus.
- On 25 March, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania put another 118 Belarusian individuals on their sanctions lists.
- On 17 June, New Zealand introduced travel bans against more than fifty individuals associated with the Lukashenko regime, including himself and key members of his administration, the electoral commission, the police and other security forces.
- On 21 June, following the forced diversion of Ryanair Flight 4978, several countries added some Belarusian individuals and entities to their sanctions lists. Namely, the EU imposed a fourth round of restrictive measures against 78 Belarusian individuals (including prominent government officials and business figures) and seven entities, with among others, BelAZ and MAZ automobile plants; the UK imposed sanctions against 11 individuals and 2 entities; the US imposed sanctions on 16 Belarusian individuals and five entities, namely, Okrestina detention centre, Internal Troops of Belarus, GUBOPiK, KGB, Investigative Committee of Belarus; Canada imposed sanctions on 17 Belarusian individuals and five entities.
- On June 24, the EU also imposed sanctions on Belarusian economy.
- On 6 July, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Albania aligned themselves with the 21 June EU sanctions against Belarusian individuals and entities.
- On 7 July, Switzerland imposed sanctions on 78 individuals and seven organizations from Belarus.
- On 12–13 July, Norway, Iceland, North Macedonia, Montenegro and Albania aligned themselves with the EU sanctions against Belarusian economy.
- On 21 July, the UK imposed sanctions on the Agat Electromechanical Plant.
- On 9 August (anniversary of the 2020 election), several countries added some Belarus-related individuals and entities to their sanctions lists. Namely, the UK announced aviation restrictions, trade and financial measures, and designated businessman Mikhail Gutseriyev; the US sanctioned 23 individuals (government officials, kickboxer Dmitry Shakuta, directors of several state-owned enterprises, businessmen such as Mikalai Varabei and Aliaksei Aleksin, and high-ranking members of law enforcement) and 21 entities (Belaruskali, Grodno tobacco factory, and Belarus Olympic Committee, among others) contributing to the situation in Belarus; Canada imposed trade and financial restrictions.
- On 11 August, Switzerland joined the June EU economic sanctions.
- On 2 December, after the start of the border crisis, several countries expanded their Belarus-related sanctions lists. Namely, the EU imposed a fifth round of restrictive measures against 17 individuals, targeting judges and top Belarusian officials, and 11 companies (Belavia, among others); the UK imposed sanctions against 8 Belarusian individuals and Belaruskali; the US designated 20 Belarusian individuals (Alexander Lukashenko's middle son Dmitry, GUBOPiK and State Border Committee officials, Belarusian sports official and politician Dzmitry Baskau, and Dmitriy Korzyuk, the deputy Minister of internal affairs) and 12 entities, identified three aircraft as blocked property and imposed sovereign debt restrictions on Belarus; Canada blacklisted 24 individuals and 6 entities of Belarus.
- On 10 December, the United States Department of State designated two heads of Akrestsina Detention Center; both had already been designated by the Office of Foreign Assets Control of the United States Department of the Treasury.
- On 20 December, Switzerland imposed sanctions against 17 individuals and 11 companies related to Belarus. The new Swiss sanctions are identical to the 2 December EU designations.
- On 22 December, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway, North Macedonia, Montenegro, Serbia and Albania aligned themselves with the 2 December EU sanctions against Belarusian individuals and entities.
- On 3 February 2022, the United States imposed visa restrictions on Belarusian nationals involved in extraterritorial counter-dissident activity, including the Summer Olympics incident with Krystsina Tsimanouskaya, under the Khashoggi Ban.
Allegations of foreign interferenceEdit
According to Russia's press service statement issued on 19 August 2020, "Russia pointed out that foreign attempts to interfere in the country’s domestic affairs were unacceptable and could further escalate tensions". Georgy Saralidze, advisor to the director of the All-Russia State Television and Radio Broadcasting Company on program policy, noted in an interview with Vestnik Kavkaza that western countries had been striving to isolate Belarus away from Russia for several years. "The main goal is to prevent the expansion of the Union State, and ideally just to destroy it. What Vladimir Putin said to Merkel and Macron is a very symptomatic thing, because now there are attacks that Russia allegedly interferes in the affairs of Belarus. Moreover, there are no statements on the part of Russia, apart from the recognition of the election results. If you call it interference, then those who do not recognize the election also interfere in the affairs of Belarus."
Lukashenko announced a week after the election that NATO forces were, "at the gates" and threatening the country (which was denied by NATO), prompting President Putin to offer to send in military assistance, A Kremlin spokesman, Dmitry Peskov, on 19 August stated that there was no need for Russia to help Belarus militarily or otherwise at present. Belarus and Russia are members of the Collective Security Treaty Organisation (CSTO), a Russia-led military alliance of six former Soviet states, and part of a Belarus–Russia Union State. President of the European Council Charles Michel spoke on 19 August about interference in Belarus, "It’s important for both the EU and Russia to support the democratic process in Belarus. We want to avoid external interference in Belarus." He added that he had read recent statements from Kremlin that it does not intend to interfere militarily.
On 18 September 2020, Belarus Foreign Minister accused United Nations Human Rights Council of meddling in Belarus internal affairs over the UN Human Rights Council's resolution calling for the close monitoring of alleged rights violations in Belarus. The resolution came after the violent crackdown on protests of disputed presidential election.
On 17 April 2021, the Russian FSB issued a statement that it had prevented an attempt at a coup d'état in Belarus, said to have been planned with the support of the United States, in collaboration with the Belarusian KGB. Some political pundits and the US Department of State dismissed the allegation as false.
In May 2021, a hoax by a pair of Russian pranksters convinced officers of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), including President Carl Gershman, that they were speaking remotely to Belarusian opposition leader Svetlana Tikhanovskaya and an aide. They said the NED "support[ed] many, many groups and we have a very, very active program throughout the country" and that the NED had helped inspire the Belarusian protests.
Support for victimsEdit
On 14 August 2020, the Belarus Solidarity Foundation (BYSOL) was established. Its main aims are to support courtyard initiatives, emergency relocation, support for the families of political prisoners and helping those fired for political reasons. In 2020, BYSOL raised €2.9 million to support those fired for political reasons, striking factories, and people forced to relocate.
Unregistered candidate Valery Tsepkalo created a non-profit organization "Belarus of the Future". The primary goal of the program was to support citizens of Belarus who suffered from political repression. Before the organization existed, people self-organized the funds with the same concept to support victims of oppression in Belarus, paying for received fines they received during the protests.
Mikita Mikado, the CEO of PandaDoc, which has Belarusian roots, offered to support authorities (police officers, army and security forces) that want to retire, but cannot for financial reasons. The CEO was planning to resign based on the latest events. Mikado published a video and asked to contact him directly to get full support.
Alexander Shneerson, the CEO of ISSoft, announced "The Belarusian society has invested a lot in the IT industry. We are part of the people of Belarus and we believe that the time has come for IT specialists to support those who suffered during the peaceful protests."
The Polish Prime Minister Mateusz Morawiecki announced on 14 August an €11 million fund to help protesters get visas and settle in Poland. Morawiecki stated that Poland would provide support for Belarusian independent media and non-governmental organisations, and scholarships would also be available to Belarusian students in Poland. Lithuania offered medical assistance to injured protesters.
On 19 August, the EU promised €2 million to assist the victims of state violence and €1 million to support independent media as part of a €53 million package to support a peaceful transition.
Mikhail Orda, chairman of the Federation of Trade Unions of Belarus, called for law officers to investigate every case of violence in a detailed and objective manner, adding that the trade unions were willing to provide legal assistance to all victims.
The white-red-white flag, which was the official flag of independent Belarus from 1991 to 1995, has been adopted by the pro-democracy opposition and became a symbol for everyone who actively opposed Lukashenko. De facto banned by the authorities, the flag has been frequently confiscated by the police at demonstrations. Other symbols used by opposition supporters include the former coat of arms of Belarus, known as the Pahonia (the historical coat of arms of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania), and the song Vajacki marš, which was the national anthem of the short-lived Belarusian People's Republic, as well as the song Pahonia (lyrics based on the poem by Maksim Bahdanovich, music by Mikola Kulikovich). A common slogan used by protesters is the phrase Long live Belarus! (Жыве Беларусь!, romanised: Žyvie Biełaruś!). Anti-Lukashenko protesters have also used the current state flag of Belarus on rare occasions. In a few isolated cases anti-Lukashenko demonstrators have used the flag of Europe.
The current state flag of Belarus has been universally used at demonstrations in support of Alexander Lukashenko. In a few isolated cases pro-Lukashenko demonstrators have used the flag of Russia, the Banner of Victory against Nazi Germany, the flag of the Soviet Union and the Ribbon of Saint George.
The former flag of Belarus
Historic coat of arms of Belarus known as the Pahonia
Variant of the former flag of Belarus with the Pahonia coat of arms
"Wall of shame" near a school with diplomas issued by the school, graduate sashes and protest inscriptions. Such installations were made in protest against presumable falsifications by the teachers
Rally against Lukashenko and violence, in Baranavichy, 16 August
Special vehicles of the internal troops or AMAP/OMON: moving two-level fences and water cannons with dozer blades
Independence avenue (Minsk), blocked by the special vehicles: moving two-level fences and water cannons with dozer blades
Pro-Lukashenko rally. Note the orange-black pro-Putin NOD flag. Minsk, 20 September
Government forces slowly cut the protesting crowd a few minutes before the suppression began. Minsk, 20 September
Use of water cannons in Minsk, 4 October. Note the orange color of the water: it makes visible traces on clothes.
Shooting in the air
- ^ "More Than 1,000 Belarusians Protest Lukashenka's Bid For Sixth Term". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-05-24. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
- ^ "Hundreds arrested in Belarus 'Freedom Day' protest". Associated Press. Kyiv. 2021-03-25. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
(in Ukrainian) Terrorism from Lukashenko: what threatens the dictator Ryanair-conflict with the West, Europeska Pravda (24 May 2021)
- ^ Паслухайце, як віцебскі чыноўнік прымушае выбарчую камісію замяніць лічбы ў пратаколах АЎДЫЯ. Наша Ніва (in Belarusian).
- ^ "Belarus: Anti-government protesters rally ahead of presidential vote". Deutsche Welle. 2020-07-19. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
- ^ a b c "Belarus' Lukashenko outlaws protests, arrests opponents". Deutsche Welle. AFP, dpa. 2020-06-01.
- ^ a b c d e "Belarus election: Exiled leader calls weekend of 'peaceful rallies'". BBC News. 2020-08-14.
- ^ "Hundreds arrested in Belarus 'Freedom Day' protest". Associated Press. Kyiv. 2021-03-25. Retrieved 2021-05-25.
- ^ Global Protest Tracker, Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (website visited on 21 October 2021)
- ^ Why wearing the wrong socks is risky in Belarus, BBC News (6 May 2021)
- ^ "Тихановская инициировала создание координационного совета для передачи власти". Ukrayinska Pravda (in Russian). 2020-08-14.
- ^ "Диалог или коллапс. Уйдёт ли Лукашенко под давлением рабочих". Naviny.by. BelaPAN. 2020-08-18. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ a b Ulasik, Valeriya; Shalayeva, Alena; Wesolowsky, Tony (2019-08-04). "Unflagging Protest: Belarus's Opposition Inspired By A Pensioner And Her Outlawed Banner". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2020-03-24.
- ^ Свабода, Радыё (2020-07-23). "БСДП (Грамада) заклікала галасаваць за Ціханоўскую і адстойваць права на свабодныя выбары". Radio Svaboda (in undetermined language).
- ^ a b "Here's why are protesters in Belarus are flying a white-and-red flag". Meduza. 2020-08-14. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
- ^ "К нескольким студентам вчера пришли с обыском". Tut.By (in Russian). 2020-11-13. Archived from the original on 2020-11-13.
- ^ a b c Gushtyn, Adar’ya (2020-06-18). "В центре Минска выстроилась цепь солидарности: акция длилась более шести часов". Tut.By (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2020-06-18. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
- ^ a b c d e f ""Победительницей выборов стала Тихановская". Оппозиция выступила с совместным заявлением". Telegraf.by (in Russian). 2020-08-12. Archived from the original on 2021-06-09. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "КХП-БНФ создаёт Белорусский нацсекретариат: действующих оппозиционеров не позвали" (in Russian). 2020-08-12.
- ^ "Заявление Белорусской партии левых "Справедливый мир"" (in Russian). Belarusian Left Party "A Just World". 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
- ^ a b c "В Минске задержан лидер "Молодого фронта" Денис Урбанович". European Radio for Belarus (in Russian). 2020-05-31.
- ^ "Belarus: Anarchists in the Uprising against the Dictatorship". CrimethInc. 2020-08-12.
- ^ "Анархисты в Минске провели пикет против клана Лукашенко" (in Russian). Charter 97. 2020-07-02. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- ^ "Call for solidarity actions with the uprising against the Lukashenko regime – 14 August". Belarus Anarchist Black Cross. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "There's no going back". Pramen. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "БЕЛАРУСЫ ЗМАГАЮЦЦА ЗА СВАЮ І ВАШУ СВАБОДУ – ЗВАРОТ СТАРШЫНІ РАДЫ БНР ІВОНКІ СУРВІЛЛЫ (пераклад) | Рада Беларускай Народнай Рэспублікі". Retrieved 2020-08-23.
- ^ Moloney, Anastasia (2020-08-26). "'Keep on Fighting', veteran female leader tells young Belarusians". Reuters. Retrieved 2020-08-27.
- ^ "Białoruś: "armia nie dopuści do upadku państwa"". Defence24.pl (in Polish). 2020-07-18.
- ^ "Какое оружие из стран, объявивших Беларуси эмбарго, есть у силовиков | 42.TUT.BY". 42.tut.by. Archived from the original on 2021-01-04. Retrieved 2022-01-11.
- ^ "СМИ: в Бресте подняли 38 бригаду ВДВ". mk.ru.
- ^ "В разгоне протестов принимают участие офицеры спецназа Минобороны в штатском?" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
- ^ "На улицах Минска появились внедорожники, которые есть только у Сил спецопераций. Разобрались в вопросе" (in Russian). 21.by. Archived from the original on 2021-03-03. Retrieved 2020-11-10.
- ^ "На судзе ў справе Шутава стала вядома, хто загадаў выкарыстоўваць узброеных вайскоўцаў падчас пратэстаў" (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2021-02-17. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- ^ "На суде по делу Шутова стало известно, кто отдал приказ использовать вооруженных военнослужащих во время протестов в Бресте" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-17. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- ^ ""Хотел выстрелить в предплечье". Военнослужащий, застреливший 11 августа Геннадия Шутова, дал показания в суде" (in Russian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-16. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- ^ ""Хацеў стрэліць у перадплечча". На судзе ў Берасьці стала вядома, хто забіў Генадзя Шутава" (in Belarusian). Nasha Niva. 2021-02-16. Archived from the original on 2021-02-18. Retrieved 2021-02-18.
- ^ "Участие в митинге на площади Независимости | КОММУНИСТИЧЕСКАЯ ПАРТИЯ БЕЛАРУСИ". comparty.by.
- ^ "Belarus opposition leader flees abroad with two sons ahead of election". Reuters. 2020-07-24. Retrieved 2020-07-24.
- ^ Vasilyeva, Nataliya (2020-08-10). "Belarus' authoritarian leader wins elections by landslide as protests erupt". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12.
- ^ Auseyushkin, Yan; Roth, Andrew (2020-08-11). "Will knocking Belarus offline save president from protests?". The Guardian. London.
- ^ "Кандрусевіч у інтэрвію польскай тэлевізіі: "Ёсьць падставы меркаваць, што выбары праходзілі несумленна"" [Kondrusiewicz in an interview with Polish television: "There is reason to believe that the election was dishonest."] (in Belarusian). 2020-08-31. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
- ^ "Archbishop stands by detained Belarus protesters". The Tablet. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
- ^ Dixon, Robyn (2020-08-09). "Belarusan election officials say exit polls favor Lukashenko". The Washington Post.
- ^ "Yermoshina: Polls in Telegram channels are a hoax". BelTA. Minsk. 2020-08-09.
- ^ "Глава МВД Беларуси взял ответственность за травмы попавших под раздачу". Rossiyskaya Gazeta. 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Глава МВД Белоруссии взял ответственность за попавших под раздачу". RBK Group. 2020-08-13.
- ^ a b c "Protestors pack Belarus capital, Russia offers Lukashenko military help". France 24. 2020-08-17.
- ^ "Мінск. А вось сколькі людзей прыйшло да Стэлы, каб дамагчыся перагляду вынікаў выбараў. Па адчуванням, іх тут разы ў чатыры больш, чым было на лукашэнкаўскім мітынгу. То бок, тут ужо 200–300 тысяч чалавек, і людзі працягваюць падыходзіць!". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "🔥🔥🔥У Стелы в Минске сейчас находится более 300 тысяч человек". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Мінск. Нешта фантастычнае на Стэле. Экс-прадзюсар "Ляписа Трубецкого" Яўген Калмыкоў — прафесійны арганізатар масавых мерапрыемстваў — сваім намятаным вокам ацэньвае колькасць удзельнікаў акцыі ў 400 тысяч чалавек". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "У Горадні скончыўся мітынг. Ён сабраў каля 40 тысяч чалавек. Людзі прайшлі ад Савецкай плошчы да плошчы Леніна па цэнтры гораду. Агучылі патрабаваньні да ўладаў. На сцэне працаваў свабодны мікрафон. Падзея прайшла без правакацыяў і затрыманьняў". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Могилев. По нашим оценкам, более 10 тысяч человек вышли сегодня на улицы требовать отставки Александра Лукашенко и наказания виновных в избиении белорусов 9–12 августа". Telegram. 2020-08-16.
- ^ Franak Viačorka [@franakviacorka] (2020-08-23). "15:10 — ~202k" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2020-08-23 – via Twitter.
- ^ "According to various estimates, up to 250,000 people have gathered at Independence square and more are gathering at the adjacent streets". belarusfeed. 2020-08-23. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23.
- ^ Franak Viačorka [@franakviacorka] (2020-08-23). "According to various estimates, from 80 to 250 thousands joined the rally today. Many rallies are taking part in other cities today as well. According to organizers, more than 0.5 million are protesting today across the country" (Tweet). Archived from the original on 2020-08-23 – via Twitter.
- ^ "Kaatuuko Valko-Venäjän diktaattori Lukašenka pian? Se riippuu ainakin kolmesta tekijästä, vastaa asiantuntija". Yle Uutiset. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Brutalised Minsk: how Belarusian police beat protesters". Mediazona Belarus. 2020-11-21. Retrieved 2020-11-21.
- ^ "Protesters keep pressure on Belarus' dictator, and pay the price". CBS News. 2020-12-14. Retrieved 2020-12-16.
At least four people have purportedly died
- ^ a b "UN: Widespread Human Rights Violations Continue Unchecked in Belarus". Voice of America. 2020-11-15. Retrieved 2020-11-15.
- ^ "Агульная лічба затрыманых за час пратэстаў перавысіла 30 тысяч чалавек". Nasha Niva (in Belarusian). 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "Balloon Launches Mark Opposition To Belarus's Lukashenka". Radio Free Europe. 2020-12-27. Retrieved 2020-12-29.
- ^ "Сотня в лікарнях, десятки зникли безвісти: що відомо про долю мітингувальників з Білорусі". 24 Канал.
- ^ "Exiled Belarusian leader calls on Ireland to "be more vocal" against Lukashenko regime". BreakingNews.ie. 2020-12-18. Retrieved 2021-01-27.
- ^ МВД Белоруссии сообщило о 39 пострадавших в столкновениях силовиках (in Russian). RBC. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-11.
- ^ Karmanau, Yuras (2020-08-13). "Hundreds form human chains as Belarus protests intensify". Global News.
- ^ "Belarus election: Opposition disputes Lukashenko landslide win". BBC News. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ "Multiple arrests in Belarus rallies following Babariko detention". euronews. 2020-06-19.
- ^ Pawlicki, Jacek (2020-07-14). "Na Białorusi wrze. "Społeczeństwo zrozumiało, że kraj jest w rozsypce, że łukaszenkowska stabilizacja to jedna wielka bańka"". Newsweek Poland (in Polish).
- ^ Grekowicz, Nikita (2020-07-18). "Białoruś się burzy. Łukaszenka zamyka demonstrantów i wyklucza rywali do wyborów prezydenckich". OKO.press (in Polish).
- ^ a b Shkliarov, Vitali (2020-06-04). "Belarus Is Having an Anti-'Cockroach' Revolution". Foreign Policy.
- ^ a b Hrydzin, Uladz (2020-05-25). "Belarusians Protest Against Lukashenka's Run For a Sixth Term As President". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- ^ У Менску загінуў удзельнік акцыі пратэсту. Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). 2020-08-10.
- ^ a b Grekowicz, Nikita (2020-08-16). "Łukaszence został już tylko Putin, Cichanouska wzywa do lokalnego przejmowania władzy" [Lukashenko only has Putin left, Tsikhanovskaya calls for local taking over of power]. OKO.press (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2020-08-16. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Belarus: Lukashenko inaugurated in unannounced ceremony". BBC News. 2020-09-23. Retrieved 2020-09-23.
- ^ "Belarus: Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the so-called 'inauguration' of Aleksandr Lukashenko". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ a b "UN human rights experts: Belarus must stop torturing protesters and prevent enforced disappearances". Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights. 2020-09-01. Retrieved 2020-09-01.
- ^ "Human Rights Situation in Belarus in 2020". Viasna. 2021-01-08.
- ^ a b c d Nechepurenko, Ivan (2020-08-07). "Europe's 'Last Dictator,' Facing Re-Election, Is Increasingly in Peril". The New York Times.
- ^ a b Dorokhov, Vladimir; Goncharenko, Roman (2020-08-06). "Belarus elections: Lukashenko's authoritarian grip faces test". Deutsche Welle.
- ^ Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-08-06). "Five Factors That Ensure Lukashenka Wins Every Election In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- ^ "Belarus: Could slippers topple a president who has been in power for 26 years?". Sky News. 2020-06-02.
- ^ Dettmer, Jramie (2020-06-22). "'Slipper Revolution' Shakes Belarus". Voice of America.
- ^ Новиков, Сергей Петрович. "Рохлин". «Математики за кулисами социализма. Archived from the original on 2011-05-15.
- ^ "Watching the Mighty Cockroach Fall". Asia Society. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
- ^ Beckett, Sandra L. (2013-10-11). Transcending Boundaries: Writing for a Dual Audience of Children and Adults. Routledge. ISBN 978-1-135-68586-7.
- ^ Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-05-27). "Although Banned From Running, Vlogger's Calls To Cast Out 'Cockroach' Lukashenka Resonating With Many Belarusians". Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Страна для жизни – YouTube". Retrieved 2020-08-18 – via YouTube.
- ^ a b c "'Slipper Revolution' Shakes Belarus". Voice of America. Retrieved 2020-06-24.
- ^ France-Presse, Agence (2020-06-19). "Belarus arrests journalists and protesters as president says he has foiled 'foreign plot'". The Telegraph. Agence France-Presse. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12.
- ^ AFP, Tatiana Kalinovskaya for (2020-06-19). "Belarus Leader's Election Rival Detained as Crackdown Intensifies". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 2020-06-19.
- ^ Ilyushina, Mary (2020-06-21). "Belarus strongman faces mass protests after jailing of his main rivals". CNN.
- ^ "Belarus opposition protests end in arrests". BBC News. 2020-06-20.
- ^ a b "Belarus: The three women on a 'mission' to take on Europe's last dictator". Sky News. 2020-08-08.
- ^ "Belarus: Crackdown on Political Activists, Journalists". Human Rights Watch. 2020-07-30. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "How poor handling of Covid-19 has caused uproar in Belarus". New Statesman. 2020-06-24.
- ^ Shotter, James; Seddon, Max (2020-06-23). "Belarus's middle class begins to turn on Lukashenko". Financial Times.
- ^ "Jak nie opozycja, to może koronawirus i tonąca gospodarka pokona wreszcie Łukaszenkę". onet.pl. 2020-07-05.
- ^ "Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe". osce.org.
- ^ a b Vasilyeva, Nataliya (2020-07-14). "Authorities in Belarus to charge anti-government protesters with rioting for clashing with police". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 2022-01-12. Retrieved 2020-07-22.
- ^ a b Wesolowsky, Tony (2020-08-06). "Five Factors That Ensure Lukashenka Wins Every Election In Belarus". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty.
- ^ "Belarus: Could slippers topple a president who has been in power for 26 years?". Sky News. 2020-06-02. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
- ^ "Top opposition figure detained in Belarus". Associated Press. 2020-05-31. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
- ^ "Prominent opposition figures arrested in Belarus as presidential election approaches". Euronews. 2020-06-03. Retrieved 2022-02-27.
- ^ a b "Belarus ruler Lukashenko says Russia lying over 'mercenaries'". BBC News. 2020-08-04.
- ^ "Belarus hands over 32 of 33 Russian Wagner mercenaries to Russia". euromaidanpress. 2020-08-15.
- ^ "Tens Of Thousands Rally In Minsk In Support Of Opposition Presidential Candidate". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Belarusian authorities to hold concerts in Minsk park to prevent more opposition rallies". intellinews.com. 2020-08-04. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ Hashmi, Faizan (2020-07-31). "Minsk Says 18,250 People Attended Presidential Candidate Tikhanovskayas Rally, Not 63,000". Urdu Point. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Thousands protest in Belarus calling for a fair election". Euronews. 2020-08-06.
- ^ a b c Auseyushkin, Yan; Roth, Andrew (2020-08-10). "Belarus election: Lukashenko's claim of landslide victory sparks widespread protests". The Guardian. London. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Belarus election: Protests break out after disputed presidential vote". euronews. 2020-08-09. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ Kolos, Tamara (2020-08-10). "Что происходит с интернетом в Беларуси — мнение технических специалистов" [What happens to the Internet in Belarus – technical experts' opinion]. 42.tut.by. Archived from the original on 2020-08-11. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ Davlashyan, Naira (2020-08-12). "What is Nexta — the Telegram channel reporting on Belarus' protests?". euronews. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ Coalson, Robert. "How Telegram Users Found A Way Through Belarus's Internet Lockdown". RadioFreeEurope/RadioLiberty. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ a b "Belarus elections – crackdown on press freedom". freepressunlimited.org. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Belarus protesters use vehicles to block police from demonstrations over 'rigged election'". The France 24 Observers. 2020-08-11. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ a b c "Police Crack Down On Protests In Belarus After Results Show Lukashenka Winning In Landslide". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. 2020-08-10. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Hundreds detained, firearms used in third night of Belarus unrest". Bangkok Post. Agence France-Presse. 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ Gerdžiūnas, Benas (2020-08-11). "As shots and explosions shake Minsk, people call for help from Lithuania". LRT English. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ ""Он педагог, интеллектуал". Самому старшему задержанному после выборов 73 года. Его схватили у школы" ["He's an educator, an intellectual." The oldest detainee since the election is 73. He was grabbed by a school]. TUT.BY. 2020-08-14. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14.
- ^ "Двух каталіцкіх святароў трымаюць за кратамі ў Баранавічах" [Two Catholic priests in Baranavichy]. Belsat.eu. 2020-08-15. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ "Belarus opposition candidate declares victory | NHK WORLD-JAPAN News". www3.nhk.or.jp. Archived from the original on 2020-08-16. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ "NEXTA Live Translated to English". Telegram.
- ^ "Thousands rally in Minsk as EU prepares emergency summit on Belarus". euronews. 2020-08-17.
- ^ Teslova, Elena (2020-08-17). "Belarus: Opposition leader says 'ready to lead country'". aa.com.tr. Retrieved 2020-08-30.
- ^ "Названы первые члены Координационного Совета". 2020-08-17.
- ^ "Вольга Кавалькова" – via Facebook.
- ^ "В организованном Тихановской координационном совете по передаче власти назвали дату первой встречи". канал Дождь. 2020-08-17.
- ^ Makhovsky, Andrei (2020-08-18). "Belarus opposition sets up council; Lukashenko decries 'attempt to seize power'". Reuters.
- ^ "Belarus strikes must continue and grow, opposition leader says". BBC News. 2020-08-21.
- ^ a b "Supporting the Aspirations of the Belarusian People". US Department of State. 2020-08-20.
- ^ "Песков оценил заявление белорусской оппозиции о сотрудничестве с Россией". Рбк (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ "MEPs call for EU sanctions against Belarusian President and Navalny's poisoners | News | European Parliament". www.europarl.europa.eu. 2020-09-17.
- ^ "Pavel Latushko Announces Establishment Of People's Anti-Crisis Administration". Belarus Feed. 2020-10-29. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
- ^ Sadouskaya–Komlach, Maryia (2020-11-06). "An Exiled Belarusian Opposition Faces A Credibility Test". Center for European Policy Analysis. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
- ^ "National Anti-Crisis Management". National Anti-crisis Management. 2020. Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
- ^ Grekowicz, Nikita (2020-11-15). "Białoruś ponownie zawrzała po skatowaniu Ramana Bandarenki. Trwają protesty [relacja z Mińska]" [Belarus again in shock at the assault on Raman Bandarenka. Protests continue [report from Minsk]]. OKO.press (in Polish). Archived from the original on 2020-11-16. Retrieved 2020-11-16.
- ^ a b Опровергает версию МВД. AP опубликовало кадр из видео с гибелью Александра Тарайковского на «Пушкинской» Archived 2020-10-01 at the Wayback Machine. Tut.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ a b В Минске при взрыве погиб демонстрант. Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ Kennedy, Rachael (2020-08-10). "Belarus election: protests register their first fatality". Euronews.
- ^ a b В Минске попрощались с погибшим на протестах на «Пушкинской» Александром Тарайковским Archived 2020-10-01 at the Wayback Machine. Tut.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "Опубликовано видео, как в Минске погиб Александр Тарайковский. У него ничего не было в руках — МВД утверждало, что он бросал бомбу". meduza.io. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ Associated Press опубликовало снимок с протестов в Минске. На нем человек стоит на дороге с красным пятном на груди. Onliner.by. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ Агентство Associated Press опубликовало кадр с моментом убийства Александра Тарайковского. Charter 97. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ "Belarus Victim's Wife". AP Images.
- ^ Hurst, Luke (2020-08-15). "Lukashenko calls Putin as demonstrators gather once again in Belarus". euronews.
- ^ Thousands Mourn Protester As Belarus's Postelection Rallies Continue. Radio Liberty/Free Europe. Retrieved 15 August 2020.
- ^ Рудь, Андрей (2020-08-12). "В гомельской больнице умер задержанный на акции протеста. СК проводит проверку – Люди Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ Свабода, Радыё (2020-08-12). ""Мне адмовіліся паказваць цела сына". У Гомлі пасьля затрыманьня памёр 25-гадовы хлопец". Радыё Свабода (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ ""Мой сын не умер, он погиб ни за что". В Гомеле скончался 25-летний парень, которого задержали на улице". TUTBY.NEWS (in Russian). 2020-08-12. Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ "Belarus election: Second protester dies as UN sounds alarm". BBC News. 2020-08-13.
- ^ a b "Анонимный свидетель утверждает, что видел Никиту Кривцова живым, но избитым. Друзья восстановили последние дни его жизни". Nasha Niva (in Russian). 2020-09-15. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- ^ Borisevich, Katerina (2020-08-24). ""Семья не верит, что ушел из жизни сам". Родные Никиты Кривцова написали заявление в СК". Tut.By (in Russian). Archived from the original on 2020-09-18. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- ^ "Директора волковысского музея нашли мертвым". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-18. Archived from the original on 2020-08-18. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Museum director from Vaukavysk found dead". Voice of Belarus (in Lithuanian). 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-21.
- ^ "Правозащитники: На уличных протестах в Беларуси убили как минимум пятерых. Семеро – в критическом состоянии" [Human rights defenders: At least five people were killed in street protests in Belarus. Seven are in critical condition.]. gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
- ^ a b "Доклад о нарушении прав человека участников протестов в Беларуси с 7 по 14 августа 2020 года" [Report on violation of human rights of protesters in Belarus from 7 to 14 August 2020]. Zvyano (Link). 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "В госпитале умер мужчина из Бреста, в которого силовики выстрелили на протестах. Ему было 43 года". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-19. Archived from the original on 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Third Belarus protester's death reported". Yarrawonga Chronicle. 2020-08-20.
- ^ ""Сказал, что били силовики". Умер мужчина, которого привезли из Окрестина в больницу с черепно-мозговой и переломами ребер". kyky.org (in Russian). 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ "Збіты на Акрэсціна Дзяніс К. сёння памёр" (in Belarusian). Belsat TV. 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ "Избитый на Окрестина мужчина умер". charter97.org (in Russian). 2020-10-03. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ ""Знаем, что он ни в чем не участвовал". В БСМП умер мужчина, которого привезли туда с Окрестина" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-03. Archived from the original on 2020-10-06. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ "Памёр Раман Бандарэнка, якога хуткая забрала непрытомным з Цэнтральнага РУУС" (in Belarusian). Nasha Niva. Retrieved 2020-11-22.
- ^ Радыё Свабода. "Відавочцу сьмерці Генадзя Шутава абвінавацілі ў замаху на забойства" (in Belarusian). Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Archived from the original on 2020-12-28. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
- ^ ""Там творится какой-то ад". Истории людей, которые побывали в изоляторе на Окрестина после выборов". TUT.BY. 2020-08-13. Archived from the original on 2020-08-14.
- ^ "Белорусские тюрьмы не справляются: подробности об условиях для задержанных активистов". 24 Канал.
- ^ ""В тюрьме нас раздели догола и заставили приседать": бывший сотрудник МЧС рассказал, как был жестко задержан и провел одну ночь в заключении". NewGrodno.By. 2020-08-13. Archived from the original on 2020-09-24. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Белорусский правозащитник — о задержаниях людей, пытках в тюрьмах и конвейерных судах". znak.com. Archived from the original on 2020-08-20. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ Rozhanskiy, Timofei; Chizhova, Lyubov; Scollon, Michael (2020-08-13). "'How Can This Be Our Country?': Claims Of Torture Abound As Belarusian Jails Swell". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ Sandford, Alasdair (2020-08-14). "Belarus crackdown: Evidence grows of widespread torture as protesters are freed". Euro news.
- ^ Fokht, Elizaveta (2020-08-15). "'If you croak we don't care': Brutality in Belarus". BBC News.
- ^ "СМИ опубликовали аудиозапись пыток в минском СИЗО. На ней слышны крики и удары". gordonua.com. Retrieved 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Belarus: Widespread torture of protesters suggests crimes against humanity / 14 August 2020 / Statements / OMCT". omct.org. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "HRF Sends Letters to Belarusian Security Officers Accused of Crimes Against Humanity". Human Rights Foundation. 2020-08-19. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Заявление в Генеральную Прокуратуру". babariko.vision (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ ""Мне стыдно, что я служил в милиции". Экс-замначальника УВД задержали в день выборов бывшие подчиненные". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ ""Готовили к войне против своего народа". Действующий подполковник милиции — о выборах и избиениях". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-08-17. Archived from the original on 2020-08-17. Retrieved 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Press briefing notes on Belarus". reliefweb. 2020-08-21.
- ^ "В МВД Беларуси отрицают издевательства над задержанными в камерах". ФОКУС (in Russian). 2020-08-14. Retrieved 2020-08-22.
- ^ Владыко, Александр (2020-08-17). "Лукашенко про ЦИП на Окрестина: получили те, кто бросался на ментов – Люди Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ ""60% фото – фейки", "вы их простите". Лукашенко в Гродно пояснил действия ОМОНа и рассказал о гибридной войне против Беларуси". Hrodna.life – русская версия (in Russian). 2020-08-22. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ "UN investigator says Belarus must stop repressing its people". Stars and Stripes. Retrieved 2020-10-27.
- ^ "Belarus targets women human rights defenders after disputed August elections". UN News. 2020-11-03. Retrieved 2020-11-03.
- ^ "Belarus should hold new elections after massive and systemic' human rights violations, report finds". The Independent. 2020-11-06. Archived from the original on 2020-11-06. Retrieved 2020-11-06.
- ^ "Dozens arrested as thousands of demonstrators join Belarus protests". Independent.co.uk (in Russian). Reuters. 2020-11-22. Archived from the original on 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- ^ "Over 200 protesters detained in Minsk on Sunday – police" (in Russian). TASS. 2020-11-22. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- ^ "Belarus: Leader Threatens to Expel Media Over Election News". The Washington Post. Associated Press. 2020-07-23.
- ^ Второй день протестов в Беларуси. Первый погибший и баррикады Archived 2020-08-13 at the Wayback Machine. News.tut.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- ^ О задержанном редакторе "Нашей Нивы". People.onliner.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- ^ В Минске пропали фотокорреспондент МИА «Россия сегодня» и главред «Нашай Нівы». Пострадали несколько журналистов Archived 2020-09-13 at the Wayback Machine. News.tut.by (11 August 2020). Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- ^ "Много техники и силовиков, отобранные у фотографов СМИ флешки. Что происходит 11 августа в городах страны. Онлайн" [A lot of equipment and security personnel, selected from the photographers of the media flash drives. What's happening in the country's cities August 11. Online.]. News.tut.by. 2020-08-11. Archived from the original on 2020-08-12. Retrieved 2020-08-12.
- ^ Kozenko, Andrei; Ivshina, Olga; Prosvirova, Olga and Zakharov, Andrei (9 August 2020) Протесты в Беларуси: после третьей ночи столкновений запретили пиротехнику. BBC. Retrieved 12 August 2020.
- ^ "Корреспондент Znak.com Никита Телиженко был избит в ИВС Жодинского района Белоруссии". znak.com.
- ^ "Координатору "Открытой России", задержанному в Белоруссии, грозит до 15 лет колонии". znak.com.
- ^ В Гомеле арестовали журналиста Евгения Меркиса Archived 2020-08-18 at the Wayback Machine. Naviny.by (13 August 2020). Retrieved 13 August 2020.
- ^ "Задержанному в пятницу в Гомеле журналисту-фрилансеру дали 5 суток". TUT.BY. 2020-08-24. Archived from the original on 2020-09-13.
- ^ "У журналіста hrodna.life Руслана Кулевіча пераломы абедзвюх рук". Наша Ніва.
- ^ Kuryshko, Diana (2020-08-12). "How messenger app bypassed Belarus news blackout". BBC News. Retrieved 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Belarus election: How Nexta channel bypassed news blackout". BBC News. 2020-08-12.
- ^ "Criminal case launched against NEXTA. He faces up to 15 years in prison". belsat.eu.
- ^ "There's more to Belarus's 'Telegram Revolution' than a cellphone app". The Washington Post. 2020-09-11.
highlighting the use of the popular messaging app for sharing information.
- ^ a b Litvinova, Daria (2020-08-21). "'Telegram revolution': App helps drive Belarus protests". AP News.
- ^ "Riot police took custody of the Minsk television centre". kxan36. 2020-08-15.
- ^ Tikhanovskaya, Svetlana (2020-08-15). "Belarus: Thousands protest outside state TV building". BBC.
- ^ "Lukashenko says Putin has offered help as Belarus gears for 'March of Freedom'". France 24. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Minsk border guards watched journalists like they were prisoners". Postimees. 2020-08-21.
- ^ "В Беларуси ограничили доступ к десяткам сайтов. Вот список". TUT.BY. 2020-08-22. Archived from the original on 2020-08-22.
- ^ Олехнович, Виталий (2020-08-22). "В Беларуси заблокирован ряд сайтов. В том числе и СМИ – Технологии Onliner". Onliner.by.
- ^ "Среди заблокированных — мегапопулярный спортивный сайт By.tribuna.com". Nasha Niva.
- ^ "БелаПАН. БАЖ требует от властей прекратить блокировку сайтов СМИ и давление на прессу". belapan.by. 2020-08-22.
- ^ "Свежую "толстушку" "Комсомольская правда" вынужденно печатала в России". Наша Ніва.
- ^ "Белорусская "Комсомолка" и "Народная воля" начали печататься в России. Но теперь их не берут в киоски". TUT.BY. 2020-08-26. Archived from the original on 2020-08-27.
- ^ "Around 20 journalists arrested for covering anti-government protests in Belarus". Metro. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ "Several journalists apprehended in Minsk, including TASS press photographer Bobylev". TASS. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ "Belarus detains around 20 journalists preparing to cover protest: Reuters witness". Reuters. 2020-08-27. Retrieved 2020-08-28.
- ^ Свабода, Радыё (2020-08-27). "На менскай плошчы Свабоды масава затрымалі журналістаў. Сярод іх — фатограф Радыё Свабода". Радыё Свабода.
- ^ "Работающих в Беларуси на иностранные СМИ журналистов массово лишают аккредитации". TUT.BY. 2020-08-29. Archived from the original on 2020-08-30.
- ^ Штейн, Евгения (2020-08-29). "В Беларуси заблокировали "Нашу Нiву" и naviny.by, журналистов иностранных СМИ лишают аккредитации – Технологии Onliner". Onliner.
- ^ "Шестерых журналистов судят по статье за участие в акции". officelife.media (in Russian). 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
- ^ "Дела журналистов снова отправляют на доработку в РУВД" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-09-02. Archived from the original on 2020-09-02. Retrieved 2020-09-02.
- ^ "В Беларуси лишили аккредитации всех журналистов иностранных СМИ" (in Russian). Zik Ukraine. 2020-10-02.
- ^ "Belarus cancels all accreditation for foreign journalists". Deutsche Welle. 2020-10-02.
- ^ "Газ и стычки с силовиками на марше пенсионеров. Что происходит в Беларуси 12 октября" (in Russian). tut.by. 2020-10-12. Archived from the original on 2020-10-12. Retrieved 2020-10-13.
- ^ "МВД сообщило о задержании блогера, активиста анархистского движения Николая Дедка" (in Russian). Naviny. 2020-11-12. Archived from the original on 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "Неизвестные получили доступ к Telegram-каналу анархиста Дедка. Сам Николай задержан" (in Russian). TUT. 2020-11-12. Archived from the original on 2020-11-27. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ Dzyadok, Mikalai (2020-11-13). "Anarchist Dzyadok detained and beaten by police". Belsat. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "Николая Дедка после задержания пытали для дачи показаний и доступа к компьютеру" (in Russian). Belarus Anarchist Black Cross. 2020-11-13. Retrieved 2020-11-23.
- ^ "Belarusian KGB adds creators of opposition Telegram channel 'Nexta' to terrorism list" (in Russian). Meduza. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-11-24.
- ^ Anastasiia Zlobina (2020-12-07). "Belarus Escalates Crackdown on Independent Journalism". Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 2020-12-09.
- ^ "Who is Roman Protasevich? Belarus dissident journalist in profile". BBC. 2021-05-24.
- ^ "Belarusian prisoner tries to cut own throat in court hearing". Reuters. 2021-06-01.
- ^ "Увольнения в церковных институтах по политическим мотивам — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі" (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Двух каталіцкіх святароў трымаюць за кратамі ў Баранавічах". belsat.eu (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i "A Monitoring of the Persecution in Belarus of People on Religious Grounds During the Political Crisis (UPDATING) — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus. Christian Vision Group of the Co-ordination Council of Belarus. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Генпрокуратура отреагировала на заявления священнослужителей. "Спросить с деятелей" накануне велел Лукашенко". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2020-11-18. Archived from the original on 2021-04-28. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Суд за малітву: папярэджанні двум святарам і аднаму верніку — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Заявление группы Координационного совета "Христианское видение" по поводу вынесения второго предупреждения иерею Александру Богдану — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Statement of the Christian Vision Group of the Coordination Council regarding the Persecution of Fr Viachaslau Barok — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ Дайлід, Павел (2020-11-30). "В Ивацевичах на сутки отправили священника". Першы рэгiён (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ ""Такого человечища еще поискать". История провинциального ксендза, который бежал от "уголовки" за протесты". TUT.BY (in Russian). 2021-04-07. Archived from the original on 2021-04-29. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Ксёндз Вячаслаў Барок. Следчы Камітэт пакуль не ўбачыў экстрэмізму на ютуб-канале ксяндза. — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ Allen, John L. Jr. (2020-10-09). "Vatican 'not optimistic' exiled Belarus archbishop will return". Crux. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Трансляцый святой Імшы на радыё ў верасні не будзе. Тэхнічныя прычыны — ні пры чым". catholic.by (in Belarusian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ ""I remember the words of one riot police officer vividly: "I would burn all of you alive if I had a chance!"". Август 2020. Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Заявление группы Координационного совета "Христианское видение" по поводу административного ареста в отношении Дмитрия Дашкевича и Артема Ткачука — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ "Лукашенко: церкви, костелы — не для политики — Царква і палітычны крызіс у Беларусі". Church and the Political Crisis in Belarus (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-04-30.
- ^ a b c ""В стране террор, люди боятся ехать в офис": зачем белорусские IT-предприниматели перевозят сотрудников в другие страны и сколько это стоит". Forbes.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2021-02-04.
- ^ "Кризис 2020 в ИТ: осенний опрос Belarus IT CEO Club | Belarus IT Companies Club". www.bicc.co. 2020-10-20. Retrieved 2021-02-04.
- ^ "Threatened Belarus IT disperses, regroups outside the country". 2021-07-20.
- ^ a b c "EU announces sanctions against Belarus over 'violence' on protesters and electoral 'falsification'". Euro News. 2020-08-14.
- ^ Meredith, Sam (2020-08-19). "EU to impose sanctions on Belarusian officials for election fraud, calls for a new vote". CNBC.
- ^ "EU threatens Belarus sanctions as it rejects election result". Sky News. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "EU Executive to Reroute 53 Million Euros to Help Civil Society, Fight Against COVID in Belarus". The New York Times. Reuters. 2020-08-19. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2020-08-19.[permanent dead link]
- ^ a b "Threat of new crackdown on protesters as EU signals support for 'peaceful transition' in Belarus". Euro News. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Lithuanian lawmakers vote for sanctions against Belarus NEW". WVVA. 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Bieloruská kríza: Matovič chce ekonomické sankcie proti páchateľom". slovensko.hnonline.sk. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Baltic states issue travel ban on Belarus President Lukashenko | DW | 31.08.2020". Deutsche Welle.
- ^ "Cyprus says its issues with Turkey not linked to EU Belarus sanctions (Updated)". Cyprus Mail. 2020-09-10.
- ^ "Greece Presses EU to Draw Up 'Severe' Sanctions on Turkey". Bloomberg. 2020-09-10.
- ^ "Baltic states extend travel ban to more Belarus officials". Reuters. 2020-09-25 – via www.reuters.com.
- ^ "Belarus: UK sanctions 8 members of regime, including Alexander Lukashenko". Government of the United Kingdom. 2020-09-29. Retrieved 2020-09-29.
- ^ Global Affairs Canada (2020-09-29). "Backgrounder: Belarus sanctions". www.canada.ca.
- ^ Tidey, Alice (2020-10-02). "Belarus: EU agrees sanctions on 40 officials but not Lukashenko". Euronews. Retrieved 2020-10-03.
- ^ "Treasury Sanctions Belarus Officials for Undermining Democracy". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- ^ "SECO: Ordinance on measures against Belarus". www.seco.admin.ch.
- ^ "Switzerland joins EU in sanctions against top Belarus officials". SWI swissinfo.ch.
- ^ Global Affairs Canada (2020-10-15). "Belarus sanctions". www.canada.ca.
- ^ "EU slaps sanctions on Belarus leader Lukashenko for crackdown". BBC News. 2020-11-06. Retrieved 2020-11-07.
- ^ Backgrounder: Belarus sanctions
- ^ "EU to slap sanctions on Belarus firms close to Lukashenko". Deutsche Welle. 2020-11-19. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- ^ Jo Harper (2020-11-17). "Lukashenko, Belarus brace for economic winter of discontent". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the alignment of certain third countries concerning restrictive measures against Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Baltic states expand Belarus sanctions list". lrt.lt. 2020-11-20.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the alignment of certain countries concerning restrictive measures against Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Belarus: Federal Council extends scope of sanctions". www.admin.ch.
- ^ Rikard Jozwiak (2020-12-17). "EU Officially Slaps More Economic Sanctions On Belarus Over Crackdown". Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty. Retrieved 2020-12-19.
- ^ "Treasury Sanctions Additional Belarusian Regime Actors for Undermining Democracy". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain countries concerning restrictive measures against Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Financial Sanctions Notice: Belarus" (PDF).
- ^ "Sanctions: Ordinance on measures against Belarus". www.seco.admin.ch.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the EU on the alignment of certain third countries concerning restrictive measures against Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Baltics blacklist another 118 reps of Belarusian regime". lrt.lt. 2021-03-25.
- ^ "New Zealand introduces Belarus travel bans". New Zealand Government. 2021-06-17. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
- ^ Erroneously stated as eight in the official EU press release; seven entities are mentioned in mass media and in the Official Journal of the EU
- ^ "Belarus: fourth package of EU sanctions over enduring repression and the forced landing of a Ryanair flight". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "UK imposes sanctions on Belarus following forced landing of Ryanair flight". Government of the United Kingdom. 2021-06-21. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
- ^ a b "Treasury and International Partners Condemn Ongoing Human Rights Abuses and Erosion of Democracy in Belarus". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- ^ Global Affairs Canada (2021-06-21). "Backgrounder - Sanctions related to Belarus". www.canada.ca.
- ^ "EU imposes sanctions on Belarusian economy". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain third countries with the Council Decision (CFSP) 2021/1002 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Sanctions: Ordinance on measures against Belarus". www.seco.admin.ch.
- ^ Affairs, Ministry of Foreign (2021-07-12). "Norway adopts further restrictive measures against Belarus". Government.no.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain third countries with the Council Decision (CFSP) 2021/1031 concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Financial Sanctions Notice: Belarus" (PDF).
- ^ "Belarus: UK imposes significant new package of economic sanctions on Belarus on anniversary of fraudulent election". Government of the United Kingdom. 2021-08-09. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
- ^ "Treasury Holds the Belarusian Regime to Account on Anniversary of Fraudulent Election". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- ^ Global Affairs Canada (2021-08-09). "Canada imposes additional sanctions on first anniversary of Belarus's fraudulent presidential elections". www.canada.ca.
- ^ "Belarus: Federal Council tightens sanctions". www.admin.ch.
- ^ "EU imposes new sanctions on Belarus in coordination with U.S., Britain". Reuters. 2021-12-02. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
- ^ "UK imposes further sanctions to hold Lukashenko regime to account for human rights violations in Belarus". Government of the United Kingdom. 2021-12-02. Retrieved 2022-01-02.
- ^ "Treasury Expands Sanctions Against Belarusian Regime with Partners and Allies". U.S. Department of the Treasury.
- ^ Global Affairs Canada (2021-12-02). "Belarus sanctions". www.canada.ca.
- ^ "The United States Promotes Accountability for Human Rights Violations and Abuses". United States Department of State. 2021-12-10. Retrieved 2022-02-03.
- ^ "Sanctions: Ordinance on measures against Belarus". www.seco.admin.ch.
- ^ O'Kane, Michael (2021-12-22). "Switzerland imposes Belarus sanctions". EU Sanctions.
- ^ "Declaration by the High Representative on behalf of the European Union on the alignment of certain countries concerning restrictive measures in view of the situation in Belarus". www.consilium.europa.eu.
- ^ "Promoting Accountability for Transnational Repression of Belarusian Athletes Abroad". United States Department of State. 2022-02-03. Retrieved 2022-02-03.
- ^ "Putin tells Merkel foreign interference in Belarus' affairs is unacceptable". TASS. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Москва призвала Париж и Берлин не вмешиваться в дела Беларуси". vestikavkaza.ru (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ "NATO Secretary General discusses Belarus with President of Poland". NATO. 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Belarus: Rival rallies as Lukashenko claims NATO deployed to border". Deutsche Welle. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Belarus unrest: Lukashenko steps up efforts to reassert control". BBC. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Is Belarus closer to the West or to Russia?". Deutsche Welle. 2020-08-18.
- ^ "Russia Slams 'Foreign Meddling' in Belarus, Rules Out Immediate Military Aid". The Moscow Times. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Kremlin Says It Sees No Need to Help Belarus Militarily for Now". The New York Times. 2020-08-19.[permanent dead link]
- ^ "EU no longer recognises Lukashenko as president of Belarus". Brussels Times. 2020-08-19.
- ^ "Belarus accuses UN Human Rights Council of interfering in internal affairs". France 24. 2020-09-19. Retrieved 2020-09-19.
- ^ "ФСБ РОССИИ СОВМЕСТНО С КГБ РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ ПРЕСЕЧЕНА ПРОТИВОПРАВНАЯ ДЕЯТЕЛЬНОСТЬ ГРАЖДАН РЕСПУБЛИКИ БЕЛАРУСЬ ЗЯНКОВИЧА ЮРИЯ ЛЕОНИДОВИЧА И ФЕДУТЫ АЛЕКСАНДРА ИОСИФОВИЧА, ПЛАНИРОВАВШИХ ОСУЩЕСТВЛЕНИЕ ВОЕННОГО ПЕРЕВОРОТА В БЕЛОРУССИИ". fsb.ru. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
- ^ "Дело о попытке госпереворота в Беларуси: КГБ обманул оппозиционеров?". Deutsche Welle. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
- ^ Свабода, Радыё (2021-04-18). "Дзяржаўны дэпартамэнт ЗША адказаў на абвінавачаньні ў датычнасьці да "спробы замаху" на Лукашэнку". Радыё Свабода. Retrieved 2021-04-24.
- ^ Bennetts, Marc (2021-05-19). "We fund Russian democracy protesters, boasts US group". The Times. London. Retrieved 2021-07-15.
- ^ "Foundation statistics". BYSOL. Retrieved 2021-11-25.
- ^ "Беларусь будущего – Главная". belarus-future.org. Retrieved 2020-08-14.
- ^ a b ""Если проблема в деньгах". Микита Микадо поможет силовикам перейти на сторону добра". dev.by (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ Zvezda, Sergey (2020-08-13). "Глава PandaDoc предложил финансовую помощь белорусским силовикам, которые не могут уйти со службы только из-за денег — Офлайн на vc.ru". vc.ru. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ Иванейко, Станислав (2020-08-14). "Компания ISsoft выделит $500 тысяч на помощь пострадавшим в акциях – Технологии Onliner". Onliner (in Russian). Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ "Belarus' trade unions call to investigate all cases of violence". BELTA. 2020-08-20.
- ^ "Split Identity and a Tug-of-War for Belarus's Memory". The Jamestown Foundation. 2019-12-20.
- ^ "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 – via YouTube.
- ^ "Pesnyary – Пагоня (Pagonya) lyrics + English translation". lyricstranslate.com. Retrieved 2020-10-01.
- ^ "Video". Retrieved 2020-08-30 – via YouTube.
- ^ "Особенности "беларускага адраджэння" в 1918–1920–х годах — Военный информационный портал Министерства обороны Республики Беларусь". mil.by. Retrieved 2020-08-19.
- ^ Melnichuk, Tatsiana (2020-08-13). "Shocked by violence, Belarusians lose their fear". BBC.
- ^ "People are seeking change in Belarus. Instead, they're being mercilessly beaten and detained ǀ View". euronews. 2020-08-13.
- ^ "Барабаны, все флаги вместе и "слово пацана". В Витебске придумали новый формат мирных акций". TUT.BY. 2020-08-22. Archived from the original on 2020-08-23.
- ^ "Belarus Protests Eclipse Rally in Defense of Defiant Leader". The New York Times. 2020-08-16.
- ^ "Belarus prosecutors open probe against opposition activists". The Belfast Telegraph. 2020-08-20.
- ^ a b "Belarus: 'Za Batku', pro-Lukashenko demonstrators gather in Minsk". Agence France-Presse. 2020-08-25.
- ^ "Rally in Minsk in support of Lukashenko". Associated Press. 2020-08-21.
- ^ "Belarus: Thousands attend rally in support of Lukashenko in Vitebsk". 2020-08-21.
- ^ "Фотофакт: выпускники возвращают школам свои награды". Archived from the original on 2020-09-13. Retrieved 2020-08-15.
- ^ 'It's like a war': beatings and indiscriminate arrests as armed men roam streets of Minsk
- ^ Фотофакт. В Минске, Бресте, Гродно, Витебске и Гомеле люди вышли на "Марш единства"
- ^ "Вчера водометы поливали протестующих в Минске оранжевой водой. Почему она такого цвета". Archived from the original on 2020-09-25. Retrieved 2020-09-24.